Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2316

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Educational and Pedagogical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2316 Connecting Students and Faculty Research Efforts through the Research and Projects Portal

Authors: Havish Nalapareddy, Mark V. Albert, Ranak Bansal, Avi Udash, Lin Lin

Abstract:

Students engage in many course projects during their degree programs. However, impactful projects often need a time frame longer than a single semester. Ideally, projects are documented and structured to be readily accessible to future students who may choose to continue the project, with features that emphasize the local community, university, or course structure. The Research and Project Portal (RAPP) is a place where students can post both their completed and ongoing projects with all the resources and tools used. This portal allows students to see what other students have done in the past, in the same university environment, related to their domain of interest. Computer science instructors or students selecting projects can use this portal to assign or choose an incomplete project. Additionally, this portal allows non-computer science faculty and industry collaborators to document their project ideas for students in courses to prototype directly, rather than directly soliciting the help of instructors in engaging students. RAPP serves as a platform linking students across classes and faculty both in and out of computer science courses on joint projects to encourage long-term project efforts across semesters or years.

Keywords:

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2315 Future Leaders’ Knowledge of Environmental Sustainability: A Study of Environmental Education in Adolescent School Children of Delhi National Capital Region, India

Authors: SUSHIL KUMAR, Gurpreet Mehdiratta

Abstract:

Children are the future custodians of natural resources. It is therefore important that today’s adolescents possess the necessary knowledge about environmental issues, as they will be impacted the most by climate change, arising out of business decisions of today. These children will also be responsible for formulating social and business policies of tomorrow. India, like most fast developing countries, faces all common problems of environment degradation and depletion such as green-house emissions, air pollution, water pollution etc. These problems are relatively more severe in the urban areas. For example, Delhi National Capital Region (Delhi NCR), one of the largest urban conglomerations in the world and capital of India, features in 2019’s top 10 most polluted cities in the world as per WHO’s world air quality guideline. The present study tries to assess the level of environmental knowledge of Grade 9 (14-16 years) school students in Delhi NCR (National Capital Region). Descriptive statistics and one way ANOVA were used as statistical techniques. The results indicate that, overall, the students have an average score in environmental knowledge. Private run schools’ children score higher than Government run schools’ children on environmental knowledge. Gender does not have a significant relationship with environmental knowledge in case of adolescents. Father’s education level has a significant relationship with children’s environmental knowledge whereas Mother’s education does not. The study also indicates that newspapers and school teachers are top two sources of environmental information to the school students followed closely by TV and Internet. These findings have significance for environmental educators, school administration and environmental education policy implementors.

Keywords: Sustainability, Adolescents, India, Environmental Knowledge, Delhi NCR, environmental education in schools

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2314 Branding and Posting Strategy on Facebook Pages of Higher Education Institutions in Ontario, Canada in 2019-2020: A Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation

Authors: Mai To

Abstract:

Higher education institutions (HEIs) in Ontario, Canada have invested in social media presence for multiple purposes, such as branding, student’ engagement, and recruitment. To have a full picture of the social media strategy implemented by HEIs in Ontario, Canada, this study used a mixed-method approach to analyze Facebook posts’ characteristics and content. A total of 1789 Facebook posts from September 2019 to April 2020 of six selected HEIs were collected for analysis and coding based on five pre-determined branding positions: Elite, Nurturing, Campus, Outcome, and Commodity. Besides, the study also calculated the engagement rate for each social media practice to measure its effectiveness. The results show that there were not many differences in practices such as posting frequency, length, types, and timing among HEIs. However, the distribution of branding positions and content targeting future students versus current students was varied, although the HEIs employed all five branding positions and targeted the same lists of audiences. Some practices such as evening post for colleges and nurturing branding for universities attracted significantly higher engagement. This study provides a review of current social media practices and branding strategy, as well as informs the practices that can better engage the audiences.

Keywords: Higher Education, Social Media, branding, Student Engagement, student recruitment

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2313 Effect of School Environment on Students’ Responsiveness to Learning

Authors: Abel Olayinka Ogbungbemi, I. A. Omunagbe, O. R. King, O. H. Akingbade

Abstract:

This study examined the influence of environmental factors on the academic performance of students in Lagos State Polytechnic. One hundred and thirty-eight students (138) questionnaire was randomly administered among 2,600 students in the 6 departments in the school of environmental studies, Lagos state Polytechnic. The result of the study established that the school environment affects learning. Hence, improper maintenance of fixtures led to lower than average student’s performance. Based on this, the school should endeavour to sustain the school facilities and dull colour points should not be used for painting, interactions between teachers and students should be encouraged, and teachers should relate to all the students irrespective of their age, level of study, department of study and gender.

Keywords: Learning, Environment, responsiveness, school effect

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2312 A Brief of Survey on Use of Videoconferencing in Teaching during Quarantine Conducted in Sao Paulo

Authors: Kazuo Nishimoto, Fernanda Laureti T. Ferreira

Abstract:

This paper presents a summary of the experience on videoconferencing tools that have been used to teach regular classes during this pandemic period in educational institutions in São Paulo, which tools and applications are most used and the challenges related to this mode of delivery. At this moment, the massive online education is not a choice of students or a structured development of education system, but a solution that emerged to attend urgent needs and it presents the opportunity to teach and learning available for the most students in this single time of social isolation that forced among others, this significant change for education, students, teachers, institutions and families. Distance education enables synchronous and asynchronous mode classes, and even though the current circumstances generate discomfort and uncertainty, on the other hand, there is a chance to promote a 'learning to learn'. The videoconference is a preferred choice of schools because synchronous mode to give more interaction between a group of students and teachers, but this mode requires specifics teacher competencies and skills, in addition to equipment and provision of adequate internet signal for all participants of the process. The approach is making use of known technical information about video conference tools and the results of search answered by a group of students, teachers, schools, and parents. The results presented refer to the perspectives of students and parents as respondents.

