Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Electrical Conductivity Related Abstracts

38 Investigation of Electrical, Thermal and Structural Properties on Polyacrylonitrile Nano-Fiber

Authors: O. Eren, N. Demirsoy, N. Uçar, A. Önen, N. Kızıldağ, Ö. F. Vurur, İ. Karacan

Abstract:

Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %) silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method. Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution has been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate has been adjusted to PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370 (0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), tensile tester, differential scanning calorimeter DSC (Q10) and SEM, respectively. Also, antimicrobial efficiency test (ASTM E2149-10) was done against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity, antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Electrical Conductivity, Mechanical Properties, Silver Nanoparticles, Thermal Properties, composite polyacrylonitrile nanofiber

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37 Genotypic Variation in the Germination Performance and Seed Vigor of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Engin Gökhan Kulan, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı

Abstract:

Due to variation in seed size, shape and oil content of safflower cultivars, germination and emergence performance have been severely influenced by seed characteristics. This study aimed to determine genotypic variation among safflower genotypes for one thousand seed weight, oil content, germination and seed vigor using electrical conductivity (EC) and cold test. In the study, safflower lines ES37-5, ES38-4, ES43-11, ES55-14 and ES58-11 which were developed by single seed selection method, and Dinçer and Remzibey-05 were used as standard varieties. The genotypes were grown under rainfed conditions in Eskişehir, Turkey with four replications. The seeds of each genotype were subjected to standard germination and emergence test at 25°C for 10 days with four replications and 50 seeds per replicate. Electrical conductivity test was performed at 25°C for 24 h to assess the seed vigor. Also, cold test were applied to each safflower genotype at 10°C for 4 days and 25°C for 6 days. Results showed that oil content of the safflower genotypes were different. The highest oil content was determined in ES43-11 with 36.6% while the lowest was 25.9% in ES38-4. Higher germination and emergence rate were obtained from ES55-14 with 96.5% and 73.0%, respectively. There was no significant difference among the safflower genotypes for EC values. Cold test showed that ES43-11 and ES55-14 gave the maximum germination percentages. It was concluded that genotypic factors except for soil and climatic conditions play an important role for determining seed vigor because safflower genotypes grown at the same condition produced various seed vigor values.

Keywords: Emergence, Electrical Conductivity, Germination, Carthamus tinctorius L, cold test

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36 Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Nanocomposite from Nanofibrillated Cellulose

Authors: M. Z. Shazana, R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, A. W. Fareezal, I. Rushdan, A. B. Suriani, S. Zakaria

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in the development of flexible energy storage for application of Carbon Nanotubes and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). In this study, nanocomposite is consisting of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) mixed with suspension of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB). The use of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as additive nanocomposite was improved the conductivity and mechanical properties of nanocomposite from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). The nanocomposite were characterized for electrical conductivity and mechanical properties in uniaxial tension, which were tensile to measure the bond of fibers in nanocomposite. The processing route is environmental friendly which leads to well-mixed structures and good results as well.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, Mechanical Properties, carbon nanotube (CNT), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)

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35 Improving the Electrical Conductivity of Epoxy Coating Using Carbon Nanotube by Electrodeposition Method

Authors: Navid Zanganeh, Mahla Zabet, Hafez Balavi, Farbod Sharif

Abstract:

Electrodeposition is a method for applying coatings with uniform thickness on complex objects. A conductive surface can be produced using the electrical current in this method. Carbon nanotubes are known to have high electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. In this report, NH2-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used in epoxy resin with different weight percent. The weight percent of incorporated MWCNTS into the matrix was changed in the range of 0.6-3.6 wt% to obtain a series of electrocoatings. The electrocoats were then applied on steel substrates by a cathodic electrodeposition technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy were used to characterize the electrocoated films. The results illustrated the increase in conductivity by increasing of MWCNT load. However, at the percolation threshold, throwing power was dropped with increase in recoating ability.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, Carbon Nanotube, electrodeposition, throwing power

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34 Hybrid Conductive Polymer Composites: Effect of Mixed Fillers and Polymer Blends on Pyroresistive Properties

Authors: Eric Asare, Jamie Evans, Mark Newton, Emiliano Bilotti

Abstract:

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) filled with silver coated glass flakes (5µm) was investigated and the effect on PTC by addition of a second filler (100µm silver coated glass flake) or matrix (polypropylene elastomer) to the composite were examined. The addition of the secondary filler promoted the electrical properties of the composite. The bigger flakes acted like a bridge between the small flakes and this helped to enhance the electrical properties. The PTC behaviour of the composite was also improved by the addition of the bigger flakes due to the increase in separation distance between particles caused by the bigger flakes. Addition of small amount of polypropylene elastomer enhanced not only PTC effect but also improved substantially the flexibility of the composite as well as reduces the overall filler content. SEM images showed that the fillers were dispersed in the HDPE phase.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, high density polyethylene, positive temperature coefficient, conductive polymer composite

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33 Effect of Filler Size and Shape on Positive Temperature Coefficient Effect

Authors: Eric Asare, Jamie Evans, Mark Newton, Emiliano Bilotti

Abstract:

