Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2282

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Educational and Pedagogical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2282 A Systematic Review of Forest School for Early Childhood Education in China: Lessons Learned from European Studies from a Perspective of Ecological System

Authors: Xiaoying Zhang

Abstract:

Forest school – an outdoor educational experience that is undertaken in an outdoor environment with trees – becomes an emerging field of early childhood education recently. In China, the benefits of natural outdoor education to children and young people’s wellness have raised attention. Although different types of outdoor-based activities have been involved in some pre-school of China, few study and practice have been conducted in terms of the notion of forest school. To comprehend the impact of forest school for children and young people, this study aims to systematically review articles on the topic of forest school in preschool education from an ecological perspective, i.e. from individual level (e.g., behavior and mental health) to microsystem level (e.g., the relationship between teachers and children) to ecosystem level. Based on PRISMA framework flow, using the key words of “Forest School” and “Early Childhood Education” for searching in Web-of-science database, a total of 33 articles were identified. Sample participants of 13 studies were not preschool children, five studies were not on forest school theme, and two literature review articles were excluded for further analysis. Finally, 13 articles were eligible for thematic analysis. According to Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, there are some fingdings, on the individual level, current forest school studies are concerned about the children behavioral experience in forest school, how these experience may relate to their achievement or to develop children’s wellbeing/wellness, and how this type of learning experience may enhance children’s self-awareness on risk and safety issues. On the microsystem/mesosystem level, this review indicated that pedagogical development for forest school, risk perception from teachers and parents, social development between peers, and adult’s role in the participation of forest school were concerned, explored and discussed most frequently. On the macrosystem, the conceptualization of forest school is the key theme. Different forms of presentation in various countries with diverse cultures could provide various models of forest school education. However, there was no study investigating forest school on an ecosystem level. As for the potential benefits of physical health and mental wellness that results from forest school, it informs us to reflect the system of preschool education from the ecological perspective for Chinese children. For instance, most Chinese kindergartens ignored the significance of natural outdoor activities for children. Preschool education in China is strongly oriented by primary school system, which means pre-school children are expected to be trained as primary school students to do different subjects, such as math. Hardly any kindergarteners provide the opportunities for children and young people to take risks in a natural environment like forest school does. However, merely copying forest school model for a Chinese preschool education system will be less effective. This review of different level concerns could inform us that the localization the idea of forest school to adapt to a Chinese political, educational and cultural background. More detailed results and profound discussions will be presented in the full paper.

Keywords: Early Childhood Education, ecological system, education development prospects in China, forest school

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2281 Delivery of Learning Modules through the Telegram Social Media Application: Views of Post Graduate Diploma in Education Distance Students of University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

Authors: Francis Owusu-Mensah, Humphrey Augustine K. Pufaa, David K. Sakyi

Abstract:

The study was designed to investigate the views of Post Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) Distance Students (2017/2018 Year Group of UEW, Winneba) Winneba Study Centre on the delivery of learning modules and learning convenience in the use of the telegram application (app). The study adopted the sequential explanatory mixed methods design, which is characterized by the collection and analysis of quantitative data followed by collection and analysis of qualitative data. Questionnaire and interviews were instruments used to collect data for the study. The population for the study was all hundred (100) Post Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) Distance Students of the Winneba Study Centre. Simple random sampling technique was used to select two-thirds (75 students) of the population. Sixty (60) of the respondents successfully completed the online questionnaire. Ten (10) of the participants were traced to respond to the qualitative questions for the study. Data obtained from the online questionnaire were analyzed and presented in tables and charts. Data from the individual interviews were analyzed thematically. A major finding of the study was that the telegram app facilitated the timely delivery of learning modules. The study concluded that, the telegram app proved to be efficient in not only the delivery of learning modules for the students but also very convenient an app for distance learning. The study therefore recommends the adoption and integration of telegram app in the distance education programme in an attempt to resolve the late delivery of learning modules as well as learning convenience for the students.

Keywords: Social Media, Distance Education, Learning Convenience, learning Modules, telegram app

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2280 Inducing Flow Experience in Mobile Learning: An Experiment Using a Spanish Learning Mobile Application

Authors: S. Jonsson, D. Millard, C. Bokhove

Abstract:

Smartphones are ubiquitous and frequently used as learning tools, which makes the design of educational apps an important area of research. A key issue is designing apps to encourage engagement while maintaining a focus on the educational aspects of the app. Flow experience is a promising method for addressing this issue, which refers to a mental state of cognitive absorption and positive emotion. Flow experience has been shown to be associated with positive emotion and increased learning performance. Studies have shown that immediate feedback is an antecedent to Flow. This experiment investigates the effect of immediate feedback on Flow experience. An app teaching Spanish phrases was developed, and 30 participants completed both a 10min session with immediate feedback and a 10min session with delayed feedback. The app contained a task where the user assembles Spanish phrases by pressing bricks with Spanish words. Immediate feedback was implemented by incorrect bricks recoiling, while correct brick moved to form part of the finished phrase. In the delayed feedback condition, the user did not know if the bricks they pressed were correct until the phrase was complete. The level of Flow experienced by the participants was measured after each session using the Flow Short Scale. The results showed that higher levels of Flow were experienced in the immediate feedback session. It was also found that 14 of the participants indicated that the demands of the task were ‘just right’ in the immediate feedback session, while only one did in the delayed feedback session. These results have implications for how to design educational technology and opens up questions for how Flow experience can be used to increase performance and engagement.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, flow experience, feedback timing, L2 language learning

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2279 Digital Storytelling in the ELL Classroom: A Literature Review

Authors: Nicholas Jobe

Abstract:

English Language Learners (ELLs) often struggle in a classroom setting, too embarrassed at their skill level to write or speak in front of peers and too lacking in confidence to practice. Storytelling is an age-old method of teaching that allows learners to remember important details while listening or sharing a narrative. In the modern world, digital storytelling through the use of technological tools such as podcasts and videos allow students to safely interact with each other to build skills in a fun and engaging way that also works as a confidence booster. Specifically using a constructionist approach to learning, digital storytelling allows ELL students to grow and build new and prior knowledge by creating stories via these technological means. Research herein suggests, through the use of case studies and mixed methodologies, that digital storytelling mainly yields positive results for effective learning in an ELL classroom setting.

