Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Fluid-Structure Interaction Related Abstracts

16 Prediction of Critical Flow Rate in Tubular Heat Exchangers for the Onset of Damaging Flow-Induced Vibrations

Authors: Y. Khulief, S. Bashmal, S. Said, D. Al-Otaibi, K. Mansour


The prediction of flow rates at which the vibration-induced instability takes place in tubular heat exchangers due to cross-flow is of major importance to the performance and service life of such equipment. In this paper, the semi-analytical model for square tube arrays was extended and utilized to study the triangular tube patterns. A laboratory test rig with instrumented test section is used to measure the fluidelastic coefficients to be used for tuning the mathematical model. The test section can be made of any bundle pattern. In this study, two test sections were constructed for both the normal triangular and the rotated triangular tube arrays. The developed scheme is utilized in predicting the onset of flow-induced instability in the two triangular tube arrays. The results are compared to those obtained for two other bundle configurations. The results of the four different tube patterns are viewed in the light of TEMA predictions. The comparison demonstrated that TEMA guidelines are more conservative in all configurations considered

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, Heat Exchangers, cross-flow

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15 Numerical Verification of a Backfill-Rectangular Tank-Fluid System

Authors: Ramazan Livaoğlu, Tufan Çakır


The performance of rectangular tanks during earthquakes has been observed to depend significantly on the existence of water in the container and the presence of the backfill acting on tank wall. Therefore, in design of rectangular tanks, the topics of fluid-structure-backfill interactions and determination of modal characteristics of the interaction system have traditionally been one of the great theoretical and practical controversy. Although finite element method has been and will continue to be used to a significant extent in treating the response of the system, experimental verification of numerical models remains prerequisite for their adoption and reliable application in practice. Thus, in this study, the numerical and experimental investigations were performed on the backfill-exterior wall-fluid interaction system. Firstly, three dimensional finite element model (3D-FEM) was developed to acquire modal frequencies and mode shapes of the system by means of ANSYS. Secondly, a series of in-situ tests were fulfilled to define modal characteristics of same system to determine the applicability of the FEM to a real physical situation under field conditions. Finally, comparing the theoretical predictions from the model to results from experimental measurement, a close agreement was found between theory and experiment. Thus, it can be easily stated that experimental verification provides strong support for the use of proposed model in further investigations.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, modal analysis, Soil Structure Interaction, rectangular tank

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14 Analysis of a Self-Acting Air Journal Bearing: Effect of Dynamic Deformation of Bump Foil

Authors: H. Bensouilah, H. Boucherit, M. Lahmar


A theoretical investigation on the effects of both steady-state and dynamic deformations of the foils on the dynamic performance characteristics of a self-acting air foil journal bearing operating under small harmonic vibrations is proposed. To take into account the dynamic deformations of foils, the perturbation method is used for determining the gas-film stiffness and damping coefficients for given values of excitation frequency, compressibility number, and compliance factor of the bump foil. The nonlinear stationary Reynolds’ equation is solved by means of the Galerkins’ finite element formulation while the finite differences method are used to solve the first order complex dynamic equations resulting from the perturbation of the nonlinear transient compressible Reynolds’ equation. The stiffness of a bump is uniformly distributed throughout the bearing surface (generation I bearing). It was found that the dynamic properties of the compliant finite length journal bearing are significantly affected by the compliance of foils especially when the dynamic deformation of foils is considered in addition to the static one by applying the principle of superposition.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, finite difference method, elasto-aerodynamic lubrication, air foil bearing, steady-state deformation, dynamic deformation, stiffness and damping coefficients, perturbation method, Galerk infinite element method

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13 Haemodynamics Study in Subject Specific Carotid Bifurcation Using FSI

Authors: Raghuvir Pai, S. Ganesh Kamath, S. M. Abdul Khader, Anurag Ayachit, K. A. Ahmed, V. R. K Rao


