Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3171

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Economics and Management Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

3171 Consistent Testing for an Implication of Supermodular Dominance with an Application to Verifying the Effect of Geographic Knowledge Spillover

Authors: Chung Danbi, Linton Oliver, Whang Yoon-Jae

Abstract:

Supermodularity, or complementarity, is a popular concept in economics which can characterize many objective functions such as utility, social welfare, and production functions. Further, supermodular dominance captures a preference for greater interdependence among inputs of those functions, and it can be applied to examine which input set would produce higher expected utility, social welfare, or production. Therefore, we propose and justify a consistent testing for a useful implication of supermodular dominance. We also conduct Monte Carlo simulations to explore the finite sample performance of our test, with critical values obtained from the recentered bootstrap method, with and without the selective recentering, and the subsampling method. Under various parameter settings, we confirmed that our test has reasonably good size and power performance. Finally, we apply our test to compare the geographic and distant knowledge spillover in terms of their effects on social welfare using the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) patent data. We expect localized citing to supermodularly dominate distant citing if the geographic knowledge spillover engenders greater social welfare than distant knowledge spillover. Taking subgroups based on firm and patent characteristics, we found that there is industry-wise and patent subclass-wise difference in the pattern of supermodular dominance between localized and distant citing. We also compare the results from analyzing different time periods to see if the development of Internet and communication technology has changed the pattern of the dominance. In addition, to appropriately deal with the sparse nature of the data, we apply high-dimensional methods to efficiently select relevant data.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, bootstrap, stochastic dominance, subsampling, supermodularity, supermodular dominance

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3170 Share Pledging and Financial Constraints in China

Authors: Zijian Cheng, Frank Liu, Yupu Sun

Abstract:

The relationship between the intensity of share pledging activities and the level of financial constraint in publicly listed firms in China is examined in this paper. Empirical results show that the high financial constraint level may motivate insiders to use share pledging as an alternative funding source and an expropriation mechanism. Share collateralization can cause a subsequently more constrained financing condition. Evidence is found that share pledging made by the controlling shareholder is likely to mitigate financial constraints in the following year. Research findings are robust to alternative measures and an instrumental variable for dealing with endogeneity problems.

Keywords: dividend policy, share pledge, financial constraint, controlling shareholder

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3169 Analyzing the Significance of Online Purchase Behavior of Tourists for the Development of Online Travel Bookings

Authors: April C. Abalos, Marmie R. Poquiz, Paul Nigel S. Abalos

Abstract:

With the advent of the fourth industrial revolution, everything is becoming possible with just a single click through the internet. What is more exciting is that through the power of the technological advancements, options are readily available in one’s fingertips. These technological advancements have greatly affected the perspectives of people in almost all human endeavors, even in their purchasing behavior. Hence, this study is conceptualized. This aims to identify the significance of the online purchase behavior of tourists for the development of travel bookings and provide knowledge to sellers and understanding major factors towards the online purchase behavior of tourists. Social media applications in booking online were also identified, as well as the profile and the marketing strategies influencing the behavior of individuals in an online travel booking. This study also sought to determine which behavioral intention should be given more attention to know where to exert more effort in winning the hearts of consumers. This study used a descriptive-survey design using an online survey questionnaire to gather real-time responses from the tourists visiting and/or planning to visit the scenic spots in the province of Pangasinan, which are highly reliable to formulate conclusions as deemed necessary.

Keywords: Behavior, tourists, online purchase, travel bookings

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3168 An Alternative Credit Scoring System in China’s Consumer Lendingmarket: A System Based on Digital Footprint Data

Authors: Minjuan Sun

Abstract:

Ever since the late 1990s, China has experienced explosive growth in consumer lending, especially in short-term consumer loans, among which, the growth rate of non-bank lending has surpassed bank lending due to the development in financial technology. On the other hand, China does not have a universal credit scoring and registration system that can guide lenders during the processes of credit evaluation and risk control, for example, an individual’s bank credit records are not available for online lenders to see and vice versa. Given this context, the purpose of this paper is three-fold. First, we explore if and how alternative digital footprint data can be utilized to assess borrower’s creditworthiness. Then, we perform a comparative analysis of machine learning methods for the canonical problem of credit default prediction. Finally, we analyze, from an institutional point of view, the necessity of establishing a viable and nationally universal credit registration and scoring system utilizing online digital footprints, so that more people in China can have better access to the consumption loan market. Two different types of digital footprint data are utilized to match with bank’s loan default records. Each separately captures distinct dimensions of a person’s characteristics, such as his shopping patterns and certain aspects of his personality or inferred demographics revealed by social media features like profile image and nickname. We find both datasets can generate either acceptable or excellent prediction results, and different types of data tend to complement each other to get better performances. Typically, the traditional types of data banks normally use like income, occupation, and credit history, update over longer cycles, hence they can’t reflect more immediate changes, like the financial status changes caused by the business crisis; whereas digital footprints can update daily, weekly, or monthly, thus capable of providing a more comprehensive profile of the borrower’s credit capabilities and risks. From the empirical and quantitative examination, we believe digital footprints can become an alternative information source for creditworthiness assessment, because of their near-universal data coverage, and because they can by and large resolve the "thin-file" issue, due to the fact that digital footprints come in much larger volume and higher frequency.

Keywords: Machine Learning, FinTech, credit score, digital footprint

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3167 An Examination of Earnings Management by Publicly Listed Targets Ahead of Mergers and Acquisitions

Authors: T. Elrazaz

Abstract:

This paper examines accrual and real earnings management by publicly listed targets around mergers and acquisitions. Prior literature shows that earnings management around mergers and acquisitions can have a significant economic impact because of the associated wealth transfers among stakeholders. More importantly, acting on behalf of their shareholders or pursuing their self-interests, managers of both targets and acquirers may be equally motivated to manipulate earnings prior to an acquisition to generate higher gains for their shareholders or themselves. Building on the grounds of information asymmetry, agency conflicts, stewardship theory, and the revelation principle, this study addresses the question of whether takeover targets employ accrual and real earnings management in the periods prior to the announcement of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A). Additionally, this study examines whether acquirers are able to detect targets’ earnings management, and in response, adjust the acquisition premium paid in order not to face the risk of overpayment. This study uses an aggregate accruals approach in estimating accrual earnings management as proxied by estimated abnormal accruals. Additionally, real earnings management is proxied for by employing widely used models in accounting and finance literature. The results of this study indicate that takeover targets manipulate their earnings using accruals in the second year with an earnings release prior to the announcement of the M&A. Moreover, in partitioning the sample of targets according to the method of payment used in the deal, the results are restricted only to targets of stock-financed deals. These results are consistent with the argument that targets of cash-only or mixed-payment deals do not have the same strong motivations to manage their earnings as their stock-financed deals counterparts do additionally supporting the findings of prior studies that the method of payment in takeovers is value relevant. The findings of this study also indicate that takeover targets manipulate earnings upwards through cutting discretionary expenses the year prior to the acquisition while they do not do so by manipulating sales or production costs. Moreover, in partitioning the sample of targets according to the method of payment used in the deal, the results are restricted only to targets of stock-financed deals, providing further robustness to the results derived under the accrual-based models. Finally, this study finds evidence suggesting that acquirers are fully aware of the accrual-based techniques employed by takeover targets and can unveil such manipulation practices. These results are robust to alternative accrual and real earnings management proxies, as well as controlling for the method of payment in the deal.

Keywords: accrual earnings management, real earnings management, acquisition premium, takeover targets

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3166 Gender and Seniority Differences among Service Organizations' Employees: Motivation, Commitment, and Burnout

Authors: G. Yanay-Ventura, K. Michael

Abstract:

Objectives: It is well established that employees are the essence of the organization. Employees' personal characteristics and emotional state may decrease or increase organizational performance. Therefore, organizations should enhance employees' well-being. The present study examined gender and seniority differences in three factors of employees' well-being: motivation, commitment, and burnout. Methods: Participants in this quantitative cross-sectional study were 400 service organization employees aged 19-71 (Mean=29.94; SD=10.25). Regarding gender, 59.7% were women, and regarding seniority, 66.9% were less than two years in the organization. All participants completed questionnaires evaluating motivation, sense of organizational commitment (affective, continuance), and level of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment). Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS (version 25) through independent-sample t-tests. Results: Women were less motivated and felt less affective commitment toward the organization than men. They also felt more burnout than men in terms of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Additionally, employees in lower seniority levels felt less affective commitment toward the organization than employees in higher seniority levels. They also felt more burnout than employees in higher seniority levels in terms of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Conclusions: The findings suggest that women and employees in lower seniority levels experience more vulnerable emotions in service organizations. Therefore, strategies for enhancing their well-being are recommended.