Keywords: Digital Storytelling, Narrative, podcast, ELL

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2278 The Challenge of Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria: The Role of Entrepreneurship Education

Authors: Sunday Ose Ugadu

Abstract:

Unemployment, especially graduate unemployment is, for now, the greatest problem facing Nigeria as a nation. It is responsible for most of the other ills of the country, including kidnapping, armed robbery, youth restiveness, thuggery, to mention but a few. More and more people in Nigeria are now losing confidence in the prospect of tertiary education as an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. This paper, therefore, critically examined the problem of graduate unemployment in Nigeria. It briefly traced the history of university education in Nigeria. The rate and causes of graduate unemployment in Nigeria were also discussed. Previous attempts made by the government to solve the problem of unemployment were highlighted. The paper also harped on the prospect of entrepreneurship education as an instrument for fighting graduate unemployment identifying obstacles to entrepreneurship education in Nigeria. The paper drew conclusion, and major recommendation made was a call for converting the National Youth Service Corps Scheme in Nigeria to entrepreneurship and skills acquisition scheme as soon as possible.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship Education, Unemployment, national development, graduate

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2277 Utilizing the Non-Verbal Reading Approach Protocol to Support Exceptional Learners Develop Writing Skills

Authors: Rachel Terlop

Abstract:

When discussing educational strategy and professional development for the classroom, often its the neuro-typical students that are at the forefront of leaders' minds. Students participating non-verbally, with autistic characteristics, with speech, language or physical differences in classroom settings are often provided less rigorous instruction, or even denied instruction in certain areas. When it comes to teaching writing, these exceptional learners are often frequently offered assistive or augmentative communication devices as an exclusive means of communication. When considering inclusive professional development for early childhood and elementary aged teachers, technology assisted instruction and the Non-verbal Reading Approach (NRA) has show to be the most successful method for lesson delivery. Can this method be adapted to support students in learning to write? In this paper, the protocol for the NRA is outlines, intervention research is reviewed, and a proposal is made to develop next steps in application of technology to reading and subsequent writing instruction.

Keywords: Reading, Writing, elementary, non-verbal

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2276 Design and Application of a Model Eliciting Activity with Civil Engineering Students on Binomial Distribution to Solve a Decision Problem Based on Samples Data Involving Aspects of Randomness and Proportionality

Authors: Veronica Vargas-Alejo, Martha E. Aguiar-Barrera, Humberto Gutierrez-Pulido

Abstract:

Identifying and modeling random phenomena is a fundamental cognitive process to understand and transform reality. Recognizing situations governed by chance and giving them a scientific interpretation, without being carried away by beliefs or intuitions, is a basic training for citizens. Hence the importance of generating teaching-learning processes, supported using technology, paying attention to model creation rather than only executing mathematical calculations. In order to develop the student's knowledge about basic probability distributions and decision making; in this work a model eliciting activity (MEA) is reported. The intention was applying the Model and Modeling Perspective to design an activity related to civil engineering that would be understandable for students, while involving them in its solution. Furthermore, the activity should imply a decision-making challenge based on sample data, and the use of the computer should be considered. The activity was designed considering the six design principles for MEA proposed by Lesh and collaborators. These are model construction, reality, self-evaluation, model documentation, shareable and reusable, and prototype. The application and refinement of the activity was carried out during three school cycles in the Probability and Statistics class for Civil Engineering students at the University of Guadalajara. The analysis of the way in which the students sought to solve the activity was made using audio and video recordings, as well as with the individual and team reports of the students. The information obtained was categorized according to the activity phase (individual or team) and the category of analysis (sample, linearity, probability, distributions, mechanization, and decision-making). With the results obtained through the MEA, four obstacles have been identified to understand and apply the binomial distribution: the first one was the resistance of the student to move from the linear to the probabilistic model; the second one, the difficulty of visualizing (infering) the behavior of the population through the sample data; the third one, viewing the sample as an isolated event and not as part of a random process that must be viewed in the context of a probability distribution; and the fourth one, the difficulty of decision-making with the support of probabilistic calculations. These obstacles have also been identified in literature on the teaching of probability and statistics. Recognizing these concepts as obstacles to understanding probability distributions, and that these do not change after an intervention, allows for the modification of these interventions and the MEA. In such a way, the students may identify themselves the erroneous solutions when they carrying out the MEA. The MEA also showed to be democratic since several students who had little participation and low grades in the first units, improved their participation. Regarding the use of the computer, the RStudio software was useful in several tasks, for example in such as plotting the probability distributions and to exploring different sample sizes. In conclusion, with the models created to solve the MEA, the Civil Engineering students improved their probabilistic knowledge and understanding of fundamental concepts such as sample, population, and probability distribution.