Two types of filler shapes (sphere and flakes) and three different sizes are employed to study the size effect on PTC. The composite is prepared using a mini-extruder with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as the matrix. A computer modelling is used to fit the experimental results. The percolation threshold decreases with decreasing filler size and this was observed for both the spherical particles as well as the flakes. This was caused by the decrease in interparticle distance with decreasing filler size. The 100 µm particles showed a larger PTC intensity compared to the 5 µm particles for the metal coated glass sphere and flake. The small particles have a large surface area and agglomeration and this makes it difficult for the conductive network to e disturbed. Increasing the filler content decreased the PTC intensity and this is due to an increase in the conductive network within the polymer matrix hence more energy is needed to disrupt the network.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect, conductive polymer composite (CPC)

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32 Effect of Manganese Doping Percentage on Optical Band Gap and Conductivity of Copper Sulphide Nano-Films Prepared by Electrodeposition Method

Authors: P. C. Okafor, A. J. Ekpunobi

Abstract:

Mn doped copper sulphide (CuS:Mn) nano-films were deposited on indiums coated tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates using electrodeposition method. Electrodeposition was carried out using bath of PH = 3 at room temperature. Other depositions parameters such as deposition time (DT) are kept constant while Mn doping was varied from 3% to 23%. Absorption spectra of CuS:Mn films was obtained by using JENWAY 6405 UV-VIS -spectrophotometer. Optical band gap (E_g ), optical conductivity (σo) and electrical conductivity (σe) of CuS:Mn films were determined using absorption spectra and appropriate formula. The effect of Mn doping % on these properties were investigated. Results show that film thickness (t) for the 13.27 nm to 18.49 nm; absorption coefficient (α) from 0.90 x 1011 to 1.50 x 1011 optical band gap from 2.29eV to 2.35 eV; optical conductivity from 1.70 x 1013 and electrical conductivity from 160 millions to 154 millions. Possible applications of such films for solar cells fabrication and optoelectronic devices applications were also discussed.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, electrodeposition, copper sulphide (CuS), Manganese (Mn) doping, optical band gap, optical conductivity

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31 Lanthanum Strontium Titanate Based Anode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: A. Saurabh Singh, B. Raghvendra, C. Prabhakar Singh

Abstract:

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are one of the most attractive electrochemical energy conversion systems, as these devices present a clean energy production, thus promising high efficiencies and low environmental impact. The electrodes are the main components that decisively control the performance of a SOFC. Conventional, anode materials (like Ni-YSZ) are operates at very high temperature. Therefore, cost-effective materials which operate at relatively lower temperatures are still required. In present study, we have synthesized La doped Strontium Titanate via solid state reaction route. The structural, microstructural and density of the pellet have been investigated employing XRD, SEM and Archimedes Principle, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the systems has been determined by impedance spectroscopy techniques. The electrical conductivity of the Lanthanum Strontium Titanate (LST) has been found to be higher than the composite Ni-YSZ system at 700 °C.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, IT-SOFC, LST, Lanthanum Strontium Titanate

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30 Morphology and Electrical Conductivity of a Non-Symmetrical NiO-SDC/SDC Anode through a Microwave-Assisted Route

Authors: Mohadeseh Seyednezhad, Armin Rajabi, Andanastui Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu

Abstract:

This work investigates the electrical properties of NiO-SDC/SDC anode sintered at about 1200 ○C for 1h through a relatively new approach, namely the microwave method. Nano powders Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (SDC) and NiO were mixed by using a high-energy ball-mill and subsequent co-pressed at three different compaction pressures 200, 300 and 400 MPa. The novelty of this study consists in the effect of compaction pressure on the electrochemical performance of Ni-SDC/SDC anode, with no binder used between layers. The electrical behavior of the prepared anode has been studied by electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) in controlled atmospheres, operating at high temperatures (600-800 °C).

Keywords: Nanostructures, sintering, Ceramics, Impedance spectroscopy, Fuel Cell, Electrical Conductivity

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29 Effect of Chromium Behavior on Mechanical and Electrical Properties Of P/M Copper-Chromium Alloy Dispersed with VGCF

Authors: Hisashi Imai, Kuan-Yu Chen, Katsuyoshi Kondoh, Hung-Yin Tsai, Junko Umeda

Abstract:

Microstructural and electrical properties of copper-chromium alloy (Cu-Cr) dispersed with vapor-grown carbon fiber (VGCF) prepared by powder metallurgy (P/M) process have been investigated. Cu-0.7 mass% Cr pre-alloyed powder (Cu-Cr) made by water atomization process was used as raw materials, which contained solid solute Cr elements in Cu matrix. The alloy powder coated with un-bundled VGCF by using oil coating process was consolidated at 1223 K in vacuum by spark plasma sintering, and then extruded at 1073 K. The extruded Cu-Cr alloy (monolithic alloy) had 209.3 MPa YS and 80.4 IACS% conductivity. The extruded Cu-Cr with 0.1 mass% VGCF composites revealed a small decrease of YS compared to the monolithic Cu-Cr alloy. On the other hand, the composite had a higher electrical conductivity than that of the monolithic alloy. For example, Cu-Cr with 0.1 mass% VGCF composite sintered for 5 h showed 182.7 MPa YS and 89.7 IACS% conductivity. In the case of Cu-Cr with VGCFs composites, the Cr concentration was observed around VGCF by SEM-EDS analysis, where Cr23C6 compounds were detected by TEM observation. The amount of Cr solid solution in the matrix of the Cu-Cr composites alloy was about 50% compared to the monolithic Cu-Cr sintered alloy, and resulted in the remarkable increment of the electrical conductivity.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, powder metallurgy Cu-Cr alloy powder, vapor-grown carbon fiber