Keywords: Motivation, Burnout, organizational commitment, gender and seniority differences

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3165 Analyzing the Mission Drift of Social Business: Case Study of Restaurant Providing Professional Training to At-Risk Youth

Authors: G. Yanay-Ventura, H. Desivilya Syna, K. Michael

Abstract:

Social businesses are based on the idea that an enterprise can be established for the sake of profit and, at the same time, with the aim of fulfilling social goals. Yet, the question of how these goals can be integrated in practice to derive parallel benefit in both realms still needs to be examined. Particularly notable in this context is the ‘governance challenge’ of social businesses, meaning the danger of the mission drifts from the social goal in the pursuit of good business. This study is based on an evaluation study of a social business that operates as a restaurant providing professional training to at-risk youth. The evaluation was based on the collection of a variety of data through interviews with stakeholders in the enterprise (directors and managers, business partners, social partners, and position holders in the restaurant and the social enterprise), a focus group consisting of the youth receiving the professional training, observations of the restaurant’s operation, and analysis of the social enterprise’s primary documents. The evaluation highlighted significant strengths of the social enterprise, including reaching relatively fast business sustainability, effective management of the restaurant, stable employment of the restaurant staff, and effective management of the social project. The social enterprise and business management have both enjoyed positive evaluations from a variety of stakeholders. Clearly, the restaurant was deemed by all a promising young business. However, the social project suffered from a 90% dropout rate among the youth entering its ranks, extreme monthly fluctuation in the number of youths participating, and a distinct minority of the youth who have succeeded in completing their training period. Possible explanations of the high dropout rate included the small number of cooks, which impeded the effectiveness of the training process and the provision of advanced cooking skills; lack of clarity regarding the essence and the elements of training; and lack of a meaningful peer group for the youth engaged in the program. Paradoxically, despite the stakeholders’ great appreciation for the social enterprise, the challenge of governability was also formidable, revealing a tangible risk of mission drift in the reduction of the social enterprise’s target population and a breach of the commitment made to the youth with regard to practical training. The risk of mission drifts emerged as a hidden and evasive issue for the stakeholders, who revealed a deep appreciation for the management and the outcomes of the social enterprise. The challenge of integration, therefore, requires an in-depth examination of how to maintain a successful business without hindering the achievement of the social goal. The study concludes that clear conceptualization of the training process and its aims, increased cooks’ participation in the social project, and novel conceptions with regard to the evaluation of success could serve to benefit the youth and impede mission drift.

Keywords: Management, Social Business, evaluation study, mission drift

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3164 Sexual Orientation, Household Labour Division and the Motherhood Wage Penalty

Authors: Julia Hoefer Martí

Abstract:

While research has consistently found a significant motherhood wage penalty for heterosexual women, where homosexual women are concerned, evidence has appeared to suggest no effect, or possibly even a wage bonus. This paper presents a model of the household with a public good that requires both a monetary expense and a labour investment, and where the household budget is shared between partners. Lower-wage partners will do relatively more of the household labour while higher-wage partners will specialise in market labour, and the arrival of a child exacerbates this split, resulting in the lower-wage partner taking on even more of the household labour in relative terms. Employers take this gender-sexuality dyad as a signal for employees’ commitment to the labour market after having a child, and use the information when setting wages after employees become parents. Given that women empirically earn lower wages than men, in a heterosexual couple the female partner will often do more of the household labour. However, as not every female partner has a lower wage, this results in an over-adjustment of wages that manifests as an unexplained motherhood wage penalty. On the other hand, in homosexual couples wage distributions are ex ante identical, and gender is no longer a useful signal to employers as to whether the partner is likely to specialise in household labour or market labour. This model is then tested using longitudinal data from the EU Standards of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) to investigate the hypothesis that women experience different wage effects of motherhood depending on their sexual orientation. While heterosexual women receive a significant motherhood wage penalty of 8-10%, homosexual mothers do not receive any significant wage bonus or penalty of motherhood, consistent with the hypothesis presented above.