The numerical simulation has made tremendous advances in investigating the blood flow phenomenon through elastic arteries. Such study can be useful in demonstrating the disease progression and haemodynamics of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. In the present study, patient specific case diagnosed with partially stenosed complete right ICA and normal left carotid bifurcation without any atherosclerotic plaque formation is considered. 3D patient specific carotid bifurcation model is generated based on CT scan data using MIMICS-4.0 and numerical analysis is performed using FSI solver in ANSYS-14.5. The blood flow is assumed to be incompressible, homogenous and Newtonian, while the artery wall is assumed to be linearly elastic. The two-way sequentially-coupled transient FSI analysis is performed using FSI solver for three pulse cycles. The haemodynamic parameters such as flow pattern, Wall Shear Stress, pressure contours and arterial wall deformation are studied at the bifurcation and critical zones such as stenosis. The variation in flow behavior is studied throughout the pulse cycle. Also, the simulation results reveals that there is a considerable increase in the flow behavior in stenosed carotid in contrast to the normal carotid bifurcation system. The investigation also demonstrates the disturbed flow pattern especially at the bifurcation and stenosed zone elevating the haemodynamics, particularly during peak systole and later part of the pulse cycle. The results obtained agree well with the clinical observation and demonstrates the potential of patient specific numerical studies in prognosis of disease progression and plaque rupture.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, arterial stenosis, wall shear stress, carotid artery bifurcation

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12 Transient Response of Elastic Structures Subjected to a Fluid Medium

Authors: Helnaz Soltani, J. N. Reddy


Presence of fluid medium interacting with a structure can lead to failure of the structure. Since developing efficient computational model for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems has broader impact to realistic problems encountered in aerospace industry, ship industry, oil and gas industry, and so on, one can find an increasing need to find a method in order to investigate the effect of fluid domain on structural response. A coupled finite element formulation of problems involving FSI issue is an accurate method to predict the response of structures in contact with a fluid medium. This study proposes a finite element approach in order to study the transient response of the structures interacting with a fluid medium. Since beam and plate are considered to be the fundamental elements of almost any structure, the developed method is applied to beams and plates benchmark problems in order to demonstrate its efficiency. The formulation is a combination of the various structure theories and the solid-fluid interface boundary condition, which is used to represent the interaction between the solid and fluid regimes. Here, three different beam theories as well as three different plate theories are considered to model the solid medium, and the Navier-Stokes equation is used as the theoretical equation governed the fluid domain. For each theory, a coupled set of equations is derived where the element matrices of both regimes are calculated by Gaussian quadrature integration. The main feature of the proposed methodology is to model the fluid domain as an added mass; the external distributed force due to the presence of the fluid. We validate the accuracy of such formulation by means of some numerical examples. Since the formulation presented in this study covers several theories in literature, the applicability of our proposed approach is independent of any structure geometry. The effect of varying parameters such as structure thickness ratio, fluid density and immersion depth, are studied using numerical simulations. The results indicate that maximum vertical deflection of the structure is affected considerably in the presence of a fluid medium.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Fluid-Structure Interaction, transient response, beam and plate

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11 Numerical Simulation of Fluid-Structure Interaction on Wedge Slamming Impact by Using Particle Method

Authors: Sung-Chul Hwang, Di Ren, Sang-Moon Yoon, Jong-Chun Park, Abbas Khayyer, Hitoshi Gotoh


The slamming impact problem has a very important engineering background. For seaplane landing, recycling for the satellite re-entry capsule, and the impact load of the bow in the adverse sea conditions, the slamming problem always plays the important role. Due to its strong nonlinear effect, however, it seems to be not easy to obtain the accurate simulation results. Combined with the strong interaction between the fluid field and the elastic structure, the difficulty for the simulation leads to a new level for challenging. This paper presents a fully Lagrangian coupled solver for simulations of fluid-structure interactions, which is based on the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method to solve the governing equations corresponding to incompressible flows as well as elastic structures. The developed solver is verified by reproducing the high velocity impact loads of deformable thin wedges with two different materials such as aluminum and steel on water entry. The present simulation results are compared with analytical solution derived using the hydrodynamic Wagner model and linear theory by Wan.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, elastic structure, incompressible flow, wedge slamming impact

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10 Nanomechanical Devices Vibrating at Microwave Frequencies in Simple Liquids