Keywords: Probability, Randomness, sample, linear model, models and modeling

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2275 Gender, Age, and Race Differences in Self-Reported Reading Attitudes of College Students

Authors: Jill Villarreal, Kristalyn Cooksey, Kai Lloyd, Daniel Ha

Abstract:

Little research has been conducted to examine college students' reading attitudes, including students' perceptions of reading behaviors and reading abilities. This is problematic, as reading assigned course material is a critical component to an undergraduate student's academic success. For this study, flyers were electronically disseminated to instructors at 24 public and 10 private U.S. institutions in “Reading-Intensive Departments” including Psychology, Sociology, Education, Business, and Communications. We requested the online survey be completed as an in-class activity during the fall 2019 and spring 2020 semesters. All participants voluntarily completed the questionnaire anonymously. Of the participants, 280 self-identified their race as Black and 280 self-identified their race as White. Of the participants, 177 self-identified their gender as Male and 383 self-identified their Gender as Female. Participants ranged in age from 18-24. Factor analysis found four dimensions resulting from the questions regarding reading. The first we interpret as “Reading Proficiency”, accounted for 19% of the variability. The second dimension was “Reading Anxiety” (15%), the third was “Textbook Reading Ability” (9%), and the fourth was “Reading Enjoyment” (8%). Linear models on each of these dimensions revealed no effect of Age, Gender, Race, or Income on “Reading proficiency”. The linear model of “Reading Anxiety” showed a significant effect of race (p = 0.02), with higher anxiety in white students, as well as higher reading anxiety in female students (p < 0.001). The model of “Textbook Reading Ability” found a significant effect of race (p < 0.001), with higher textbook problems in white students. The model of “Reading Enjoyment” showed significant effects of race (p = 0.013) with more enjoyment for white students, gender (p = 0.001) with higher enjoyment for female students, and age (p = 0.033) with older students showing higher enjoyment. These findings suggest that gender, age, and race are important factors in many aspects of college students' reading attitudes. Further research will investigate possible causes for these differences. In addition, the effectiveness of college-level programs to reduce reading anxiety, promote the reading of textbooks, and foster a love of reading will be assessed.

Keywords: Gender, Race, Reading, age, college

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2274 Learning and Practising Assessment in Pre-Service Teacher Education Program: Bridging Gap between Theory and Practice

Authors: Ghulam Behlol Malik

Abstract:

Discoveries in the field of cognitive science have brought revolutionary changes in learning and assessment practices and replaced traditional testing and examination practices (paper and pencil) by student-centered, authentic, and active learning approaches. This paper presents an analysis of data addressing two research questions as part of a wider study: 1) How do prospective teachers learn about assessment in a pre-service teacher education program? 2) How do cooperative teachers and university teachers support prospective teachers on teaching practicum to learn about how to use assessment for bridging the gap between theory and practice? A sequential mixed method design was applied to collect data in three phases: content analysis of the course 'method of teaching', followed by a survey about the opinions of Prospective Teachers and observations of classes in both teacher education and teaching practicum contexts were completed along with indepth interviews of University teachers and Cooperative Teachers. It is concluded that Prospective Teachers face difficulties in applying student-centred assessment practices because of limited modelling both in the teacher education and school practicum settings, large class sizes, and limited opportunities to use technology in school settings in Pakistan. It is recommended that in Pakistan, a new assessment policy is needed which allows examinations to be expanded beyond covering knowledge recall to include competency assessment.

Keywords: Learning, Assessment, Theory and practice, practising, preservice teacher education program

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2273 Arts and Cultural Heritage Digitalization in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects

Authors: Okechukwu Uzoma Nkwocha, Edward Uche Omeire

Abstract:

Information and communication technologies (ICT) undeniably, have expanded the sphere of arts and creativity. It proves to be an important tool for production, preservation, sharing and utilization of arts and cultural heritage. While art and heritage institutions around the globe are increasingly utilizing ICT for the promotion and sharing of their collections, the story seems different in most part of Africa. In this paper, we will examine the prospects and problems of utilizing ICT in promotion, preservation and sharing of arts and cultural heritage.

Keywords: Arts, Cultural Heritage, ICT, Digitalization

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2272 Foreign Language Faculty Mentorship in Vietnam: An Interpretive Qualitative Study

Authors: Hung Tran

Abstract:

This interpretive qualitative study employed three theoretical lenses: Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) Ecological System of Human Development, Vygotsky’s (1978) Sociocultural Theory of Development, and Knowles’s (1970) Adult Learning Theory as the theoretical framework in connection with the constructivist research paradigm to investigate into positive and negative aspects of the extant English as a Foreign Language (EFL) faculty mentoring programs at four higher education institutions (HEIs) in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) of Vietnam. Four apprentice faculty members (mentees), four experienced faculty members (mentors), and two associate deans (administrators) from these HEIs participated in two tape-recorded individual interviews in the Vietnamese language. Twenty interviews were transcribed verbatim and translated into English with verification. The initial analysis of data reveals that the mentoring program, which is mandated by Vietnam’s Ministry of Education and Training, has been implemented differently at these HEIs due to a lack of officially-documented mentoring guidance. Other general themes emerging from the data include essentials of the mentoring program, approaches of the mentoring practice, the mentee – mentor relationship, and lifelong learning beyond the mentoring program. Practically, this study offers stakeholders in the mentoring cycle description of benefits and best practices of tertiary EFL mentorship and a suggested mentoring program that is metaphorically depicted as “a lifebuoy” for its current and potential administrators and mentors to help their mentees survive in the first years of teaching. Theoretically, this study contributes to the world’s growing knowledge of post-secondary mentorship by enriching the modest literature on Asian tertiary EFL mentorship.