Keywords: Gender, Labor Economics, Sexual Orientation, Discrimination, motherhood

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3163 Lessons Learned from Push-Plus Implementation in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Aisha Giwa, Mohammed-Faosy Adeniran, Olufunke Femi-Ojo

Abstract:

Four decades ago, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The EPI blueprint laid out the technical and managerial functions necessary to routinely vaccinate children with a limited number of vaccines, providing protection against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, measles, polio, and tuberculosis, and to prevent maternal and neonatal tetanus by vaccinating women of childbearing age with tetanus toxoid. Despite global efforts, the Routine Immunization (RI) coverage in two of the World Health Organization (WHO) regions; the African Region and the South-East Asia Region, still remains short of its targets. As a result, the WHO Regional Director for Africa declared 2012 as the year for intensifying RI in these regions and this also coincided with the declaration of polio as a programmatic emergency by the WHO Executive Board. In order to intensify routine immunization, the National Routine Immunization Strategic Plan (2013-2015) stated that its core priority is to ensure 100% adequacy and availability of vaccines for safe immunization. To achieve 100% availability, the “PUSH System” and then “Push-Plus” were adopted for vaccine distribution, which replaced the inefficient “PULL” method. The NPHCDA plays the key role in coordinating activities in area advocacy, capacity building, engagement of 3PL for the state as well as monitoring and evaluation of the vaccine delivery process. eHealth Africa (eHA) is a player as a 3PL service provider engaged by State Primary Health Care Boards (SPHCDB) to ensure vaccine availability through Vaccine Direct Delivery (VDD) project which is essential to successful routine immunization services. The VDD project ensures the availability and adequate supply of high-quality vaccines and immunization-related materials to last-mile facilities. eHA’s commitment to the VDD project saw the need for an assessment of the project vis-a-vis the overall project performance, evaluation of a process for necessary improvement suggestions as well as general impact across Kano State (Where eHA had transitioned to the state), Bauchi State (currently manage delivery to all LGAs except 3 LGAs currently being managed by the state), Sokoto State (eHA currently covers all LGAs) and Zamfara State (Currently, in-sourced and managed solely by the state).

Keywords: cold chain logistics, health supply chain system strengthening, logistics management information system, vaccine delivery traceability and accountability

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3162 Lexicon-Based Sentiment Analysis for Stock Movement Prediction

Authors: Zane Turner, Kevin Labille, Susan Gauch

Abstract:

Sentiment analysis is a broad and expanding field that aims to extract and classify opinions from textual data. Lexicon-based approaches are based on the use of a sentiment lexicon, i.e., a list of words each mapped to a sentiment score, to rate the sentiment of a text chunk. Our work focuses on predicting stock price change using a sentiment lexicon built from financial conference call logs. We introduce a method to generate a sentiment lexicon based upon an existing probabilistic approach. By using a domain-specific lexicon, we outperform traditional techniques and demonstrate that domainspecific sentiment lexicons provide higher accuracy than generic sentiment lexicons when predicting stock price change.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, Computational Finance, sentiment lexicon, stock movement prediction

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3161 An Empirical Study for the Data-Driven Digital Transformation of the Indian Telecommunication Service Providers

Authors: S. Jigna, K. Nanda Kumar, T. Anna

Abstract:

Being a major contributor to the Indian economy and a critical facilitator for the country’s digital India vision, the Indian telecommunications industry is also a major source of employment for the country. Since the last few years, the Indian telecommunication service providers (TSPs), however, are facing business challenges related to increasing competition, losses, debts, and decreasing revenue. The strategic use of digital technologies for a successful digital transformation has the potential to equip organizations to meet these business challenges. Despite an increased focus on digital transformation, the telecom service providers globally, including Indian TSPs, have seen limited success so far. The purpose of this research was thus to identify the factors that are critical for the digital transformation and to what extent they influence the successful digital transformation of the Indian TSPs. The literature review of more than 300 digital transformation-related articles, mostly from 2013-2019, demonstrated a lack of an empirical model consisting of factors for the successful digital transformation of the TSPs. This study theorizes a research framework grounded in multiple theories, and a research model consisting of 7 constructs that may be influencing business success during the digital transformation of the organization was proposed. The questionnaire survey of senior managers in the Indian telecommunications industry was seeking to validate the research model. Based on 294 survey responses, the validation of the Structural equation model using the statistical tool ADANCO 2.1.1 was found to be robust. Results indicate that Digital Capabilities, Digital Strategy, and Corporate Level Data Strategy in that order has a strong influence on the successful Business Performance, followed by IT Function Transformation, Digital Innovation, and Transformation Management respectively. Even though Digital Organization did not have a direct significance on Business Performance outcomes, it had a strong influence on IT Function Transformation, thus affecting the Business Performance outcomes indirectly. Amongst numerous practical and theoretical contributions of the study, the main contribution for the Indian TSPs is a validated reference for prioritizing the transformation initiatives in their strategic roadmap. Also, the main contribution to the theory is the possibility to use the research framework artifact of the present research for quantitative validation in different industries and geographies.

Keywords: Digital Innovation, digital strategy, corporate level data strategy, digital capabilities

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3160 Efficiency in Islamic Banks: Some Empirical Evidences in Indonesian Finance Market

Authors: Ahmed Sameer El Khatib

Abstract:

The aim of the present paper is to examine the revenue efficiency of the Indonesian Islamic banking sector. The study also seeks to investigate the potential internal (bank specific) and external (macroeconomic) determinants that influence the revenue efficiency of Indonesian domestic Islamic banks. We employ the whole gamut of domestic and foreign Islamic banks operating in the Indonesian Islamic banking sector during the period of 2009 to 2018. The level of revenue efficiency is computed by using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. Furthermore, we employ a panel regression analysis framework based on the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method to examine the potential determinants of revenue efficiency. The results indicate that the level of revenue efficiency of Indonesian domestic Islamic banks is lower compared to their foreign Islamic bank counterparts. We find that bank market power, liquidity, and management quality significantly influence the improvement in revenue efficiency of the Indonesian domestic Islamic banks during the period under study. By calculating these efficiency concepts, we can observe the efficiency levels of the domestic and foreign Islamic banks. In addition, by comparing both cost and profit efficiency, we can identify the influence of the revenue efficiency on the banks’ profitability.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Islamic Finance, Islamic banks, Revenue Efficiency

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3159 Emotion Mining and Attribute Selection for Actionable Recommendations to Improve Customer Satisfaction

Authors: Jaishree Ranganathan, Poonam Rajurkar, Angelina Tzacheva, Zbigniew Ras

Abstract:

In today’s world, business often depends on customer feedback and reviews. Sentiment analysis helps identify and extract information about the sentiment or emotion of the topic or document. Attribute selection is a challenging problem, especially with large datasets in actionable pattern mining algorithms. Action Rule Mining is one of the methods to discover actionable patterns from data. Action Rules are rules that help describe specific actions to be made in the form of conditions that help achieve the desired outcome. The rules help to change from any undesirable or negative state to a more desirable or positive state. In this paper, we present a Lexicon based weighted scheme approach to identify emotions from customer feedback data in the area of manufacturing business. Also, we use Rough sets and explore the attribute selection method for large scale datasets. Then we apply Actionable pattern mining to extract possible emotion change recommendations. This kind of recommendations help business analyst to improve their customer service, which leads to customer satisfaction and increase sales revenue.