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28 An Investigation on Viscoelastic and Electrical Properties of Biopolymer-Based Composites

Authors: Y. Seki, İ. Şen, K. Sever, M. Sarikanat, Z. Yenier

Abstract:

It is known that Chitosan, as a natural polymer, has many excellent properties such as bicompotability, biodegradability and nontoxicity. Besides it has some limitations such as poor solubility in water and low conductivity in electrical devices and sensor applications. In order to improve electrical conductivity properties grapheme loading was conducted into chitosan. For this aim, chitosan solution was prepared in acidic condition and Graphene at different ratios was mixed with chitosan solution by the help of homogenizator. After film formation electrical conductivity values of chitosan and graphene loaded chitosan were determined. After grapheme loading into chitosan,solution significant increases in surface resistivity value of chitosan were observed. Besides variations on viscoeleastic properties with graphene loading was determined by dynamic mechanical analysis. Storage and Loss moduli were obtained for chitosan and grapheme loaded chitosan samples.

Keywords: Graphene, Electrical Conductivity, chitosan, viscoelastic properties

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27 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Cr Doped Ni-Zn Nanoferrites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method

Authors: E. Ateia, L. M. Salah, A. H. El-Bassuony

Abstract:

Physical properties of nanocrystalline Ni1-xZnxCryFe2-yO4, (x=0.3, 0.5 and y=0.0, 0.1) with estimated crystallite size of 16.4 nm have been studied. XRD pattern of all prepared systems shows that, the nanosamples without Cr3+ have a cubic spinel structure with the appearance of small peaks designated as a secondary phase. Magnetic constants such as saturation magnetization, (MS) remanent magnetization (Mr) and coercive field (Hc) were obtained and reported. The obtained data shows that, the addition of Cr3+ (0.1mol) decreases the saturation magnetization. This is due to the decrease of magnetic moment of Cr3+ ion (3.0 μB) with respect to Fe3+ ion (5.85 μB). The electrical properties of the investigated samples were also investigated.

Keywords: sintering, Electrical Conductivity, grain size, ferrites

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26 Synthesizing CuFe2O4 Spinel Powders by a Combustion-Like Process for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnects Coating

Authors: Seyedeh Narjes Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Enayati, Fathallah Karimzadeh, Nigel Mark Sammes

Abstract:

The synthesis of CuFe2O4 spinel powders by an optimized combustion-like process followed by calcinations is described herein. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dilatometry and 4-probe DC methods. Different glycine to nitrate (G/N) ratios of 1 (fuel-deficient), 1.48 (stoichiometric) and 2 (fuel-rich) were employed. Calcining the as-prepared powders at 800 and 1000°C for 5 hours showed that the 2 ratio results in the formation of desired copper spinel single phase at both calcinations temperatures. For G/N=1, formation of CuFe2O4 takes place in three steps. First, iron and copper nitrates decomposes to iron oxide and pure copper. Then, copper transforms to copper oxide and finally, copper and iron oxides react to each other to form copper ferrite spinel phase. The electrical conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sintered pelletized samples were obtained 2 S.cm-1 (800°C) and 11×10-6 °C-1 (25-800°C), respectively.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, copper ferrite, SOFC interconnect coatings, Spinels, Glycine–nitrate process

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25 Highly Conducting Ultra Nanocrystalline Diamond Nanowires Decorated ZnO Nanorods for Long Life Electronic Display and Photo-Detectors Applications

Authors: A. Saravanan, B. R. Huang, C. J. Yeh, K. C. Leou, I. N. Lin

Abstract:

A new class of ultra-nano diamond-graphite nano-hybrid (DGH) composite materials containing nano-sized diamond needles was developed at low temperature process. Such kind of diamond- graphite nano-hybrid composite nanowires exhibit high electrical conductivity and excellent electron field emission (EFE) properties. Few earlier reports mention that addition of N2 gas to the growth plasma requires high growth temperature (800°C) to trigger the dopants to generate the conductivity in the films. High growth temperature is not familiar with the Si-based device fabrications. We have used a novel process such as bias-enhanced-grown (beg) MPECVD process to grow diamond films at low substrate temperature (450°C). We observed that the beg-N/UNCD films thus obtained possess high conductivity of σ=987 S/cm, ever reported for diamond films with excellent Electron field emission (EFE) properties. TEM investigation indicated that these films contain needle-like diamond grains about 5 nm in diameter and hundreds of nanometers in length. Each of the grains was encased in graphitic layers about tens of nano-meters in thickness. These materials properties suitable for more specific applications, such as high conductivity for electron field emitters, high robustness for microplasma cathodes and high electrochemical activity for electro-chemical sensing. Subsequently, other hand, the highly conducting DGH films were coated on vertically aligned ZnO nanorods, there is no prior nucleation or seeding process needed due to the use of BEG method. Such a composite structure provides significant enhancement in the field emission characteristics of the cold cathode was observed with ultralow turn on voltage 1.78 V/μm with high EFE current density of 3.68 mA/ cm2 (at 4.06V/μm) due to decoration of DGH material on ZnO nanorods. The DGH/ZNRs based device get stable emission for longer duration of 562min than bare ZNRs (104min) without any current degradation because the diamond coating protects the ZNRs from ion bombardment when they are used as the cathode for microplasma devices. The potential application of these materials is demonstrated by the plasma illumination measurements that ignited the plasma at the minimum voltage by 290 V. The photoresponse (Iphoto/Idark) behavior of the DGH/ZNRs based photodetectors exhibits a much higher photoresponse (1202) than bare ZNRs (229). During the process the electron transport is easy from ZNRs to DGH through graphitic layers, the EFE properties of these materials comparable to other primarily used field emitters like carbon nanotubes, graphene. The DGH/ZNRs composite also providing a possibility of their use in flat panel, microplasma and vacuum microelectronic devices.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, ZnO nanorods, bias-enhanced nucleation and growth, electron field emission, photo-detectors