Keywords: Vietnam, mentors, mentees, administrator, faculty mentorship, the MRD

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2271 The Impact of Model Specification Decisions on the Teacher ValuE-added Effectiveness: Choosing the Correct Predictors

Authors: Ismail Aslantas

Abstract:

Value-Added Models (VAMs), the statistical methods for evaluating the effectiveness of teachers and schools based on student achievement growth, has attracted decision-makers’ and researchers’ attention over the last decades. As a result of this attention, many studies have conducted in recent years to discuss these statistical models from different aspects. This research focused on the importance of conceptual variables in VAM estimations; therefor, this research was undertaken to examine the extent to which value-added effectiveness estimates for teachers can be affected by using context predictions. Using longitudinal data over three years from the international school context, value-added teacher effectiveness was estimated by ordinary least-square value-added models, and the effectiveness of the teachers was examined. The longitudinal dataset in this study consisted of three major sources: students’ attainment scores up to three years and their characteristics, teacher background information, and school characteristics. A total of 1,027 teachers and their 35,355 students who were in eighth grade were examined for understanding the impact of model specifications on the value-added teacher effectiveness evaluation. Models were created using selection methods that adding a predictor on each step, then removing it and adding another one on a subsequent step and evaluating changes in model fit was checked by reviewing changes in R² values. Cohen’s effect size statistics were also employed in order to find out the degree of the relationship between teacher characteristics and their effectiveness. Overall, the results indicated that prior attainment score is the most powerful predictor of the current attainment score. 47.1 percent of the variation in grade 8 math score can be explained by the prior attainment score in grade 7. The research findings raise issues to be considered in VAM implementations for teacher evaluations and make suggestions to researchers and practitioners.

Keywords: value-added model, teacher effectiveness, model specification, teacher performance evaluation

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2270 Enabling Service Innovation in Higher Education Institutions by Means of Leveraging Knowledge Management Practices

Authors: Mulalo Mushaisano

Abstract:

It has been revealed in the existing literature that specific knowledge management practices can be implemented and utilized in organizations to enable sustaining service innovation. This kind of innovation is of crucial importance in service environments such as institutions of higher education because it allows the delivery of enhanced services which are designed to add value and deliver better services to clients. However, there is a widespread lack of the necessary implementation of essential knowledge practices in higher education institutions owing to a variety of internal challenges and barriers. The primary objective of the study was to identify the essential knowledge management practices required for the enablement of service innovation. The main outcome was the development of a framework of knowledge management practice which can be applied in institutions of higher education to achieve service innovation. The study will address the gap in where existing literature mostly explored the aforementioned processes in the context of commercial and corporate organizations and not in the higher education environment.

Keywords: Higher Education, Knowledge Management, Innovation, Service Innovation

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2269 Improving Digital Data Security Awareness among Teacher Candidates with Digital Storytelling Technique

Authors: Aynur Aker, Veysel ÇELİK, Ebru GÜÇ

Abstract:

Developments in information and communication technologies have increased both the speed of producing information and the speed of accessing new information. Accordingly, the daily lives of individuals have started to change. New concepts such as e-mail, e-government, e-school, e-signature have emerged. For this reason, prospective teachers who will be future teachers or school administrators are expected to have a high awareness of digital data security. The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of the digital storytelling technique on the data security awareness of pre-service teachers of computer and instructional technology education departments. For this purpose, participants were selected based on the principle of volunteering among third-grade students studying at the Computer and Instructional Technologies Department of the Faculty of Education at Siirt University. In the research, the pretest/posttest half experimental research model, one of the experimental research models, was used. In this framework, a 6-week lesson plan on digital data security awareness was prepared in accordance with the digital narration technique. Students in the experimental group formed groups of 3-6 people among themselves. The groups were asked to prepare short videos or animations for digital data security awareness. The completed videos were watched and evaluated together with prospective teachers during the evaluation process, which lasted approximately 2 hours. In the research, both quantitative and qualitative data collection tools were used by using the digital data security awareness scale and the semi-structured interview form consisting of open-ended questions developed by the researchers. According to the data obtained, it was seen that the digital storytelling technique was effective in creating data security awareness and creating permanent behavior changes for computer and instructional technology students.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, Digital Storytelling, teacher candidates, digital data security

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2268 The Preceptorship Experience and Clinical Competence of Final Year Nursing Students

Authors: Susan Ka Yee Chow

Abstract:

Effective clinical preceptorship is affecting students’ competence and fostering their growth in applying theoretical knowledge and skills in clinical settings. Any difference between the expected and actual learning experience will reduce nursing students’ interest in clinical practices and having a negative consequence with their clinical performance. This cross-sectional study is an attempt to compare the differences between preferred and actual preceptorship experience of final year nursing students, and to examine the relationship between the actual preceptorship experience and perceived clinical competence of the students in a tertiary institution. Participants of the study were final year bachelor nursing students of a self-financing tertiary institution in Hong Kong. The instruments used to measure the effectiveness of clinical preceptorship was developed by the participating institution. The scale consisted of five items in a 5-point likert scale. The questions including goals development, critical thinking, learning objectives, asking questions and providing feedback to students. The “Clinical Competence Questionnaire” by Liou & Cheng (2014) was used to examine students’ perceived clinical competences. The scale consisted of 47 items categorized into four domains, namely nursing professional behaviours; skill competence: general performance; skill competence: core nursing skills and skill competence: advanced nursing skills. There were 193 questionnaires returned with a response rate of 89%. The paired t-test was used to compare the differences between preferred and actual preceptorship experiences of students. The results showed significant differences (p<0.001) for the five questions. The mean for the preferred scores is higher than the actual scores resulting statistically significance. The maximum mean difference was accepted goal and the highest mean different was giving feedback. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to examine the relationship. The results showed moderate correlations between nursing professional behaviours with asking questions and providing feedback. Providing useful feedback to students is having moderate correlations with all domains of the Clinical Competence Questionnaire (r=0.269 – 0.345). It is concluded that nursing students do not have a positive perception of the clinical preceptorship. Their perceptions are significantly different from their expected preceptorship. If students were given more opportunities to ask questions in a pedagogical atmosphere, their perceived clinical competence and learning outcomes could be improved as a result.