Keywords: Distance Education, synchronous e-learning, online classes, interaction on education, videoconference

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2311 Geotechnical Education in the USA: A Comparative Analysis of Academic Schooling vs. Industry Needs in the Area of Earth Retaining Structures

Authors: Anne Lemnitzer, Eric Tavarez

Abstract:

The academic rigor of the geotechnical engineering curriculum indicates strong institutional and geographical variations. Geotechnical engineering deals with the most challenging civil engineering material, as opposed to structural engineering, environmental studies, transportation engineering, and water resources. Yet, technical expectations posed by the practicing professional community do not necessarily consider the challenges inherent to the disparity in academic rigor and disciplinary differences. To recognize the skill shortages among current graduates as well as identify opportunities to better equip graduate students in specific fields of geotechnical engineering, a two-part survey was developed in collaboration with the Earth Retaining Structures (ERS) Committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Earth Retaining Structures are critical components of infrastructure systems and integral components to many major engineering projects. Within the geotechnical curriculum, Earth Retaining Structures is either taught as a separate course or major subject within a foundation design class. Part 1 of the survey investigated the breadth and depth of the curriculum with respect to ERS by requesting faculty across the United States to provide data on their curricular content, integration of practice-oriented course content, student preparation for professional licensing, and level of technical competency expected upon student graduation. Part 2 of the survey enables a comparison of training provided versus training needed. This second survey addressed practicing geotechnical engineers in all sectors of the profession (e.g., private engineering consulting, governmental agencies, contractors, suppliers/manufacturers) and collected data on the expectations with respect to technical and non-technical skills of engineering graduates entering the professional workforce. Results identified skill shortages in soft skills, critical thinking, analytical and language skills, familiarity with design codes and standards, and communication with various stakeholders. The data will be used to develop educational tools to advance the proficiency and expertise of geotechnical engineering students to meet and exceed the expectations of the profession and to stimulate a lifelong interest in advancing the field of geotechnical engineering.

Keywords: Geotechnical Engineering, Earth Retaining Structures, academic training, industry requirements

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2310 Framework to Organize Community-Led Project-Based Learning at a Massive Scale of 900 Indian Villages

Authors: Ayesha Selwyn, Annapoorni Chandrashekar, Kumar Ashwarya, Nishant Baghel

Abstract:

Project-based learning (PBL) activities are typically implemented in technology-enabled schools by highly trained teachers. In rural India, students have limited access to technology and quality education. Implementing typical PBL activities is challenging. This study details how Pratham Education Foundation’s Hybrid Learning model was used to implement two PBL activities related to music in 900 remote Indian villages with 46,000 students aged 10-14. The activities were completed by 69% of groups that submitted a total of 15,000 videos (completed projects). Pratham’s H-Learning model reaches 100,000 students aged 3-14 in 900 Indian villages. The community-driven model engages students in 20,000 self-organized groups outside of school. The students are guided by 6,000 youth volunteers and 100 facilitators. The students partake in learning activities across subjects with the support of community stakeholders and offline digital content on shared Android tablets. A training and implementation toolkit for PBL activities is designed by subject experts. This toolkit is essential in ensuring efficient implementation of activities as facilitators aren’t highly skilled and have limited access to training resources. The toolkit details the activity at three levels of student engagement - enrollment, participation, and completion. The subject experts train project leaders and facilitators who train youth volunteers. Volunteers need to be trained on how to execute the activity and guide students. The training is focused on building the volunteers’ capacity to enable students to solve problems, rather than developing the volunteers’ subject-related knowledge. This structure ensures that continuous intervention of subject matter experts isn’t required, and the onus of judging creativity skills is put on community members. 46,000 students in the H-Learning program were engaged in two PBL activities related to Music from April-June 2019. For one activity, students had to conduct a “musical survey” in their village by designing a survey and shooting and editing a video. This activity aimed to develop students’ information retrieval, data gathering, teamwork, communication, project management, and creativity skills. It also aimed to identify talent and document local folk music. The second activity, “Pratham Idol”, was a singing competition. Students participated in performing, producing, and editing videos. This activity aimed to develop students’ teamwork and creative skills and give students a creative outlet. Students showcased their completed projects at village fairs wherein a panel of community members evaluated the videos. The shortlisted videos from all villages were further evaluated by experts who identified students and adults to participate in advanced music workshops. The H-Learning framework enables students in low resource settings to engage in PBL and develop relevant skills by leveraging community support and using video creation as a tool. In rural India, students do not have access to high-quality education or infrastructure. Therefore designing activities that can be implemented by community members after limited training is essential. The subject experts have minimal intervention once the activity is initiated, which significantly reduces the cost of implementation and allows the activity to be implemented at a massive scale.