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24 Influence of Organic Modifier Loading on Particle Dispersion of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

Authors: O. I. H. Dimitry, N. A. Mansour, A. L. G. Saad

Abstract:

Natural sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT), Cloisite Na+ and two organophilic montmorillonites (OMMTs), Cloisites 20A and 15A were used. Polycaprolactone (PCL)/MMT composites containing 1, 3, 5, and 10 wt% of Cloisite Na+ and PCL/OMMT nanocomposites containing 5 and 10 wt% of Cloisites 20A and 15A were prepared via solution intercalation technique to study the influence of organic modifier loading on particle dispersion of PCL/ NaMMT composites. Thermal stabilities of the obtained composites were characterized by thermal analysis using the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) which showed that in the presence of nitrogen flow the incorporation of 5 and 10 wt% of filler brings some decrease in PCL thermal stability in the sequence: Cloisite Na+>Cloisite 15A > Cloisite 20A, while in the presence of air flow these fillers scarcely influenced the thermoxidative stability of PCL by slightly accelerating the process. The interaction between PCL and silicate layers was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which confirmed moderate interactions between nanometric silicate layers and PCL segments. The electrical conductivity (σ) which describes the ionic mobility of the systems was studied as a function of temperature and showed that σ of PCL was enhanced on increasing the modifier loading at filler content of 5 wt%, especially at higher temperatures in the sequence: Cloisite Na+<Cloisite 20A<Cloisite 15A, and was then decreased to some extent with a further increase to 10 wt%. The activation energy Eσ obtained from the dependency of σ on temperature using Arrhenius equation was found to be lowest for the nanocomposite containing 5 wt% of Cloisite 15A. The dispersed behavior of clay in PCL matrix was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses which revealed partial intercalated structures in PCL/NaMMT composites and semi-intercalated/semi-exfoliated structures in PCL/OMMT nanocomposites containing 5 wt% of Cloisite 20A or Cloisite 15A.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Electrical Conductivity, montmorillonite, polycaprolactone, organoclay

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23 Effects of Copper and Cobalt Co-Doping on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Tio2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol Gel Method

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreeddine Toubal

Abstract:

Un-doped TiO2, Co single doped TiO2 and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 thin films have been growth on silicon substrates by the sol-gel dip coating technique. We mainly investigated both effects of the dopants and annealing temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of TiO2 films using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Vis spectroscopy. The chemical compositions of Co-doped and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films were confirmed by XRD, Raman and FTIR studies. The average grain sizes of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites were increased with annealing temperature. AFM and SEM reveal a completely the various nanostructures of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites thin films. The films exhibit a high optical reflectance with a large band gap. The highest electrical conductivity was obtained for the (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films. The polyhedral surface morphology might possibly improve the surface contact between particle sizes and then contribute to better electron mobility as well as conductivity. The obtained results suggest that the prepared TiO2 films can be used for optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, sol-gel, TiO2 thin films, CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites films

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22 Electromagnetic Interface Shielding of Graphene Oxide–Carbon Nanotube Hybrid ABS Composites

Authors: Jeevan Jyoti, Bhanu Pratap Singh, S. R. Dhakate

Abstract:

In the present study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and Improved Hummer’s method, respectively and their composite with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) were prepared by twin screw co rotating extrusion technique. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of graphene oxide carbon nanotube (GCNTs) hybrid composites was investigated and the results were compared with EMI shielding of carbon nanotube (CNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku-band). The experimental results indicate that the EMI shielding effectiveness of these composites is achieved up to –21 dB for 10 wt. % loading of GCNT loading. The mechanism of improvement in EMI shielding effectiveness is discussed by resolving their contribution in absorption and reflection loss. The main reason for such a high improved shielding effectiveness has been attributed to the significant improvement in the electrical conductivity of the composites. The electrical conductivity of these GCNT/ABS composites was increased from 10-13 S/cm to 10-7 S/cm showing the improvement of the 6 order of the magnitude. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) studies showed that the GCNTs were uniformly dispersed in the ABS polymer matrix. GCNTs form a network throughout the polymer matrix and promote the reinforcement.