Keywords:

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3158 Investigating Sustainable Construction and Demolition Waste Management Practices in South Africa

Authors: Ademilade J. Aboginije, Clinton O. Aigbavboa

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South Africa is among the emerging economy, which has a policy and suitable environment that dynamically stimulates waste management practices of diverting waste away from landfill through prevention, reuse, recycling, and recovery known as the 4R-approaches. The focus of this paper is to investigate the existing structures and processes that are environmentally responsible, then determine the resource-efficiency of the waste management practices in the South Africa construction industry. This paper indicates the results of an investigation carried out by using a systematic review of several related literatures to assess the sustainability of waste management scenarios with secondary material recovery to pinpoint all influential criteria and consequently, highlights a step by step approach to adequately analyze the process by using the indicators that can clearly and fully value the waste management practices in South Africa. Furthermore, a life cycle Analytical tool is used to support the development of a framework which can be applied in measuring the sustainability of existing waste management practices in South Africa. Finding shows that sustainable C&D waste management practices stance a great prospect far more noticeable in terms of job creation and opportunities, saving cost and conserving natural resources when incorporated, especially in the process of recycling and reusing of C&D waste materials in several construction projects in South Africa. However, there are problems such as; inadequacy of waste to energy plants, low compliances to policies and sustainable principles, lack of enough technical capacities confronting the effectiveness of the current waste management practices. Thus, with the increase in the pursuit of sustainable development in most developing countries, this paper determines how sustainability can be measured and used in top-level decision-making policy within construction and demolition waste management for a sustainable built environment.

Keywords: Sustainability, construction industry, Life-Cycle Analysis, green-star rating, zero-waste hierarchy

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3157 Application of Cloud Based Healthcare Information System through a Smart Card in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Wasmi Woishi

Abstract:

Smart card technology is a secure and safe technology that is expanding its capabilities day by day in terms of holding important information without alteration. It is readily available, and its ease of portability makes it more efficient in terms of its usage. The smart card is in use by many industries such as financial, insurance, governmental industries, personal identification, to name a few. Smart card technology is popular for its wide familiarity, adaptability, accessibility, benefits, and portability. This research aims to find out the perception toward the application of a cloud-based healthcare system through a smart card in KSA. The research has compiled the countries using a smart card or smart healthcare card and indicated the potential benefits of implementing smart healthcare cards. 120 participants from Riyadh city were surveyed by the means of a closed-ended questionnaire. Data were analyzed through SPSS. This research extends the research body in the healthcare system. Empirical evidence regarding smart healthcare cards is scarce and hence undertaken in this study. The study provides a useful insight into collecting, storing, analyzing, manipulating, and accessibility of medical information regarding smart healthcare cards. Research findings can help achieve KSA's Vision 2030 goals in terms of the digitalization of healthcare systems in improving its efficiency and effectiveness in storing and accessing healthcare data.

Keywords: smart card technology, healthcare using smart cards, smart healthcare cards, KSA healthcare information system, cloud-based healthcare cards

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3156 Evaluation of Information Technology Governance Frameworks for Better Governance in South Africa

Authors: Memory Ranga, Phillip Pretorious

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The South African Government has invested a lot of money in Information Technology Governance (ITG) within the Government departments. The ITG framework was spearheaded by the Department of Public Service and Administration (DPSA). This led to the development of a governing ITG DPSA framework and later the Government Wide Enterprise Architecture (GWEA) Framework for assisting the departments to implement ITG. In addition to this, the government departments have adopted the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT) for ITG processes. Despite all these available frameworks, departments fail to fully capitalise and improve the ITG processes mainly as these are too generic and difficult to apply for specific governance needs. There has been less research done to evaluate the progress on ITG initiatives within the government departments. This paper aims to evaluate the existing ITG frameworks within selected government departments in South Africa. A quantitative research approach was used in this study. Data was collected through an online questionnaire targeting ICT Managers and Directors from government departments. The study is undertaken within a case study and only the Eastern Cape Province was selected for the research. Document review mainly on ITG framework and best practices was also used. Data was analysed using the Google Analytic tools and SPSS. A one–sample Chi-Squared Test was used to verity the evaluation findings. Findings show that there is evidence that the current guiding National governance framework (DPSA) is out dated and does not accommodate the new changes in other governance frameworks. The Eastern Cape Government Departments have spent huge amount of money on ITG but not yet able to identify the benefits of the ITG initiatives. The guiding framework is rigid and does to address some of the departmental needs making it difficult to be flexible and apply the DPSA framework. Furthermore, despite the large budget on ITG, the departments still find themselves with many challenges and unable to improve some of the processes and services. All the engaged Eastern Cape departments have adopted the COBIT framework, but none has been conducting COBIT maturity Assessment which is a functionality of COBIT. There is evidence of too many the ITG frameworks and underutilisation of these frameworks. The study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the ITG frameworks that have been adopted by the South African Government Departments in the Eastern Cape Province. The evaluation guides and recommends the government departments to rethink and adopt ITG frameworks that could be customised to accommodate their needs. The adoption and application of ITG by government departments should assist in better governance and service delivery to the citizens.