Keywords: Education Technology, Self-Organized Learning, Project-Based Learning, community supported learning

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2309 Educational System in Developing Countries and E-learning Evaluation in the Face of COVID Pandemic

Authors: Timothy Wale Olaosebikan

Abstract:

The adverse effect of the Covid-19 outbreak and lock-downs on the world economy has coursed a major disrupt in mostly all sectors. The educational sector is not exempted from this disruption as it is one of the most affected sectors in the world. Similarly, most developing countries are still struggling to adopt/ adapt with the 21st-century advancement of technology, which includes e-learning/ e-education. Furthermore, one is left to wonder of the possibility of these countries surviving this disruption on their various educational systems that may no longer be business as usual after the Covid Pandemic era. This study evaluates the e-learning process of educational systems, especially in developing countries. The collection of data for the study was effected through the use of questionnaires with sampling drawn by stratified random sampling. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study show that about 30% of developing countries have fully adopted the e-learning system, about 45% of these countries are still struggling to upgrade while about 25% of these countries are yet to adopt the e-learning system of education. The study concludes that the sudden closure of educational institutions around the world during the Covid Pandemic period should facilitate a teaching pedagogy of e-learning and virtual delivery of courses and programmes in these developing countries. If this approach can be fully adopted, schools might have to grapple with the initial teething problems, given the sudden transition just in order to preserve the welfare of students. While progress should be made to transit as the case may be, lectures and seminars can be delivered through the web conferencing site-zoom. Interestingly, this can be done on a mobile phone. The demands of this approach would equally allow lecturers to make major changes to their work habits, uploading their teaching materials online, and get to grips with what online lecturing entails. Consequently, the study recommends that leaders of developing countries, regulatory authorities, and heads of educational institutions must adopt e-learning into their educational system. Also, e-learning should be adopted into the educational curriculum of students, especially from elementary school up to tertiary level. Total compliance to the e-learning system must be ensured on the part of both the institutions, stake holders, lecturers, tutors, and students. Finally, collaborations with developed countries and effective funding for e-learning integration must form the heart of their cardinal mission.

Keywords: e-Learning, developing countries, educational system, Covid pandemic

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2308 The Influence of Negative Online Word of Mouth on Consumer's Online Purchasing Intention in Sri Lanka through Virtual Snowball Sampling Method: A Special Reference from Northern Province

Authors: Sutharsini Jesuthasan, N. Umakanth

Abstract:

Presently the impact of electronic word of mouth on consumer’s purchasing intentions very popular one for a long time period. Even though now this E-WOM got a new evolution through social media. Before this new concept, general people were able to speak with any people on the internet. But likely social media enable people to talk with colleagues, friends and other people on the internet. Meanwhile, this new path way of E-WOM might be more powerful in terms of confusing purchase intention. And negative side of E-WOM very important in this competitive era. So, this study elaborates the negative E-WOM within the context of social media such as face book. And especially this study identifies the influence of negative E-WOM in social media on consumer’s purchase intention. Virtual snowball sampling method was used by researcher to identify the hidden population. Finally, spss 20.0 also used for data analysis purpose. And conclusion and recommendations are given based on the findings. And this research also will support to both parties such as researcher and participants.

Keywords: Social Media, purchase intention, electronic word of mouth, word of mouth

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2307 A Systematic Review of Forest School for Early Childhood Education in China: Lessons Learned from European Studies from a Perspective of Ecological System

Authors: Xiaoying Zhang

Abstract:

Forest school – an outdoor educational experience that is undertaken in an outdoor environment with trees – becomes an emerging field of early childhood education recently. In China, the benefits of natural outdoor education to children and young people’s wellness have raised attention. Although different types of outdoor-based activities have been involved in some pre-school of China, few study and practice have been conducted in terms of the notion of forest school. To comprehend the impact of forest school for children and young people, this study aims to systematically review articles on the topic of forest school in preschool education from an ecological perspective, i.e. from individual level (e.g., behavior and mental health) to microsystem level (e.g., the relationship between teachers and children) to ecosystem level. Based on PRISMA framework flow, using the key words of “Forest School” and “Early Childhood Education” for searching in Web-of-science database, a total of 33 articles were identified. Sample participants of 13 studies were not preschool children, five studies were not on forest school theme, and two literature review articles were excluded for further analysis. Finally, 13 articles were eligible for thematic analysis. According to Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, there are some fingdings, on the individual level, current forest school studies are concerned about the children behavioral experience in forest school, how these experience may relate to their achievement or to develop children’s wellbeing/wellness, and how this type of learning experience may enhance children’s self-awareness on risk and safety issues. On the microsystem/mesosystem level, this review indicated that pedagogical development for forest school, risk perception from teachers and parents, social development between peers, and adult’s role in the participation of forest school were concerned, explored and discussed most frequently. On the macrosystem, the conceptualization of forest school is the key theme. Different forms of presentation in various countries with diverse cultures could provide various models of forest school education. However, there was no study investigating forest school on an ecosystem level. As for the potential benefits of physical health and mental wellness that results from forest school, it informs us to reflect the system of preschool education from the ecological perspective for Chinese children. For instance, most Chinese kindergartens ignored the significance of natural outdoor activities for children. Preschool education in China is strongly oriented by primary school system, which means pre-school children are expected to be trained as primary school students to do different subjects, such as math. Hardly any kindergarteners provide the opportunities for children and young people to take risks in a natural environment like forest school does. However, merely copying forest school model for a Chinese preschool education system will be less effective. This review of different level concerns could inform us that the localization the idea of forest school to adapt to a Chinese political, educational and cultural background. More detailed results and profound discussions will be presented in the full paper.