Authors: Debadi Chakraborty, John E. Sader


Nanomechanical devices have emerged as a versatile platform for a host of applications due to their extreme sensitivity to environmental conditions. For example, mass measurements with sensitivity at the atomic level have recently been demonstrated. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy coherently excite the vibrational modes of metal nanoparticles and permits precise measurement of the vibration characteristics as a function of nanoparticle shape, size and surrounding environment. This study reports that the vibration of metal nanoparticles in simple liquids, like water and glycerol are not described by conventional fluid mechanics, i.e., Navier Stokes equations. The intrinsic molecular relaxation processes in the surrounding liquid are found to have a profound effect on the fluid-structure interaction of mechanical devices at nanometre scales. Theoretical models have been developed based on the non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid-structure interaction theory to investigate the vibration of nanoparticles immersed in simple fluids. The utility of this theoretical framework is demonstrated by comparison to measurements on single nanowires and ensembles of metal rods. This study provides a rigorous foundation for the use of metal nanoparticles as ultrasensitive mechanical sensors in fluid and opens a new paradigm for understanding extremely high frequency fluid mechanics, nanoscale sensing technologies, and biophysical processes.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, nanoparticle vibration, ultrafast laser spectroscopy, viscoelastic damping

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9 Numerical Analysis of the Response of Thin Flexible Membranes to Free Surface Water Flow

Authors: Mahtab Makaremi Masouleh, Günter Wozniak


This work is part of a major research project concerning the design of a light temporary installable textile flood control structure. The motivation for this work is the great need of applying light structures for the protection of coastal areas from detrimental effects of rapid water runoff. The prime objective of the study is the numerical analysis of the interaction among free surface water flow and slender shaped pliable structures, playing a key role in safety performance of the intended system. First, the behavior of down scale membrane is examined under hydrostatic pressure by the Abaqus explicit solver, which is part of the finite element based commercially available SIMULIA software. Then the procedure to achieve a stable and convergent solution for strongly coupled media including fluids and structures is explained. A partitioned strategy is imposed to make both structures and fluids be discretized and solved with appropriate formulations and solvers. In this regard, finite element method is again selected to analyze the structural domain. Moreover, computational fluid dynamics algorithms are introduced for solutions in flow domains by means of a commercial package of Star CCM+. Likewise, SIMULIA co-simulation engine and an implicit coupling algorithm, which are available communication tools in commercial package of the Star CCM+, enable powerful transmission of data between two applied codes. This approach is discussed for two different cases and compared with available experimental records. In one case, the down scale membrane interacts with open channel flow, where the flow velocity increases with time. The second case illustrates, how the full scale flexible flood barrier behaves when a massive flotsam is accelerated towards it.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, Finite Element Formulation, finite volume algorithm, light pliable structure, VOF multiphase model

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8 Validation of a Fluid-Structure Interaction Model of an Aortic Dissection versus a Bench Top Model

Authors: K. Khanafer


The aim of this investigation was to validate the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of type B aortic dissection with our experimental results from a bench-top-model. Another objective was to study the relationship between the size of a septectomy that increases the outflow of the false lumen and its effect on the values of the differential of pressure between true lumen and false lumen. FSI analysis based on Galerkin’s formulation was used in this investigation to study flow pattern and hemodynamics within a flexible type B aortic dissection model using boundary conditions from our experimental data. The numerical results of our model were verified against the experimental data for various tear size and location. Thus, CFD tools have a potential role in evaluating different scenarios and aortic dissection configurations.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, Numerical, in vitro model, aortic dissection

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7 Towards the Modeling of Lost Core Viability in High-Pressure Die Casting: A Fluid-Structure Interaction Model with 2-Phase Flow Fluid Model

Authors: Sebastian Kohlstädt, Michael Vynnycky, Stephan Goeke, Jan Jäckel, Andreas Gebauer-Teichmann


This paper summarizes the progress in the latest computational fluid dynamics research towards the modeling in of lost core viability in high-pressure die casting. High-pressure die casting is a process that is widely employed in the automotive and neighboring industries due to its advantages in casting quality and cost efficiency. The degrees of freedom are however somewhat limited as it has been so far difficult to use lost cores in the process. This is right now changing and the deployment of lost cores is considered a future growth potential for high-pressure die casting companies. The use of this technology itself is difficult though. The strength of the core material, as chiefly salt is used, is limited and experiments have shown that the cores will not hold under all circumstances and process designs. For this purpose, the publicly available CFD library foam-extend (OpenFOAM) is used, and two additional fluid models for incompressible and compressible two-phase flow are implemented as fluid solver models into the FSI library. For this purpose, the volume-of-fluid (VOF) methodology is used. The necessity for the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach is shown by a simple CFD model geometry. The model is benchmarked against analytical models and experimental data. Sufficient agreement is found with the analytical models and good agreement with the experimental data. An outlook on future developments concludes the paper.