Keywords: nursing students, clinical preceptor, clinical competence, clinical practicum

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2267 The Research Experiences of Supervisors and Postgraduate Research Students at One South African Higher Education Institution

Authors: Madoda Cekiso, Thenjiwe Meyiwa

Abstract:

Successful postgraduate supervision involves possessing research capabilities, being knowledgeable in specific disciplines, understanding interpersonal relations, exercising mentoring/guidance skills and having appropriate knowledge of own institutional regulatory systems for postgraduate studies. On the other hand, postgraduate students are expected to know what the postgraduate journey entails and the elements and requirements of a postgraduate study. This paper sought to explore and analyse the research experiences of supervisors and postgraduate research students at one South African higher education institution. The study was qualitative in nature and a case study design was followed. The sample was purposively selected and comprised 25 postgraduate students and 20 postgraduate supervisors from one Faculty of the said university. The study findings revealed that there was no clear contract or memorandum of understanding between the postgraduate students and their supervisors. As a result, both supervisors and postgraduate students were not aware of their responsibilities. Both supervisors and postgraduate students complained about the non-availability of postgraduate facilities and resources for postgraduate students. The results further revealed that the allocation of students to supervisors who are not experts in a particular field was a challenge for both postgraduate students and supervisors. The results also revealed that the supervisors were not happy about the commitment of the postgraduate students towards their studies. The supervisors also complained about the postgraduate students who cannot work independently. Based on the findings, the authors recommended that a memorandum of understanding between a postgraduate student and a supervisor might solve some of the challenges. We further recommended a match between the supervisor’s expertise and the student’s focus area.

Keywords: Student, Feedback, Mentoring, Supervisors, postgraduate, memorandum of understanding

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2266 Implication of Attention Deficit and Task Avoidance on the Mathematics Performance of Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Matthew Bamidele Ojuawo

Abstract:

To some parents, task avoidance implies the time when argument ensues between parents and their children in order to get certain things done correctly without being forced. However, some children avoid certain task because of the fears that it is too hard or cannot be done without parental help. Laziness plays a role in task avoidance when children do not want to do something because they do not feel like it is easy enough or if they just want their parent help them get it over with more quickly. Children with attention deficit disorder more often have difficulties with social skills, such as social interaction and forming and maintaining friendships. The focus of this study is how task avoidance and attention deficit have effect on the mathematics performance of pupils in the lower basic classroom. Mathematics performance of pupils with learning disabilities has been seriously low due to avoidance of task and attention deficit posed as carried out in the previous researches, but the research has not been carried out in the lower basic classroom in Oyo, Oyo state, Nigeria.

Keywords: Mathematics, Parents, task avoidance, children with attention deficit

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2265 Upgrading of Problem-Based Learning with Educational Multimedia to the Undergraduate Students

Authors: Ahmed Elzainy, Abir El Sadik, Sharifa Alduraibi, Alaa Alduraibi, Ahmed Alsolai

Abstract:

Introduction: Problem-based learning (PBL) is an active student-centered educational modality, influenced by the students' interest that required continuous motivation to improve their engagement. The new era of professional information technology facilitated the utilization of educational multimedia, such as videos, soundtracks, and photographs promoting students' learning. The aim of the present study was to introduce multimedia-enriched PBL scenarios for the first time in college of medicine, Qassim University, as an incentive for better students' engagement. In addition, students' performance and satisfaction were evaluated. Methodology: Two multimedia-enhanced PBL scenarios were implemented to the third years' students in the urinary system block. Radiological images, plain CT scan, and X-ray of the abdomen and renal nuclear scan correlated with their pathological gross photographs were added to the scenarios. One week before the first sessions, pre-recorded orientation videos for PBL tutors were submitted to clarify the multimedia incorporated in the scenarios. Other two traditional PBL scenarios devoid of multimedia demonstrating the pathological and radiological findings were designed. Results and Discussion: Comparison between the formative assessments' results by the end of the two PBL modalities was done. It revealed significant increase in students' engagement, critical thinking and practical reasoning skills during the multimedia-enhanced sessions. Students' perception survey showed great satisfaction with the new strategy. Conclusion: It could be concluded from the current work that multimedia created technology-based teaching strategy inspiring the student for self-directed thinking and promoting students' overall achievement.

Keywords: Multimedia, Problem-Based Learning, videos, pathology and radiology images

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2264 Digital Design and Practice of The Problem Based Learning in College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ahmed Elzainy, Abir El Sadik, Waleed Al Abdulmonem, Ahmad Alamro, Homaidan Al-Homaidan

Abstract:

Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational modality which stimulates critical and creative thinking. PBL has been practiced in the college of medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, since the 2002s with offline face to face activities. Therefore, crucial technological changes in paperless work were needed. The aim of the present study was to design and implement the digitalization of the PBL activities and to evaluate its impact on students' and tutors’ performance. This approach promoted the involvement of all stakeholders after their awareness of the techniques of using online tools. IT support, learning resources facilities, and required multimedia were prepared. Students’ and staff perception surveys reflected their satisfaction with these remarkable changes. The students were interested in the new digitalized materials and educational design, which facilitated the conduction of PBL sessions and provided sufficient time for discussion and peer sharing of knowledge. It enhanced the tutors for supervision and tracking students’ activities on the Learning Management System. It could be concluded that introducing of digitalization of the PBL activities promoted the students’ performance, engagement and enabled a better evaluation of PBL materials and getting prompt students as well as staff feedback. These positive findings encouraged the college to implement the digitalization approach in other educational activities, such as Team-Based Learning, as an additional opportunity for further development.