Keywords: Early Childhood Education, ecological system, education development prospects in China, forest school

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2306 Delivery of Learning Modules through the Telegram Social Media Application: Views of Post Graduate Diploma in Education Distance Students of University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

Authors: Francis Owusu-Mensah, Humphrey Augustine K. Pufaa, David K. Sakyi

Abstract:

The study was designed to investigate the views of Post Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) Distance Students (2017/2018 Year Group of UEW, Winneba) Winneba Study Centre on the delivery of learning modules and learning convenience in the use of the telegram application (app). The study adopted the sequential explanatory mixed methods design, which is characterized by the collection and analysis of quantitative data followed by collection and analysis of qualitative data. Questionnaire and interviews were instruments used to collect data for the study. The population for the study was all hundred (100) Post Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) Distance Students of the Winneba Study Centre. Simple random sampling technique was used to select two-thirds (75 students) of the population. Sixty (60) of the respondents successfully completed the online questionnaire. Ten (10) of the participants were traced to respond to the qualitative questions for the study. Data obtained from the online questionnaire were analyzed and presented in tables and charts. Data from the individual interviews were analyzed thematically. A major finding of the study was that the telegram app facilitated the timely delivery of learning modules. The study concluded that, the telegram app proved to be efficient in not only the delivery of learning modules for the students but also very convenient an app for distance learning. The study therefore recommends the adoption and integration of telegram app in the distance education programme in an attempt to resolve the late delivery of learning modules as well as learning convenience for the students.

Keywords: Social Media, Distance Education, Learning Convenience, learning Modules, telegram app

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2305 Inducing Flow Experience in Mobile Learning: An Experiment Using a Spanish Learning Mobile Application

Authors: S. Jonsson, D. Millard, C. Bokhove

Abstract:

Smartphones are ubiquitous and frequently used as learning tools, which makes the design of educational apps an important area of research. A key issue is designing apps to encourage engagement while maintaining a focus on the educational aspects of the app. Flow experience is a promising method for addressing this issue, which refers to a mental state of cognitive absorption and positive emotion. Flow experience has been shown to be associated with positive emotion and increased learning performance. Studies have shown that immediate feedback is an antecedent to Flow. This experiment investigates the effect of immediate feedback on Flow experience. An app teaching Spanish phrases was developed, and 30 participants completed both a 10min session with immediate feedback and a 10min session with delayed feedback. The app contained a task where the user assembles Spanish phrases by pressing bricks with Spanish words. Immediate feedback was implemented by incorrect bricks recoiling, while correct brick moved to form part of the finished phrase. In the delayed feedback condition, the user did not know if the bricks they pressed were correct until the phrase was complete. The level of Flow experienced by the participants was measured after each session using the Flow Short Scale. The results showed that higher levels of Flow were experienced in the immediate feedback session. It was also found that 14 of the participants indicated that the demands of the task were ‘just right’ in the immediate feedback session, while only one did in the delayed feedback session. These results have implications for how to design educational technology and opens up questions for how Flow experience can be used to increase performance and engagement.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, flow experience, feedback timing, L2 language learning

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2304 Efficacy of the Use of Different Teaching Approaches of Math Teachers

Authors: Elymar Pascual, Nilda San Miguel

Abstract:

The main focus of this study is exploring the effective approaches in teaching Mathematics that is being applied in public schools, s.y. 2018-2019. This research was written as connected output to the district-wide School Learning Action Cell (DISLAC) on Math teaching approaches which was recently conducted in Victoria, Laguna. Fifty-four math teachers coming from 17 schools in Victoria became the respondents of this study. Qualitative method of doing research was applied. Teachers’ responses to the following concerns were gathered, analyzed and interpreted: (1) evaluation of the recently conducted DISLAC, (2) status of the use of different approaches, (3) perception on the effective use of approaches, (4) preference of approach to explore in classroom sessions, (5) factors affecting the choice of approach, (6) difficulties encountered, (7) and perceived benefit to learners. Results showed that the conduct of DISLAC was very highly satisfactory (mean 4.41). Teachers looked at collaborative approach as very highly effective (mean 4.74). Fifty-two percent of the teachers is using collaborative approach, 17% constructivist, 11% integrative, 11% inquiry-based, and 9% reflective. Reflective approach was chosen to be explored by most of the respondents (29%) in future sessions. The difficulties encountered by teachers in using the different approaches are: (1) learners’ difficulty in following instructions, (2) lack of focus, (3) lack of willingness and cooperation, (4) teachers’ lack of mastery in using different approaches, and (5) lack of time of doing visual aids because of time mismanagement. Teachers deemed the use of various teaching approaches can help the learners to have (1) mastery of competency, (2) increased communication, (3) improved confidence, (4) facility in comprehension, and (5) better academic output. The result obtained from this study can be used as an input for SLACs. Recommendations at the end of the study were given to school/district heads and future researchers.

Keywords: Collaborative, approaches, Integrative, constructivism, reflective, inquiry-based

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2303 Digital Storytelling in the ELL Classroom: A Literature Review

Authors: Nicholas Jobe

Abstract:

English Language Learners (ELLs) often struggle in a classroom setting, too embarrassed at their skill level to write or speak in front of peers and too lacking in confidence to practice. Storytelling is an age-old method of teaching that allows learners to remember important details while listening or sharing a narrative. In the modern world, digital storytelling through the use of technological tools such as podcasts and videos allow students to safely interact with each other to build skills in a fun and engaging way that also works as a confidence booster. Specifically using a constructionist approach to learning, digital storytelling allows ELL students to grow and build new and prior knowledge by creating stories via these technological means. Research herein suggests, through the use of case studies and mixed methodologies, that digital storytelling mainly yields positive results for effective learning in an ELL classroom setting.