Keywords: Multiphase Flow, CFD, Fluid-Structure Interaction, high-pressure die casting

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6 Development of an Implicit Coupled Partitioned Model for the Prediction of the Behavior of a Flexible Slender Shaped Membrane in Interaction with Free Surface Flow under the Influence of a Moving Flotsam

Authors: Mahtab Makaremi Masouleh, Günter Wozniak


This research is part of an interdisciplinary project, promoting the design of a light temporary installable textile defence system against flood. In case river water levels increase abruptly especially in winter time, one can expect massive extra load on a textile protective structure in term of impact as a result of floating debris and even tree trunks. Estimation of this impulsive force on such structures is of a great importance, as it can ensure the reliability of the design in critical cases. This fact provides the motivation for the numerical analysis of a fluid structure interaction application, comprising flexible slender shaped and free-surface water flow, where an accelerated heavy flotsam tends to approach the membrane. In this context, the analysis on both the behavior of the flexible membrane and its interaction with moving flotsam is conducted by finite elements based solvers of the explicit solver and implicit Abacus solver available as products of SIMULIA software. On the other hand, a study on how free surface water flow behaves in response to moving structures, has been investigated using the finite volume solver of Star CCM+ from Siemens PLM Software. An automatic communication tool (CSE, SIMULIA Co-Simulation Engine) and the implementation of an effective partitioned strategy in form of an implicit coupling algorithm makes it possible for partitioned domains to be interconnected powerfully. The applied procedure ensures stability and convergence in the solution of these complicated issues, albeit with high computational cost; however, the other complexity of this study stems from mesh criterion in the fluid domain, where the two structures approach each other. This contribution presents the approaches for the establishment of a convergent numerical solution and compares the results with experimental findings.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, co-simulation, flexible thin structure, implicit coupling algorithm, moving flotsam

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5 Fluid-Structure Interaction Study of Fluid Flow past Marine Turbine Blade Designed by Using Blade Element Theory and Momentum Theory

Authors: Abu Afree Andalib, M. Abir Hossain, M. Mezbah Uddin, M. Rafiur Rahman, Rajia Sultana Kamol


This paper deals with the analysis of flow past the marine turbine blade which is designed by using the blade element theory and momentum theory for the purpose of using in the field of renewable energy. The designed blade is analyzed for various parameters using FSI module of Ansys. Computational Fluid Dynamics is used for the study of fluid flow past the blade and other fluidic phenomena such as lift, drag, pressure differentials, energy dissipation in water. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) module of Ansys was used to analyze the structural parameter such as stress and stress density, localization point, deflection, force propagation. Fine mesh is considered in every case for more accuracy in the result according to computational machine power. The relevance of design, search and optimization with respect to complex fluid flow and structural modeling is considered and analyzed. The relevancy of design and optimization with respect to complex fluid for minimum drag force using Ansys Adjoint Solver module is analyzed as well. The graphical comparison of the above-mentioned parameter using CFD and FEA and subsequently FSI technique is illustrated and found the significant conformity between both the results.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Finite Element Analysis, Fluid-Structure Interaction, blade element theory, momentum theory

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4 Three Dimensional Dynamic Analysis of Water Storage Tanks Considering FSI Using FEM

Authors: S. Mahdi S. Kolbadi, Ramezan Ali Alvand, Afrasiab Mirzaei


In this study, to investigate and analyze the seismic behavior of concrete in open rectangular water storage tanks in two-dimensional and three-dimensional spaces, the Finite Element Method has been used. Through this method, dynamic responses can be investigated together in fluid storages system. Soil behavior has been simulated using tanks boundary conditions in linear form. In this research, in addition to flexibility of wall, the effects of fluid-structure interaction on seismic response of tanks have been investigated to account for the effects of flexible foundation in linear boundary conditions form, and a dynamic response of rectangular tanks in two-dimensional and three-dimensional spaces using finite element method has been provided. The boundary conditions of both rigid and flexible walls in two-dimensional finite element method have been considered to investigate the effect of wall flexibility on seismic response of fluid and storage system. Furthermore, three-dimensional model of fluid-structure interaction issue together with wall flexibility has been analyzed under the three components of earthquake. The obtained results show that two-dimensional model is also accurately near to the results of three-dimension as well as flexibility of foundation leads to absorb received energy and relative reduction of responses.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, Dynamic Behavior, flexible wall, water storage tank