Keywords: Problem-Based Learning, multimedia in PBL, online PBL, PBL digitalization

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2263 Using E-learning in a Tertiary Institution during Community Outbreak of COVID-19 in Hong Kong

Authors: Susan Ka Yee Chow

Abstract:

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) reached Hong Kong in 2019 resulting in epidemic in late January 2020. Considering the epidemic development, tertiary institutions made announcements that all on-campus classes were suspended since 01/29/2020. In Tung Wah College, e-learning was adopted in all courses for all programmes. For the undergraduate nursing students, the contact hours and curriculum are bounded by the Nursing Council of Hong Kong to ensure core competence after graduation. Unlike the usual e-learning where students are allowed having flexibility of time and place in their learning, real time learning mode using Blackboard was used to mimic the actual classroom learning environment. Students were required to attend classes according to the timetable using online platform. For lectures, voice over PowerPoint file was the initial step for mass lecturing. Real time lecture was then adopted to improve interactions between teacher and students. Post-lecture quizzes were developed to monitor the effectiveness of lecture delivery. The seminars and tutorials were conducted using real time mode where students were separated into small groups with interactive discussions with teacher within the group. Live time demonstrations were conducted during laboratory sessions. All teaching sessions were audio/video recorded for students’ referral. The assessments including seminar presentation and debate were retained. The learning mode creates an atmosphere for students to display the visual, audio and written works in a non-threatening atmosphere. Other students could comment using text or direct voice as they desired. Real time online learning is the pedagogy to replace classroom contacts in the emergent and unforeseeable circumstances. The learning pace and interaction between students and students with teacher are maintained. The learning mode has the advantage of creating an effective and beneficial learning experience.

Keywords: e-Learning, Teaching and Learning, nursing curriculum, real time mode

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2262 A Bilingual Didactic Sequence about Biological Control to Develop the Scientific Literacy on High School Students

Authors: André Melo Franco Lorena De Barros, Elida Geralda Campos

Abstract:

The bilingual education has just started in Brazils public schools. This paper is a didactic sequence of biology bilingual lessons about biologic control in the Brazilian Savana. This sequence has been applied in the first year of a bilingual education program in the only public English and Portuguese bilingual high school in Brazil. The aim of this work is to develop and apply a didactic sequence capable of developing the scientific literacy through the bilingual education associated with Problem Based Learning. This didactic sequence was applied in a class of 30 students. It was divided in three lessons. In the first lesson the students were divided in groups and received a fiction Letter from a mayor explaining the problem and asking students for help. The organic soy plantation of the mayor’s is been attacked by caterpillars. The students read the text then raised hypothesis of how they could solve the problem. In the second lesson the students searched online to verify if theirs hypothesis were correct and to find answers for the question proposed. In the third lesson the groups got together and discussed about their results and wrote a final essay with the answers for the problem proposed. The tools used to acquire information about the didactic sequence were: researcher’s diary, survey, interview and essay developed by the students. Most of the initial hypothesis couldn’t answer the problem properly. By the second lesson most of the students could answer properly. During the third lesson all the groups figured out suitable answers. The forms of biological control, birds habits and transgenic were deeply studied by the students. This methodology was successful for developing the scientific literacy with most of the students and also concluded that the quality of learning is directly associated with the effort of each student during the process. [ARAÚJO, Denise Lino de. O que é (e como se faz) sequência didática. Entrepalavras, Fortaleza, v. 3, n. 3, p.322-334, jul. 2013.] [FRANCO, Aline Aparecida et al. Preferência alimentar de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) por cultivares de soja. Científica: Revista de Ciências Agrárias, Jaboticabal, v. 1, n. 42, p.32-38, 29 jan. 2014.] [RIBEIRO, Luis Roberto de Camargo. Aprendizagem baseada em problemas (PBL): Uma experiência no ensino superior. São Carlos: Editora da Universidade Federal de São Carlos Ribeiro, 2008. 151 p.] [TRIVELATO, Sílvia L. Frateschi; TONIDANDEL, Sandra M. Rudella. Ensino Por Investigação: Eixos Organizadores Para Sequências De Ensino De Biologia. Ensaio Pesquisa em Educação em Ciências, Belo Horizonte, v. 17, n. especial, p.97-114, nov. 2015.].

Keywords: Science Education, Environmental education, Bilingual education, problem based learning

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2261 What Constitutes Pre-School Mathematics and How It Look Like in the Classroom?

Authors: Chako G. Chako

Abstract:

This study reports on an ongoing research that explores pre-school mathematics. Participants in the study includes three pre-school teachers and their pre-school learners from one school in Gaborone. The school was purposefully selected based on its performance in Botswana’s 2019 national examinations. Specifically, the study is interested on teachers’ explanations of mathematics concepts embedded in pre-school mathematics tasks. The interest on explanations was informed by the view that suggests that, the mathematics learners get to learn, resides in teachers’ explanations. Recently, Botswana’s basic education has integrated pre-school education into the mainstream public primary school education. This move is part of the government’s drive to elevate Botswana to a knowledge-based-economy. It is believed that provision of pre-school education to all Batswana children will contribute immensely towards a knowledge-based-economy. Since pre-school is now a new phenomenon in our education, there is limited research at this level of education in Botswana. In particular, there is limited knowledge about what and how the teaching is conducted in Pre-Schools in Botswana. Hence, the study seeks to gain insight into what constitutes mathematics in tasks that learners are given, and how concepts are made accessible to Pre-school learners. The research question of interest for this study is stated as: What is the nature Pre-school teachers’ explanations of mathematics concepts embedded in tasks given to learners. Casting some light into what and how pre-school mathematics tasks are enacted is critical for policy and Pre-school teacher professional development. The sociocultural perspective framed the research. Adler and Rhonda’s (2014) notion of exemplification and explanatory communication are used to analyze tasks given to learners and teachers’ explanations respectively.