Keywords: Graphene, Electrical Conductivity, reduced graphene oxide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, ABS, EMI shielding, oxide-carbon nanotube (GCNTs), twin screw extruder, multiwall carbon nanotube

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21 On the PTC Thermistor Model with a Hyperbolic Tangent Electrical Conductivity

Authors: M. O. Durojaye, J. T. Agee

Abstract:

This paper is on the one-dimensional, positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor model with a hyperbolic tangent function approximation for the electrical conductivity. The method of asymptotic expansion was adopted to obtain the steady state solution and the unsteady-state response was obtained using the method of lines (MOL) which is a well-established numerical technique. The approach is to reduce the partial differential equation to a vector system of ordinary differential equations and solve numerically. Our analysis shows that the hyperbolic tangent approximation introduced is well suitable for the electrical conductivity. Numerical solutions obtained also exhibit correct physical characteristics of the thermistor and are in good agreement with the exact steady state solutions.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, hyperbolic tangent function, PTC thermistor, method of lines

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20 Electrophoretic Deposition of p-Type Bi2Te3 for Thermoelectric Applications

Authors: Reza Ghomashchi, Tahereh Talebi, Pejman Talemi, Sima Aminorroaya

Abstract:

Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of p-type Bi2Te3 material has been accomplished, and a high quality crack-free thick film has been achieved for thermoelectric (TE) applications. TE generators (TEG) can convert waste heat into electricity, which can potentially solve global warming problems. However, TEG is expensive due to the high cost of materials, as well as the complex and expensive manufacturing process. EPD is a simple and cost-effective method which has been used recently for advanced applications. In EPD, when a DC electric field is applied to the charged powder particles suspended in a suspension, they are attracted and deposited on the substrate with the opposite charge. In this study, it has been shown that it is possible to prepare a TE film using the EPD method and potentially achieve high TE properties at low cost. The relationship between the deposition weight and the EPD-related process parameters, such as applied voltage and time, has been investigated and a linear dependence has been observed, which is in good agreement with the theoretical principles of EPD. A stable EPD suspension of p-type Bi2Te3 was prepared in a mixture of acetone-ethanol with triethanolamine as a stabilizer. To achieve a high quality homogenous film on a copper substrate, the optimum voltage and time of the EPD process was investigated. The morphology and microstructures of the green deposited films have been investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The green Bi2Te3 films have shown good adhesion to the substrate. In summary, this study has shown that not only EPD of p-type Bi2Te3 material is possible, but its thick film is of high quality for TE applications.

Keywords: Thermoelectric materials, Electrical Conductivity, mechanical property, thick films, electrophoretic deposition, p-type Bi2Te3, Seebeck coefficient

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19 Investigating the Influence of Solidification Rate on the Microstructural, Mechanical and Physical Properties of Directionally Solidified Al-Mg Based Multicomponent Eutectic Alloys Containing High Mg Alloys

Authors: Burak Birol, Necmetti̇n Maraşlı, Fatih Kılıç

Abstract:

The directional solidification process is generally used for homogeneous compound production, single crystal growth, and refining (zone refining), etc. processes. The most important two parameters that control eutectic structures are temperature gradient and grain growth rate which are called as solidification parameters The solidification behavior and microstructure characteristics is an interesting topic due to their effects on the properties and performance of the alloys containing eutectic compositions. The solidification behavior of multicomponent and multiphase systems is an important parameter for determining various properties of these materials. The researches have been conducted mostly on the solidification of pure materials or alloys containing two phases. However, there are very few studies on the literature about multiphase reactions and microstructure formation of multicomponent alloys during solidification. Because of this situation, it is important to study the microstructure formation and the thermodynamical, thermophysical and microstructural properties of these alloys. The production process is difficult due to easy oxidation of magnesium and therefore, there is not a comprehensive study concerning alloys containing high Mg (> 30 wt.% Mg). With the increasing amount of Mg inside Al alloys, the specific weight decreases, and the strength shows a slight increase, while due to formation of β-Al8Mg5 phase, ductility lowers. For this reason, production, examination and development of high Mg containing alloys will initiate the production of new advanced engineering materials. The original value of this research can be described as obtaining high Mg containing (> 30% Mg) Al based multicomponent alloys by melting under vacuum; controlled directional solidification with various growth rates at a constant temperature gradient; and establishing relationship between solidification rate and microstructural, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Therefore, within the scope of this research, some > 30% Mg containing ternary or quaternary Al alloy compositions were determined, and it was planned to investigate the effects of directional solidification rate on the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of these alloys. Within the scope of the research, the influence of the growth rate on microstructure parameters, microhardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of directionally solidified high Mg containing Al-32,2Mg-0,37Si; Al-30Mg-12Zn; Al-32Mg-1,7Ni; Al-32,2Mg-0,37Fe; Al-32Mg-1,7Ni-0,4Si; Al-33,3Mg-0,35Si-0,11Fe (wt.%) alloys with wide range of growth rate (50-2500 µm/s) and fixed temperature gradient, will be investigated. The work can be planned as; (a) directional solidification of Al-Mg based Al-Mg-Si, Al-Mg-Zn, Al-Mg-Ni, Al-Mg-Fe, Al-Mg-Ni-Si, Al-Mg-Si-Fe within wide range of growth rates (50-2500 µm/s) at a constant temperature gradient by Bridgman type solidification system, (b) analysis of microstructure parameters of directionally solidified alloys by using an optical light microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), (c) measurement of microhardness and tensile strength of directionally solidified alloys, (d) measurement of electrical conductivity by four point probe technique at room temperature (e) measurement of thermal conductivity by linear heat flow method at room temperature.