Keywords: Digital Storytelling, Narrative, podcast, ELL

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2302 Developing a Model for the Lexical Analysis of Key Works of Children's Literature

Authors: Leigha Inman

Abstract:

One of the most cutting-edge interdisciplinary topics in the social sciences is the application of understandings from the humanities to traditionally social scientific disciplines such as education studies. This paper proposes such a topic. It has often been observed that children enjoy literature. The role of reading in the development of reading ability is an important area of research. However, the role of vocabulary in reading development has long been neglected. This paper reports an investigation into the number of words found in key works of children's literature and attempts to correlate that figure with years elapsed since publication of the work. Pedagogical implications will be discussed.

Keywords: young learners, vocabulary teaching, educational pedagogy, reading development

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2301 Pattern Discovery from Student Feedback: Identifying Factors to Improve Student Emotions in Learning

Authors: Angelina Tzacheva, Jaishree Ranganathan

Abstract:

Interest in (STEM) Science Technology Engineering Mathematics education especially Computer Science education has seen a drastic increase across the country. This fuels effort towards recruiting and admitting a diverse population of students. Thus the changing conditions in terms of the student population, diversity and the expected teaching and learning outcomes give the platform for use of Innovative Teaching models and technologies. It is necessary that these methods adapted should also concentrate on raising quality of such innovations and have positive impact of student learning. Light-Weight Team is an Active Learning Pedagogy, which is considered to be low-stake activity and has very little or no direct impact on student grades. Emotion plays a major role in student’s motivation to learning. In this work we use the student feedback data with emotion classification using surveys at a public research institution in the United States. We use Actionable Pattern Discovery method for this purpose. Actionable patterns are patterns that provide suggestions in the form of rules to help the user achieve better outcomes. The proposed method provides meaningful insight in terms of changes that can be incorporated in the Light-Weight team activities, resources utilized in the course. The results suggest how to enhance student emotions to a more positive state, in particular focuses on the emotions ‘Trust’ and ‘Joy’.

Keywords: Education, Data Mining, emotion, actionable pattern discovery

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2300 An Exploratory Study of the Student's Experience by Applying Different Tools for E-Learning and E-Teaching

Authors: Angel Daniel Munoz Guzman

Abstract:

E-learning is becoming more and more used every day. For online, hybrid or complete presential programs, there are some e-teaching platforms like Google classroom, Blackboard and Canva, also there are platforms for full e-learning like coursera, edx or udemy. These tools are changing the way students acquire knowledge at schools. But, today that is not enough, the world is changing and the student´s needs and skills are changing too and getting more complex, new tools have to be added to keep them engaged and potentialize their learning, especially now that the world is living the situation that is changing everything: Covid19 pandemic. In this study, the students’ experience is analyzed by applying different e-tools and following the Tec21 Model and the new flexible and digital model, both developed by the Tecnologico de Monterrey University. The evaluation of the students’ experience has been made by the cuantitative PrEmo method of emotions. Findings suggest that the quantity of e-tools used during a course does not affect the students’ learning, instead the impact on their experience is given by how a teacher links every available learning tool and makes them work as one in order to keep the student engaged and motivated.

Keywords: Education, e-Learning, Experience, Technology, Student, E-teaching, e-tools

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2299 The Effect of Computer-Based Formative Assessment on Learning Outcome

Authors: Van Thien NGO

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of student response systems in computer-based formative assessment on learning outcomes. The backward design course is a tool to be applied for collecting necessary assessment evidence. The quasi-experimental research design involves collecting pre and posttest data on students assigned to the control group and the experimental group. The sample group consists of 150 college students randomly selected from two of the eight classes of electrical and electronics students at Cao Thang Technical College in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Findings from this research revealed that the experimental group, in which student response systems were applied, got better results than the controlled group, who did not apply them. Results show that using student response systems for technology-based formative assessment is vital and meaningful not only for teachers but also for students in the teaching and learning process.

Keywords: learning outcome, student response system, computer-based formative assessment, backward design course

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2298 The Mechanisms of Peer-Effects in Education: A Frame-Factor Analysis of Instruction

Authors: Pontus Backstrom

Abstract:

In the educational literature on peer effects, attention has been brought to the fact that the mechanisms creating peer effects are still to a large extent hidden in obscurity. The hypothesis in this study is that the Frame Factor Theory can be used to explain these mechanisms. At heart of the theory is the concept of “time needed” for students to learn a certain curricula unit. The relations between class-aggregated time needed and the actual time available, steers and hinders the actions possible for the teacher. Further, the theory predicts that the timing and pacing of the teachers’ instruction is governed by a “criterion steering group” (CSG), namely the pupils in the 10th-25th percentile of the aptitude distribution in class. The class composition hereby set the possibilities and limitations for instruction, creating peer effects on individual outcomes. To test if the theory can be applied to the issue of peer effects, the study employs multilevel structural equation modelling (M-SEM) on Swedish TIMSS 2015-data (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study; students N=4090, teachers N=200). Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the SEM-framework in MPLUS, latent variables are specified according to the theory, such as “limitations of instruction” from TIMSS survey items. The results indicate a good model fit to data of the measurement model. Research is still in progress, but preliminary results from initial M-SEM-models verify a strong relation between the mean level of the CSG and the latent variable of limitations on instruction, a variable which in turn have a great impact on individual students’ test results. Further analysis is required, but so far the analysis indicates a confirmation of the predictions derived from the frame factor theory and reveals that one of the important mechanisms creating peer effects in student outcomes is the effect the class composition has upon the teachers’ instruction in class.