Keywords: Mathematics, classroom, Pre-school, Explanation, tasks

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2260 Integration of Technology in Business Education: Emerging Voices from Business Education Classrooms in Nigeria Secondary Schools

Authors: Clinton Chidiebere Anyanwu

Abstract:

Secondary education is a vital part of a virtuous circle of economic growth within the context of a globalised knowledge economy. The teaching of Business Education entails teaching learners the essentials, rudiments, assumptions, and methods of business. Hence, it was deemed necessary for the study to investigate technology integration in Business Education. Drawing from the theoretical frameworks of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), and unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), the study observes teachers’ level of technology use in Business Education classrooms. Using a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design, probability, and purposive sampling, the majority of participants were found to be not integrating technology to an acceptable level and a small percentage was. After an analysis of constructs from UTAUT, some of this could be attributed to the lack of facilitating conditions in the teaching and learning of Business Education. The implication of the study findings is that poor investment in technology integration in secondary schools in Nigeria affects pedagogical implementations and effective teaching and learning of Business Education subjects. The study concludes that if facilitating conditions and professional development are considered to address the shortfalls in terms of TPACK, technology integration will become a reality in secondary schools in Nigeria.

Keywords: Business Education, secondary education, Technology Integration, UTAUT, TPACK

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2259 The Effects of Vocational Training on Offender Rehabilitation in Nigerian Correctional Institutions

Authors: Hadi Mohammed

Abstract:

The introduction of vocational education and training (VET) in correctional institutions as part of prisoner rehabilitation program is to help offenders develop marketable job skills and reduce re-offending thereby increasing the likely hood of successful reintegration back to their community. Offenders who participate in vocational education and training are significantly less likely to return to prison after released and are more likely to find employment after released than offenders who do not received such training. Those who participated in vocational training were 28% more likely to be employed after released from prison than those who did not received such training. This paper examined the effects of vocational training on offender rehabilitation as well as the effects of vocational training on the relationship between reformation and reintegration in Nigerian correctional institution. To address this two research question were formulated to guide the research. A survey research was employed. The participants were 200 offenders in Nigerian correctional institutions. Questionnaire items were administered. Mean, standard deviation and Partial Correlation were used for the data analysis. The findings revealed that vocational training has helped in offender rehabilitation in Nigerian correctional institutions. Similarly there was a moderate significant positive partial correlation between reformation and reintegration, controlling for vocational training, r=0.461, n=221, p<0.005 with moderate level of reformation and being associated with moderate level of reintegration. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that Nigerian Correctional Institutions should strengthen their vocational training program for offenders to be properly rehabilitated.

Keywords: offender rehabilitation, vocational education and training, correctional institutions

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2258 Exploring the Potential of Chatbots in Higher Education: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Sylvie Studente, Stephen Ellis, Filia Garivaldis

Abstract:

We report upon a study introducing a chatbot to develop learning communities at a London University, with a large international student base. The focus of the chatbot was twofold; to ease the transition for students into their first year of university study and to increase study engagement. Four learning communities were created using the chatbot; level 3 foundation, level 4 undergraduate, level 6 undergraduate, and level 7 post-graduate. Students and programme leaders were provided with access to the chatbot via mobile app prior to their study induction and throughout the autumn term of 2019. At the end of the term, data was collected via questionnaires and focus groups with students and teaching staff to allow for the identification of benefits and challenges. Findings indicated a positive correlation between study engagement and engagement with peers. Students reported that the chatbot enabled them to obtain support and connect to their programme leader. Both staff and students also made a recommendation on how engagement could be further enhanced using the bot in terms of; clearly specified purpose, integration with existing university systems, leading by example and connectivity. Extending upon these recommendations, a second pilot study is planned for September 2020, for which the focus will be upon improving attendance rates, student satisfaction, and module pass rates.

Keywords: e-Learning, Student Engagement, learning communities, chatbot

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2257 Non-Cognitive Skills Associated with Learning in a Serious Gaming Environment: A Pretest-Posttest Experimental Design

Authors: Tanja Kreitenweis

Abstract:

Lifelong learning is increasingly seen as essential for coping with the rapidly changing work environment. To this end, serious games can provide convenient and straightforward access to complex knowledge for all age groups. However, learning achievements depend largely on a learner’s non-cognitive skill disposition (e.g., motivation, self-belief, playfulness, and openness). With the aim of combining the fields of serious games and non-cognitive skills, this research focuses in particular on the use of a business simulation, which conveys change management insights. Business simulations are a subset of serious games and are perceived as a non-traditional learning method. The presented objectives of this work are versatile: (1) developing a scale, which measures learners’ knowledge and skills level before and after a business simulation was played, (2) investigating the influence of non-cognitive skills on learning in this business simulation environment and (3) exploring the moderating role of team preference in this type of learning setting. First, expert interviews have been conducted to develop an appropriate measure for learners’ skills and knowledge assessment. A pretest-posttest experimental design with German management students was implemented to approach the remaining objectives. By using the newly developed, reliable measure, it was found that students’ skills and knowledge state were higher after the simulation had been played, compared to before. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed two positive predictors for this outcome: motivation and self-esteem. Unexpectedly, playfulness had a negative impact. Team preference strengthened the link between grit and playfulness, respectively, and learners’ skills and knowledge state after completing the business simulation. Overall, the data underlined the potential of business simulations to improve learners’ skills and knowledge state. In addition, motivational factors were found as predictors for benefitting most from the applied business simulation. Recommendations are provided for how pedagogues can use these findings.