Keywords: Microstructure, Electrical Conductivity, Thermal Conductivity, Tensile Strength, Microhardness, directional solidification, high Mg containing multicomponent Al alloys

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18 Preparation of n-type Bi2Te3 Films by Electrophoretic Deposition

Authors: Reza Ghomashchi, Tahereh Talebi, Pejman Talemi, Sima Aminorroaya

Abstract:

A high quality crack-free film of Bi2Te3 material has been deposited for the first time using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and microstructures of various films have been investigated. One of the most important thermoelectric (TE) applications is Bi2Te3 to manufacture TE generators (TEG) which can convert waste heat into electricity targeting the global warming issue. However, the high cost of the manufacturing process of TEGs keeps them expensive and out of reach for commercialization. Therefore, utilizing EPD as a simple and cost-effective method will open new opportunities for TEG’s commercialization. This method has been recently used for advanced materials such as microelectronics and has attracted a lot of attention from both scientists and industry. In this study, the effect of media of suspensions has been investigated on the quality of the deposited films as well as their microstructure. In summary, finding an appropriate suspension is a critical step for a successful EPD process and has an important effect on both the film’s quality and its future properties.

Keywords: Thermoelectric materials, Electrical Conductivity, thick films, electrophoretic deposition, Bi2Te3

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17 Analysis of Pollution in Agriculture Land Using Decagon Em-50 and Rock Magnetism Method

Authors: Adinda Syifa Azhari, Eleonora Agustine, Dini Fitriani

Abstract:

This measurement has been done to analyze the impact of industrial pollution on the environment. Our research is to indicate the soil which has contained some pollution by industrial activity around the area, especially in Sumedang, West Java. The parameter phsyics such as total dissolved solid, volumetric water content, electrical conductivity bulk and FD have shown that the soil has polluted and measured by Decagon EM 50. Decagon EM 50 is one of the geophysical environment instrumentation that is used to interpret the soil condition. This experiment has given a result of these parameter physics, these are: Volumetric water content (m³/m³) = 0,154 – 0,384; Electrical Conductivity Bulk (dS/m) = 0,29 – 1,11 ; Dielectric Permittivity (DP) = 77,636 – 78, 339.Based on these data, we have got the conclusion that the area has, in fact, been contaminated by dangerous materials. VWC is parameter physics that has shown water in soil. The data show the pollution of the soil at the place, of which the specifications are PH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Electrical Conductivity (EC) bigger (>>) and Frequency Dependent (FD) smaller (<<); that means the soil is alkali with big grain and has high salt concentration.

Keywords: Pollution, land, Industrial Textiles, Electrical Conductivity, Decagon EM 50

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16 Delineation of Soil Physical Properties Using Electrical Conductivity, Case Study: Volcanic Soil Simulation Model

Authors: Eleonora Agustine, Dini Fitriani, Twin Aji Kusumagiani

Abstract:

The value changes of soil physical properties in the agricultural area are giving impacts on soil fertility. This can be caused by excessive usage of inorganic fertilizers and imbalances on organic fertilization. Soil physical parameters that can be measured include soil electrical conductivity, water content volume, soil porosity, dielectric permittivity, etc. This study used the electrical conductivity and volume water content as the measured physical parameters. The study was conducted on volcanic soil obtained from agricultural land conditioned with NPK fertilizer and salt in a certain amount. The dimension of the conditioned soil being used is 1 x 1 x 0.5 meters. By using this method, we can delineate the soil electrical conductivity value of land due to changes in the provision of inorganic NPK fertilizer and the salinity in the soil. Zone with the additional 1 kg of salt has the dimension of 60 cm in width, 20 cm in depth and 1 cm in thickness while zone with the additional of 10 kg NPK fertilizer has the dimensions of 70 cm in width, 20 cm in depth and 3 cm in thickness. This salt addition resulted in EC values changes from the original condition. Changes of the EC value tend to occur at a depth of 20 to 40 cm on the line 1B at 9:45 dS/cm and line 1C of 9.35 dS/cm and tend to have the direction to the Northeast.

Keywords: Salt, Electrical Conductivity, VWC, volume water content, NPK fertilizer, volcanic soil

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15 Electrical Conductivity as Pedotransfer Function in the Determination of Sodium Adsorption Ratio in Soil System in Managing Micro Level Farming Practices in India: An Effective Low Cost Technology

Authors: Usha Loganathan, Haresh Pandya

Abstract:

Analysis and correlation of soil properties represent an important outset for precision agriculture and is currently promoted and implemented in the developed world. Establishing relationships among indices of soil salinity has always been a challenging task in salt affected soils necessitating unique approaches for their reclamation and management to sustain long term productivity of Soil. Soil salinity indices like Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) are normally used to characterize soils as either sodic or saline sodic. Currently, Determination of Soil sodium adsorption ratio is a more accepted and reliable measure of soil salinity. However, it involves arduous and protracted laboratory investigations which demand evolving new and economical methods to determine SAR based on simple soil salinity index. A linear regression model to predict soil SAR from soil electrical conductivity has been developed and presented in this paper as per which, soil SAR could very well be worked out as a pedotransfer function of soil EC. The present study was carried out in Orathupalayam (11.09-11.11 N latitude and 74.54-77.59 E longitude) in the vicinity of Orathupalayam Reservoir of Noyyal River Basin, India, over a period of 3 consecutive years from September 2013 through February 2016 in different locations chosen randomly through different seasons. The research findings are discussed in the light of micro level farming practices in India and recommend determination of SAR as a low cost technology aiding in the effective management of salt affected agricultural land.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, orathupalayam, pedotranfer function, sodium adsorption ratio