Keywords: structural equation modelling, compositional effects, frame factor theory, peer effects

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2297 The Practise of Hand Drawing as a Premier Form of Representation in Architectural Design Teaching: The Case of FAUP

Authors: Rafael Santos, Clara Pimenta Do Vale, Barbara Bogoni, Poul Henning Kirkegaard

Abstract:

In the last decades, the relevance of hand drawing has decreased in the scope of architectural education. However, some schools continue to recognize its decisive role, not only in the architectural design teaching, but in the whole of architectural training. With this paper it is intended to present the results of a research developed on the following problem: the practise of hand drawing as a premier form of representation in architectural design teaching. The research had as its object the educational model of the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Porto (FAUP) and was led by three main objectives: to identify the circumstance that promoted hand drawing as a form of representation in FAUP's model; to characterize the types of hand drawing and their role in that model; to determine the particularities of hand drawing as a premier form of representation in architectural design teaching. Methodologically, the research was conducted according to a qualitative embedded single-case study design. The object – i.e., the educational model – was approached in FAUP case considering its Context and three embedded unities of analysis: the educational Purposes, Principles and Practices. In order to guide the procedures of data collection and analysis, a Matrix for the Characterization (MCC) was developed. As a methodological tool, the MCC allowed to relate the three embedded unities of analysis with the three main sources of evidence where the object manifests itself: the professors, expressing how the model is Assumed; the architectural design classes, expressing how the model is Achieved; and the students, expressing how the model is Acquired. The main research methods used were the naturalistic and participatory observation, in-person-interview and documentary and bibliographic review. The results reveal that the educational model of FAUP – following the model of the former Porto School – was largely due to the methodological foundations created with the hand drawing teaching-learning processes. In the absence of a culture of explicit theoretical elaboration or systematic research, hand drawing was the support for the continuity of the school, an expression of a unified thought about what should be the reflection and practice of architecture. As a form of representation, hand drawing plays a transversal role in the entire educational model, since its purposes are not limited to the conception of architectural design – it is also a means for perception, analysis and synthesis. Regarding the architectural design teaching, there seems to be an understanding of three complementary dimensions of didactics: the instrumental, methodological and propositional dimension. At FAUP, hand drawing is recognized as the common denominator among these dimensions, according to the idea of "globality of drawing". It is expected that the knowledge base developed in this research may have three main contributions: to contribute to the maintenance and valorisation of FAUP’s model; through the precise description of the methodological procedures, to contribute by transferability to similar studies; through the critical and objective framework of the problem underlying the hand drawing in architectural design teaching, to contribute to the broader discussion concerning the contemporary challenges on architectural education.

Keywords: architectural education, architectural design teaching, forms of representation, hand drawing

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2296 The Challenge of Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria: The Role of Entrepreneurship Education

Authors: Sunday Ose Ugadu

Abstract:

Unemployment, especially graduate unemployment is, for now, the greatest problem facing Nigeria as a nation. It is responsible for most of the other ills of the country, including kidnapping, armed robbery, youth restiveness, thuggery, to mention but a few. More and more people in Nigeria are now losing confidence in the prospect of tertiary education as an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. This paper, therefore, critically examined the problem of graduate unemployment in Nigeria. It briefly traced the history of university education in Nigeria. The rate and causes of graduate unemployment in Nigeria were also discussed. Previous attempts made by the government to solve the problem of unemployment were highlighted. The paper also harped on the prospect of entrepreneurship education as an instrument for fighting graduate unemployment identifying obstacles to entrepreneurship education in Nigeria. The paper drew conclusion, and major recommendation made was a call for converting the National Youth Service Corps Scheme in Nigeria to entrepreneurship and skills acquisition scheme as soon as possible.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship Education, Unemployment, national development, graduate

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2295 Corporate Training Courses: Effective Online Teaching and Learning Methods

Authors: Marcela Georgina Gómez-Zermeño, Lorena Alemán De La Garza, Barbara Alejandra Hernández Guarneros

Abstract:

This study analyzes technological resources, educational and teaching distance courses offered in a corporate environment. It aims to identify the learning elements that influence the learning process and thus is achieved promote student learning, from the perspective of students, tutors and head of distance learning course "Human Relations" are that It takes place in the Mexican company “Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE)”. Therefore, a research of non-quantitative approach experimental and descriptive was conducted, through which surveys with students, as well as instructors and head professor of one distance learning course, were applied. This article shows that the student through the learning materials and teaching strategies implemented by course instructors, learning receives satisfactorily. Finally, research identify factors related to the defection of the participation and students results, suggesting greater preparation for tutors and head professor of distance learning course, to offer more educational quality in online courses.

Keywords: Distance Education, Educational Innovation, corporate training courses, learning platform system, online teaching quality

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2294 Encouraging Course Designers’ Future Engagement with Data Analysis Methods in the Evaluation of Course Resources in Virtual Learning Environments

Authors: David Cobham, Kevin Jacques, Stephen Smith

Abstract:

Virtual learning environments (VLEs) form part of modern pedagogy in education; they contain student usage data that has the potential to inform and improve this pedagogy. The question this paper explores is how might the development of data mining and log analysis systems for the Moodle virtual learning environment, encourage course designers’ future engagement with data analysis methods for the evaluation of course resources? The paper hypothesises that presenting a simple-to-use data mining and visualisation tool to course designers increases their future acceptance of data mining technology for informing course design with a longer-term intent and that this would improve the quality of the online learning experience ultimately improving student engagement. Exploring the hypothesis required the development of MooLog – a tool that extracts and presents summative information on VLE course utilisation. To ascertain if the acceptance of data mining for course evaluation could be improved, surveys were used before and after a demonstration of MooLog to a group of course designers. The pre-demonstration survey assessed the existing planning and evaluation processes. The post-demonstration survey collected evaluations of the relevance of the information provided by MooLog and the likelihood of the software being used to evaluate course effectiveness. The results of the study established that many designers currently do not use data analysis as a method of informing course improvement, and there was evidence to suggest the MooLog demonstration significantly increased acceptance of the potential of data mining. The findings within the thesis show that educational data-mining has the potential to improve the quality of VLE mediated education; it identifies opportunities to raise course designers’ acceptance of data mining to improve the validity and quality of course evaluation.