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3 Analysis of One-Way and Two-Way FSI Approaches to Characterise the Flow Regime and the Mechanical Behaviour during Closing Manoeuvring Operation of a Butterfly Valve

Authors: M. Ezkurra, J. A. Esnaola, M. Martinez-Agirre, U. Etxeberria, U. Lertxundi, L. Colomo, M. Begiristain, I. Zurutuza


Butterfly valves are widely used industrial piping components as on-off and flow controlling devices. The main challenge in the design process of this type of valves is the correct dimensioning to ensure proper mechanical performance as well as to minimise flow losses that affect the efficiency of the system. Butterfly valves are typically dimensioned in a closed position based on mechanical approaches considering uniform hydrostatic pressure, whereas the flow losses are analysed by means of CFD simulations. The main limitation of these approaches is that they do not consider either the influence of the dynamics of the manoeuvring stage or coupled phenomena. Recent works have included the influence of the flow on the mechanical behaviour for different opening angles by means of one-way FSI approach. However, these works consider steady-state flow for the selected angles, not capturing the effect of the transient flow evolution during the manoeuvring stage. Two-way FSI modelling approach could allow overcoming such limitations providing more accurate results. Nevertheless, the use of this technique is limited due to the increase in the computational cost. In the present work, the applicability of FSI one-way and two-way approaches is evaluated for the analysis of butterfly valves, showing that not considering fluid-structure coupling involves not capturing the most critical situation for the valve disc.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, butterfly valves, one-way approach, two-way approach

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2 Bulk/Hull Cavitation Induced by Underwater Explosion: Effect of Material Elasticity and Surface Curvature

Authors: Wenfeng Xie


Bulk/hull cavitation evolution induced by an underwater explosion (UNDEX) near a free surface (bulk) or a deformable structure (hull) is numerically investigated using a multiphase compressible fluid solver coupled with a one-fluid cavitation model. A series of two-dimensional computations is conducted with varying material elasticity and surface curvature. Results suggest that material elasticity and surface curvature influence the peak pressures generated from UNDEX shock and cavitation collapse, as well as the bulk/hull cavitation regions near the surface. Results also show that such effects can be different for bulk cavitation generated from UNDEX-free surface interaction and for hull cavitation generated from UNDEX-structure interaction. More importantly, results demonstrate that shock wave focusing caused by a concave solid surface can lead to a larger cavitation region and thus intensify the cavitation reload. The findings can be linked to the strength and the direction of reflected waves from the structural surface and reflected waves from the expanding bubble surface, which are functions of material elasticity and surface curvature. Shockwave focusing effects are also observed for axisymmetric simulations, but the strength of the pressure contours for the axisymmetric simulations is less than those for the 2D simulations due to the difference between the initial shock energy. The current method is limited to two-dimensional or axisymmetric applications. Moreover, the thermal effects are neglected and the liquid is not allowed to sustain tension in the cavitation model.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, cavitation, multiphase, UNDEX

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1 Shear Stress and Effective Structural Stress ‎Fields of an Atherosclerotic Coronary Artery

Authors: Alireza Gholipour, Mergen H. Ghayesh, Anthony Zander, Stephen J. Nicholls, Peter J. Psaltis


A three-dimensional numerical model of an atherosclerotic coronary ‎artery is developed for the determination of high-risk situation and ‎hence heart attack prediction. Employing the finite element method ‎‎(FEM) using ANSYS, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of the ‎artery is constructed to determine the shear stress distribution as well ‎as the von Mises stress field. A flexible model for an atherosclerotic ‎coronary artery conveying pulsatile blood is developed incorporating ‎three-dimensionality, artery’s tapered shape via a linear function for ‎artery wall distribution, motion of the artery, blood viscosity via the ‎non-Newtonian flow theory, blood pulsation via use of one-period ‎heartbeat, hyperelasticity via the Mooney-Rivlin model, viscoelasticity ‎via the Prony series shear relaxation scheme, and micro-calcification ‎inside the plaque. The material properties used to relate the stress field ‎to the strain field have been extracted from clinical data from previous ‎in-vitro studies. The determined stress fields has potential to be used as ‎a predictive tool for plaque rupture and dissection.‎ The results show that stress concentration due to micro-calcification ‎increases the von Mises stress significantly; chance of developing a ‎crack inside the plaque increases. Moreover, the blood pulsation varies ‎the stress distribution substantially for some cases.‎

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Fluid-Structure Interaction, pulsatile flow, coronary arteries‎

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