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14 Synthesis, Characterization and Electrical Studies of Solid Polymer Electrolyte (1-x) PANI-KAg₄I₅.xAl₂O₃

Authors: Rafiuddin

Abstract:

Solid polymer electrolytes have emerged as an area of interest in the field of solid state chemistry owing to their facile and cost-effective synthesis and number of applications in different areas of chemistry, extending over a wide range of temperatures. In the present work, polymer composite solid electrolyte comprising of Polyaniline (PANI) as polymer and potassium silver iodide (KAg4I5) using alumina (Al2O3) of different compositions having the formula (1-x) PANI- KAg4I5. x Al2O3 with x ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 was prepared by solid state reaction method. The structural elucidation and characterization was done by X- Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric- Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA) and Impedance Spectroscopy. The thermal analysis shows a phase transition at 147°C attributed to β-α phase transition of AgI due to the disproportionation of KAg4I5 to AgI and KAg2I3 at temperatures higher than 36°C. The X Ray diffraction analysis also confirms the presence of both AgI and KAg2I3 in the samples. The conductivities recorded over a temperature range of 40-250° C lie in the range of 10-1 to 10-3 S cm-1. Maximum conductivity was seen in the compositon x = 0.4 i.e. 1.84 × 10-2 Scm-1 at 313 K and 1.38 × 10-1 Scm-1 at 513 K, with a minimum activation energy of 0.14 eV.

Keywords: Impedance spectroscopy, Electrical Conductivity, XRD, DTA, polymer solid electrolytes

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13 Stability of Porous SiC Based Materials under Relevant Conditions of Radiation and Temperature

Authors: Marta Malo, Carlota Soto, Carmen García-Rosales, Teresa Hernández

Abstract:

SiC based composites are candidates for possible use as structural and functional materials in the future fusion reactors, the main role is intended for the blanket modules. In the blanket, the neutrons produced in the fusion reaction slow down and their energy is transformed into heat in order to finally generate electrical power. In the blanket design named Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL), a PbLi alloy for power conversion and tritium breeding circulates inside hollow channels called Flow Channel Inserts (FCIs). These FCI must protect the steel structures against the highly corrosive PbLi liquid and the high temperatures, but also provide electrical insulation in order to minimize magnetohydrodynamic interactions of the flowing liquid metal with the high magnetic field present in a magnetically confined fusion environment. Due to their nominally high temperature and radiation stability as well as corrosion resistance, SiC is the main choice for the flow channel inserts. The significantly lower manufacturing cost presents porous SiC (dense coating is required in order to assure protection against corrosion and as a tritium barrier) as a firm alternative to SiC/SiC composites for this purpose. This application requires the materials to be exposed to high radiation levels and extreme temperatures, conditions for which previous studies have shown noticeable changes in both the microstructure and the electrical properties of different types of silicon carbide. Both initial properties and radiation/temperature induced damage strongly depend on the crystal structure, polytype, impurities/additives that are determined by the fabrication process, so the development of a suitable material requires full control of these variables. For this work, several SiC samples with different percentage of porosity and sintering additives have been manufactured by the so-called sacrificial template method at the Ceit-IK4 Technology Center (San Sebastián, Spain), and characterized at Ciemat (Madrid, Spain). Electrical conductivity was measured as a function of temperature before and after irradiation with 1.8 MeV electrons in the Ciemat HVEC Van de Graaff accelerator up to 140 MGy (~ 2·10 -5 dpa). Radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) was also examined during irradiation at 550 ºC for different dose rates (from 0.5 to 5 kGy/s). Although no significant RIC was found in general for any of the samples, electrical conductivity increase with irradiation dose was observed to occur for some compositions with a linear tendency. However, first results indicate enhanced radiation resistance for coated samples. Preliminary thermogravimetric tests of selected samples, together with posterior XRD analysis allowed interpret radiation-induced modification of the electrical conductivity in terms of changes in the SiC crystalline structure. Further analysis is needed in order to confirm this.

Keywords: Radiation Damage, Electrical Conductivity, Thermal Stability, flow channel insert, DCLL blanket, porous SiC

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12 Optimization the Conditions of Electrophoretic Deposition Fabrication of Graphene-Based Electrode to Consider Applications in Electro-Optical Sensors

Authors: Sepehr Lajevardi Esfahani, Shohre Rouhani, Zahra Ranjbar

Abstract:

Graphene has gained much attention owing to its unique optical and electrical properties. Charge carriers in graphene sheets (GS) carry out a linear dispersion relation near the Fermi energy and behave as massless Dirac fermions resulting in unusual attributes such as the quantum Hall effect and ambipolar electric field effect. It also exhibits nondispersive transport characteristics with an extremely high electron mobility (15000 cm2/(Vs)) at room temperature. Recently, several progresses have been achieved in the fabrication of single- or multilayer GS for functional device applications in the fields of optoelectronic such as field-effect transistors ultrasensitive sensors and organic photovoltaic cells. In addition to device applications, graphene also can serve as reinforcement to enhance mechanical, thermal, or electrical properties of composite materials. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is an attractive method for development of various coatings and films. It readily applied to any powdered solid that forms a stable suspension. The deposition parameters were controlled in various thicknesses. In this study, the graphene electrodeposition conditions were optimized. The results were obtained from SEM, Ohm resistance measuring technique and AFM characteristic tests. The minimum sheet resistance of electrodeposited reduced graphene oxide layers is achieved at conditions of 2 V in 10 s and it is annealed at 200 °C for 1 minute.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, electrophoretic deposition (EPD), graphene oxide (GO), electro-optical devices