Keywords: Social Networks, Higher Education, Virtual Learning Environments, Course Design

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2293 Improving Student Engagement in Higher Education through Data Mining and Automated Social Networking Communications in Virtual Learning Environments

Authors: David Cobham, Kevin Jacques, Stephen Smith

Abstract:

Virtual learning environments (VLEs) form part of modern pedagogy in education; they contain student usage data that has the potential to inform and improve this pedagogy. The question this paper explores is how might the development of data mining and log analysis systems for the Moodle virtual learning environment improve students’ course engagement? The paper proposes that a student will complete missed tasks sooner if their utilisation of the VLE is automatically tracked, and electronic prompts are sent when VLE activities are missed. To exploring and test the hypothesis, a software tool, MooTwit, was developed to contact students when they fall behind in their VLE study. To establish if student timely engagement improved, the study used MootTwit with two groups of students over a period of 15 weeks, messaging one group only when they fell behind. Statistical analysis and comparisons were made between how quickly each group engaged with the missed items. Using MooTwit to track and contact students did influence the timeliness of their engagement with the VLE activities. Specifically, the results suggest by direct messaging a student to engage with missed material; they complete missed activities closer to the required completion date. The findings within the thesis show that educational data-mining has the potential to improve pedagogy in VLE linked education, offering opportunities to increase the effective engagement of students in a programme of study.

Keywords: Social Networks, Higher Education, Student Engagement, Virtual Learning Environments

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2292 Automatic Product Identification Based on Deep-Learning Theory in an Assembly Line

Authors: Fidel Lopez Saca, Carlos Aviles-Cruz, Miguel Magos-Rivera, Jose Antonio Lara-Chavez

Abstract:

Automated object recognition and identification systems are widely used throughout the world. Particularly in assembly lines, it is essential for quality control and automatic part selection. This article presents the design and implementation of an object recognition system in an assembly line. The proposed shapes-color recognition system is based on deep learning theory in a specially designed convolutional network architecture. The used methodology is as follows, image capture, then color filtering, location of object mass centers, horizontal and vertical object boundaries, and object clipping. Once the objects are cut out, they are sent to a convolutional neural network, which automatically identifies the type of figure. The identification system works in real-time. The implementation was done on a Raspberry pi 3 system and on a Jetson-Nano device. Proposal is used in an assembly course of bachelor’s degree in industrial engineering. Efficiency results are presented with both devices, as well as processing times.

Keywords:

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2291 Modeling Exponential Growth Activity Using Technology: A Research with Bachelor of Business Administration Students

Authors: V. Vargas-Alejo, L. E. Montero-Moguel

Abstract:

Understanding the concept of function has been important in mathematics education for many years. In this study, the models built by a group of five business administration and accounting undergraduate students when carrying out a population growth activity are analyzed. The theoretical framework is the Models and Modeling Perspective. The results show how the students included tables, graphics, and algebraic representations in their models. Using technology was useful to interpret, describe, and predict the situation. The first model, the students built to describe the situation, was linear. After that, they modified and refined their ways of thinking; finally, they created exponential growth. Modeling the activity was useful to deep on mathematical concepts such as covariation, rate of change, and exponential function also to differentiate between linear and exponential growth.

Keywords: Modeling, Representations, covariation reasoning, exponential function

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2290 Design and Application of a Model Eliciting Activity with Civil Engineering Students on Binomial Distribution to Solve a Decision Problem Based on Samples Data Involving Aspects of Randomness and Proportionality

Authors: Veronica Vargas-Alejo, Martha E. Aguiar-Barrera, Humberto Gutierrez-Pulido

Abstract:

Identifying and modeling random phenomena is a fundamental cognitive process to understand and transform reality. Recognizing situations governed by chance and giving them a scientific interpretation, without being carried away by beliefs or intuitions, is a basic training for citizens. Hence the importance of generating teaching-learning processes, supported using technology, paying attention to model creation rather than only executing mathematical calculations. In order to develop the student's knowledge about basic probability distributions and decision making; in this work a model eliciting activity (MEA) is reported. The intention was applying the Model and Modeling Perspective to design an activity related to civil engineering that would be understandable for students, while involving them in its solution. Furthermore, the activity should imply a decision-making challenge based on sample data, and the use of the computer should be considered. The activity was designed considering the six design principles for MEA proposed by Lesh and collaborators. These are model construction, reality, self-evaluation, model documentation, shareable and reusable, and prototype. The application and refinement of the activity was carried out during three school cycles in the Probability and Statistics class for Civil Engineering students at the University of Guadalajara. The analysis of the way in which the students sought to solve the activity was made using audio and video recordings, as well as with the individual and team reports of the students. The information obtained was categorized according to the activity phase (individual or team) and the category of analysis (sample, linearity, probability, distributions, mechanization, and decision-making). With the results obtained through the MEA, four obstacles have been identified to understand and apply the binomial distribution: the first one was the resistance of the student to move from the linear to the probabilistic model; the second one, the difficulty of visualizing (infering) the behavior of the population through the sample data; the third one, viewing the sample as an isolated event and not as part of a random process that must be viewed in the context of a probability distribution; and the fourth one, the difficulty of decision-making with the support of probabilistic calculations. These obstacles have also been identified in literature on the teaching of probability and statistics. Recognizing these concepts as obstacles to understanding probability distributions, and that these do not change after an intervention, allows for the modification of these interventions and the MEA. In such a way, the students may identify themselves the erroneous solutions when they carrying out the MEA. The MEA also showed to be democratic since several students who had little participation and low grades in the first units, improved their participation. Regarding the use of the computer, the RStudio software was useful in several tasks, for example in such as plotting the probability distributions and to exploring different sample sizes. In conclusion, with the models created to solve the MEA, the Civil Engineering students improved their probabilistic knowledge and understanding of fundamental concepts such as sample, population, and probability distribution.