Keywords: Change Management, Serious Games, business simulations, (experiential) learning, non-cognitive skills

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2256 An Ecological Systems Approach to Risk and Protective Factors of Sibling Conflict for Children in the United Kingdom

Authors: C. A. Bradley, D. Patsios, D. Berridge

Abstract:

This paper presents evidence to better understand the risk and protective factors related to sibling conflict and the patterns of association between sibling conflict and negative adjustment outcomes by incorporating additional familial and societal factors within statistical models of risk and adjustment. It was conducted through the secondary analysis of a large representative cross-sectional dataset of children in the UK. The original study includes proxy interviews for young children and self-report interviews for adolescents. The study applies an ecological systems framework for the analyses. Hierarchical regression models assess risk and protective factors and adjustment outcomes associated with sibling conflict. Interactions reveal differential effect between contextual risk factors and the social context of influence. The general pattern of findings suggested that, although factors affecting likelihood of experiencing sibling conflict were often determined by child age, some remained consistent across childhood. These factors were often conditional on each other, reinforcing the importance of an ecological framework. Across both age-groups, sibling conflict was associated with siblings closer in age; male sibling groups; most advantaged socio-economic group; and exposure to community violence, such as witnessing violent assault or robbery. The study develops the evidence base on the influence of ethnicity and socio-economic group on sibling conflict by exploring interactions between social context. It also identifies key new areas of influence – such as family structure, disability, and community violence in exacerbating or reducing risk of conflict. The study found negative associations between sibling conflict and young children’s mental well-being and adolescents' mental well-being and anti-social behaviour, but also more context specific associations – such as sibling conflict moderating the negative impact of adversity and high risk experiences for young children such as parental violence toward the child.

Keywords: Ecological Systems, Conflict, Family Systems, adjustment, sibling, risk and protective factors

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2255 Teachers' Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge and Technology Integration in Teaching and Learning in a Small Island Developing State: A Concept Paper

Authors: Aminath Waseela, Vinesh Chandra, Shaun Nykvist

Abstract:

The success of technology integration initiatives hinges on the knowledge and skills of teachers to effectively integrate technology in classroom teaching. Consequently, gaining an understanding of teachers' technology knowledge and its integration can provide useful insights on strategies that can be adopted to enhance teaching and learning, especially in developing country contexts where research is scant. This paper extends existing knowledge on teachers' use of technology by developing a conceptual framework that recognises how three key types of knowledge; content, pedagogy, technology, and their integration are at the crux of teachers' technology use while at the same time is amenable to empirical studies. Although the aforementioned knowledge is important for effective use of technology that can result in enhanced student engagement, literature on how this knowledge leads to effective technology use and enhanced student engagement is limited. Thus, this theoretical paper proposes a framework to explore teachers' knowledge through the lens of the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK); the integration of technology in classroom teaching through the Substitution Augmentation Modification and Redefinition (SAMR) model and how this affects students' learning through the Bloom's Digital Taxonomy (BDT) lens. Studies using this framework could inform the design of professional development to support teachers to develop skills for effective use of available technology that can enhance student learning engagement.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technology, ICT, Student Engagement, Technology Integration, in-service training, SIDS, TPACK, small island developing states, technology professional development training, technological pedagogical and content knowledge

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2254 Suicide Risk Assessment of UM Tagum College Students: Basis for Intervention Program

Authors: Ezri Coda, Kris Justine Miparanum, Relvin Jay Sale

Abstract:

The study dealt on suicide risk level of college students in UM Tagum College. The primary goal of the study was to assess the level of suicide risk among students at the UM Tagum College in terms of perceived burdensomeness, low belongingness/social alienation and acquired ability to enact lethal self-injury utilizing quantitative non- experimental study with 380 students in UM Tagum College as respondents of the study. Mean was the statistical tools used for the data treatment. Moreover, the study aims to determine the mean of the level of the suicide risk assessment in terms of program, type of student, age, year level, civil status and gender, and lastly, to design an intervention program for those identified students with high suicide risk. Results showed a low level of suicide risk in terms of perceived burdensomeness, low belongingness/social alienation and acquired ability to enact lethal self-injury.

Keywords: suicide risk, Philippines, perceived burdensomeness, low belongingness/social alienation, acquired ability to enact lethal self-injury, UM Tagum College

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2253 Barriers and Facilitators to Inclusive Programming for Children with Mental and/or Developmental Challenges: A Participatory Action Research of Perspectives from Families and Professionals

Authors: Minnie Y. Teng, Kathy Xie, Jarus Tal

Abstract:

Rationale: The traditional approach to community programs for children with mental and/or developmental challenges often involves segregation from typically-developing peers. However, studies show that inclusive education improves children’s quality of life, self-concept, and long term health outcomes. Investigating factors that influence inclusion can thus have important implications in the design and facilitation of community programs such that all children - across a spectrum of needs and abilities - may benefit. Objectives: This study explores barriers and facilitators to inclusive community programming for children aged 0 to 12 with developmental/mental challenges. Methods: Using a participatory-action research methodology, semi-structured focus groups and interviews will be used to explore perspectives of sighted students, instructors, and staff. Data will be transcribed and coded thematically. Practice Implications or Results: By having a deeper understanding of the barriers and facilitators to inclusive programming in the community, researchers can work with the broader community to facilitate inclusion in children’s community programs. Conclusions: Expanding inclusive practices may improve the health and wellbeing of the pediatric populations with disabilities, which consistently reports lower levels of participation. These findings may help to identify gaps in existing practices and ways to approach them.

Keywords: Inclusion, Disabilities, Children, aquatic programs, community programs

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