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11 Microwave Assisted Growth of Varied Phases and Morphologies of Vanadium Oxides Nanostructures: Structural and Optoelectronic Properties

Authors: Mohammed Khenfouch, Malik Maaza, Bakang M. Mothudi, Issam Derkaoui, Izeddine Zorkani, Anouar Jorio

Abstract:

Transition metal oxides nanoparticles with different morphologies have attracted a lot of attention recently owning to their distinctive geometries, and demonstrated promising electrical properties for various applications. In this paper, we discuss the time and annealing effects on the structural and electrical properties of vanadium oxides nanoparticles (VO-NPs) prepared by microwave method. In this sense, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra (Uv-Vis) and electrical conductivity were investigated. Hence, the annealing state and the time are two crucial parameters for the improvement of the optoelectronic properties. The use of these nanostructures is promising way for the development of technological applications especially for energy storage devices.

Keywords: Microwave, Electrical Conductivity, optoelectronic properties, Vanadium oxide

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10 Effects of Air Pollution on Dew Water: A Case Study of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: Olugbenga Aribisala, M. Sanmi Awopetu, Olabisi O. Ologuntoye, S. Olumuyi Akindele

Abstract:

Human existence vis-à-vis its environment is more and more getting a threatened sequel to air pollution occasioned majorly by human coupled with natural activities. Earth is getting warmer; ozone layer is getting depleted, acid rain is being experienced, all as a result of air pollution. This study seeks to investigate the effect of air pollution on dew water. Thirty-one (31) samples of dew water were collected in four locations in Ado- Ekiti, Ekiti State Nigeria. Analytical studies of the dew water samples were carried out to determine the pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) in order to determine whether the dew water is polluted or not. There is no documented world standard for dew water quality. However, the standard for normal rain water which is pH between 5.0-5.6 and acid rain pH between 4.0-4.4 was adopted for this study. The pH of dew water samples collected and analyzed ranged between 5.5 and 7.9 in Olokun Ado-Ekiti while other samples fell in between this range. In Government Reserved Area (GRA), Ajilosun and EKSU school area, the pH ranged between 6.4 and 7.9 while EC fell in between 0.0 and 0.9 mS/cm which shows that the observed zones are polluted. Everyone has a role to play in order to reduce the pollutants being released into the atmosphere. There is a need to develop an international standard for dew water quality.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Electrical Conductivity, dew, total dissolved solids, Ado-Ekiti

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9 Thermal Stability and Electrical Conductivity of Ca₅Mg₄₋ₓMₓ(VO₄)₆ (0 ≤ x ≤ 4) where M = Zn, Ni Measured by Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: Anna S. Tolkacheva, Sergey N. Shkerin, Kirill G. Zemlyanoi, Olga G. Reznitskikh, Pavel D. Khavlyuk

Abstract:

Calcium oxovanadates with garnet related structure are multifunctional oxides in various fields like photoluminescence, microwave dielectrics, and magneto-dielectrics. For example, vanadate garnets are self-luminescent compounds. They attract attention as RE-free broadband excitation and emission phosphors and are candidate materials for UV-based white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). Ca₅M₄(VO₄)₆ (M = Mg, Zn, Co, Ni, Mn) compounds are also considered promising for application in microwave devices as substrate materials. However, the relation between their structure, composition and physical/chemical properties remains unclear. Given the above-listed observations, goals of this study are to synthesise Ca₅M₄(VO₄)₆ (M = Mg, Zn, Ni) and to study their thermal and electrical properties. Solid solutions Ca₅Mg₄₋ₓMₓ(VO₄)₆ (0 ≤ x ≤ 4) where M is Zn and Ni have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The single-phase character of the final products was checked by powder X-ray diffraction on a Rigaku D/MAX-2200 X-ray diffractometer using Cu Kα radiation in the 2θ range from 15° to 70°. The dependence of thermal properties on chemical composition of solid solutions was studied using simultaneous thermal analyses (DSC and TG). Thermal analyses were conducted in a Netzch simultaneous analyser STA 449C Jupiter, in Ar atmosphere, in temperature range from 25 to 1100°C heat rate was 10 K·min⁻¹. Coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) were obtained by dilatometry measurements in air up to 800°C using a Netzsch 402PC dilatometer; heat rate was 1 K·min⁻¹. Impedance spectra were obtained via the two-probe technique with an impedance meter Parstat 2273 in air up to 700°C with the variation of pH₂O from 0.04 to 3.35 kPa. Cation deficiency in Ca and Mg sublattice under the substitution of MgO with ZnO up to 1/6 was observed using Rietveld refinement of the crystal structure. Melting point was found to decrease with x changing from 0 to 4 in Ca₅Mg₄₋ₓMₓ(VO₄)₆ where M is Zn and Ni. It was observed that electrical conductivity does not depend on air humidity. The reported study was funded by the RFBR Grant No. 17–03–01280. Sample attestation was carried out in the Shared Access Centers at the IHTE UB RAS.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, Thermal Properties, thermal expansion, garnet structure

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