Keywords: Probability, Randomness, sample, linear model, models and modeling

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2289 Gender, Age, and Race Differences in Self-Reported Reading Attitudes of College Students

Authors: Jill Villarreal, Kristalyn Cooksey, Kai Lloyd, Daniel Ha

Abstract:

Little research has been conducted to examine college students' reading attitudes, including students' perceptions of reading behaviors and reading abilities. This is problematic, as reading assigned course material is a critical component to an undergraduate student's academic success. For this study, flyers were electronically disseminated to instructors at 24 public and 10 private U.S. institutions in “Reading-Intensive Departments” including Psychology, Sociology, Education, Business, and Communications. We requested the online survey be completed as an in-class activity during the fall 2019 and spring 2020 semesters. All participants voluntarily completed the questionnaire anonymously. Of the participants, 280 self-identified their race as Black and 280 self-identified their race as White. Of the participants, 177 self-identified their gender as Male and 383 self-identified their Gender as Female. Participants ranged in age from 18-24. Factor analysis found four dimensions resulting from the questions regarding reading. The first we interpret as “Reading Proficiency”, accounted for 19% of the variability. The second dimension was “Reading Anxiety” (15%), the third was “Textbook Reading Ability” (9%), and the fourth was “Reading Enjoyment” (8%). Linear models on each of these dimensions revealed no effect of Age, Gender, Race, or Income on “Reading proficiency”. The linear model of “Reading Anxiety” showed a significant effect of race (p = 0.02), with higher anxiety in white students, as well as higher reading anxiety in female students (p < 0.001). The model of “Textbook Reading Ability” found a significant effect of race (p < 0.001), with higher textbook problems in white students. The model of “Reading Enjoyment” showed significant effects of race (p = 0.013) with more enjoyment for white students, gender (p = 0.001) with higher enjoyment for female students, and age (p = 0.033) with older students showing higher enjoyment. These findings suggest that gender, age, and race are important factors in many aspects of college students' reading attitudes. Further research will investigate possible causes for these differences. In addition, the effectiveness of college-level programs to reduce reading anxiety, promote the reading of textbooks, and foster a love of reading will be assessed.

Keywords: Gender, Race, Reading, age, college

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2288 Education for Sustainable Development and Primary Education in China: A Case Study

Authors: Ronghui (Kevin) Zhou

Abstract:

This research intends to explore the enactment of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), in term of the ESD concept, in primary schools in China, and investigate the factors that have positively or negatively impacted the outcome of ESD in urban primary schools in China. The proposed research question is: how is the ESD concept perceived and enacted by the local education stakeholders. This research is conducted in multiple primary schools in China and has questionnaired and interviewed multiple education stakeholders, including school principals, school teachers, and bureau from the municipal Ministry of Education. Factor analysis, regression analysis, and critical discourse analysis are adopted to interpret and analyze the data. The preliminary findings suggest that contested ESD definition, education system pressures, education policy enforcement, and power dynamics between stakeholders are the key factors that have determined to what degree is ESD enacted, and to what extent is ESD practiced in primary schools in China.

Keywords: Education for Sustainable Development, China, Case study, Primary education

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2287 Learning and Practising Assessment in Pre-Service Teacher Education Program: Bridging Gap between Theory and Practice

Authors: Ghulam Behlol Malik

Abstract:

Discoveries in the field of cognitive science have brought revolutionary changes in learning and assessment practices and replaced traditional testing and examination practices (paper and pencil) by student-centered, authentic, and active learning approaches. This paper presents an analysis of data addressing two research questions as part of a wider study: 1) How do prospective teachers learn about assessment in a pre-service teacher education program? 2) How do cooperative teachers and university teachers support prospective teachers on teaching practicum to learn about how to use assessment for bridging the gap between theory and practice? A sequential mixed method design was applied to collect data in three phases: content analysis of the course 'method of teaching', followed by a survey about the opinions of Prospective Teachers and observations of classes in both teacher education and teaching practicum contexts were completed along with indepth interviews of University teachers and Cooperative Teachers. It is concluded that Prospective Teachers face difficulties in applying student-centred assessment practices because of limited modelling both in the teacher education and school practicum settings, large class sizes, and limited opportunities to use technology in school settings in Pakistan. It is recommended that in Pakistan, a new assessment policy is needed which allows examinations to be expanded beyond covering knowledge recall to include competency assessment.

Keywords: Learning, Assessment, Theory and practice, practising, preservice teacher education program

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