Keywords: Governance, framework, COBIT, information technology governance, evaluate, DPSA framework

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3155 Investigating Salience Theory’s Implications for Real-Life Decision Making: An Experimental Test for Whether the Allais Paradox Exists under Subjective Uncertainty

Authors: Christoph Ostermair

Abstract:

We deal with the effect of correlation between prospects on human decision making under uncertainty as proposed by the comparatively new and promising model of “salience theory of choice under risk”. In this regard, we show that the theory entails the prediction that the inconsistency of choices, known as the Allais paradox, should not be an issue in the context of “real-life decision making”, which typically corresponds to situations of subjective uncertainty. The Allais paradox, probably the best-known anomaly regarding expected utility theory, would then essentially have no practical relevance. If, however, empiricism contradicts this prediction, salience theory might suffer a serious setback. Explanations of the model for variable human choice behavior are mostly the result of a particular mechanism that does not come to play under perfect correlation. Hence, if it turns out that correlation between prospects – as typically found in real-world applications – does not influence human decision making in the expected way, this might to a large extent cost the theory its explanatory power. The empirical literature regarding the Allais paradox under subjective uncertainty is so far rather moderate. Beyond that, the results are hard to maintain as an argument, as the presentation formats commonly employed, supposably have generated so-called event-splitting effects, thereby distorting subjects’ choice behavior. In our own incentivized experimental study, we control for such effects by means of two different choice settings. We find significant event-splitting effects in both settings, thereby supporting the suspicion that the so far existing empirical results related to Allais paradoxes under subjective uncertainty may not be able to answer the question at hand. Nevertheless, we find that the basic tendency behind the Allais paradox, which is a particular switch of the preference relation due to a modified common consequence, shared by two prospects, is still existent both under an event-splitting and a coalesced presentation format. Yet, the modal choice pattern is in line with the prediction of salience theory. As a consequence, the effect of correlation, as proposed by the model, might - if anything - only weaken the systematic choice pattern behind the Allais paradox.

Keywords: Allais paradox, common consequence effect, models of decision making under risk and uncertainty, salience theory

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3154 How Does the Interaction between Environmental and Intellectual Property Rights Affect Environmental Innovation? A Study of Seven OECD Countries

Authors: Aneeq Sarwar

Abstract:

This study assesses the interaction between environmental and intellectual property policy on the rate of invention of environmental inventions and specifically tests for whether there is a synergy between stricter IP regimes and stronger environmental policies. The empirical analysis uses firm and industry-level data from seven OECD countries from 2009 to 2015. We also introduce a new measure of environmental inventions using a Natural Language Processing Topic Modelling technique. We find that intellectual property policy strictness demonstrates greater effectiveness in encouraging inventiveness in environmental inventions when used in combination with stronger environmental policies. This study contributes to existing literature in two ways. First, it devises a method for better identification of environmental technologies, we demonstrate how our method is more comprehensive than existing methods as we are better able to identify not only environmental inventions, but also major components of said inventions. Second, we test how various policy regimes affect the development of environmental technologies, we are the first study to examine the interaction of the environmental and intellectual property policy on firm level innovation.

Keywords: Environmental policy, Environmental economics, Economics of Innovation, firm level

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3153 Virtue Ethics as a Corrective to Mismanagement of Resources in Nigeria’s Economy: Akwa Ibom State Experience

Authors: Veronica Onyemauwa

Abstract:

This research work examines the socio-ethical issues embedded in resource management and wealth creation in Nigeria, using Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The work is poised to proffer answers to the problematic questions raised, “why is the wealth of Akwa Ibom State not prudently managed, and wastages curbed in order to cater for the satisfaction of the indigent citizens, as Jesus Christ did in the feeding of five thousand people (John 6:12) ? Could ethical and responsible resource management not solve the paradox of poverty stricken people of Akwa Ibom in a rich economy? What ought to be done to better the lot of Akwa Ibomites? The research adopts phenomenological and sociological research methodology with primary and secondary sources of information to explore the socio-ethical issues embedded in resource management and wealth creation in Akwa Ibom State. Findings revealed that, reckless exploitation and mismanagement of the rich natural and human resources of Akwa Ibom State have spelt doom to the economic progress and survival of Akwa Ibomites in particular and Nigerians in general. Hence, hunger and poverty remain adversaries to majority of the people. Again, the culture of diversion of funds and squandermania institutionalized within the confine of Akwa Ibom State government, deter investment in economic enterprises, job and wealth creation that would have yielded economic dividends for Akwa Ibomites. These and many other unwholesome practices are responsible for the present deplorable condition of Akwa Ibom State in particular and Nigerian society in general. As a way out of this economic quagmire, it is imperative that, every unwholesome practice within the State be tackled more proactively and innovatively in the interest of the masses through responsible resource management and wealth creation. It is believed that, an effective leadership, a statesman with vision and commitment would transform the abundant resources to achieve meaningful development, create wealth and reduce poverty. Ethical leadership is required in all the tiers of government and public organizations to transform resources into more wealth. Thus, this paper advocates for ethics of virtue: a paradigm shift from exploitative leadership style to productive leadership style; change from atomistic human relation to corporative human relation; change from being subsistence to abundant in other to maximize the available resources in the State. To do otherwise is unethical and lack moral justification.

Keywords: resources, mismanagement, virtue ethics, corrective

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3152 Asset Pricing Model: A Quality Paradigm

Authors: Urmi Khatri

Abstract:

Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) draws a direct relationship between the risk and the expected rate of return. There was a criticism on the beta and the assumptions of CAPM, as they are not applicable in the real world. Fama French Three Factor Model and Fama French Five Factor Model have given different factors, which have an impact on the return of any asset like size, value, investment and profitability. This study proposes to see Capital Asset pricing Model through the lenses of the quality aspect. In the study, the six factors are studied. The Fama French Five Factor Model and addition of the quality dimension are studied. Here, Graham’s seven quality and quantity criteria are measured to determine the score of the sample firms. Thus, this study tries to check the model fit. The beta coefficient of the quality dimension and the R square value is seen to determine validity of the proposed model. The sample is drawn from the firms listed on Indian Stock Exchange (BSE). For the study, only nonfinancial firms are been selected. The time period of the study is from January 1999 to December 2019. Hence, the primary objective of the study is to check how robust the model becomes after giving the quality dimension to the capital asset pricing model in addition to the size, value, profitability and investment.

Keywords: Quality, asset pricing model, CAPM, Graham’s score, G-score, multifactor model

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3151 The Long – Term Effects of a Prevention Program on the Number of Critical Incidents and Sick Leave Days: A Decade Perspective

Authors: Valerie Isaak

Abstract:

Background: This study explores the effectiveness of refresher training sessions of an intervention program at reducing the employees’ risk of injury due to patient violence in a forensic psychiatric hospital. Methods: The original safety intervention program that consisted of a 3 days’ workshop was conducted in the maximum-security ward of a psychiatric hospital in Israel. Ever since the original intervention, annual refreshers were conducted, highlighting one of the safety elements covered in the original intervention. The study examines the effect of the intervention program along with the refreshers over a period of 10 years in four wards. Results: Analysis of the data demonstrates that beyond the initial reduction following the original intervention, refreshers seem to have an additional positive long-term effect, reducing both the number of violent incidents and the number of actual employee injuries in a forensic psychiatric hospital. Conclusions: We conclude that such an intervention program followed by refresher training would promote employees’ wellbeing. A healthy work environment is part of management’s commitment to improving employee wellbeing at the workplace.

Keywords: Wellbeing, violence at work, intervention program refreshers, public sector mental healthcare

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3150 The Effect of the Marketing Culture on Improving the E-service Quality: A Comparative Study of Foreign and Domestic Information Technology Companies in the Arab Republic of Egypt

Authors: E. Elgohary, R. Abdelazyz

Abstract:

The research aims to clarify the effect of the marketing culture on improving the e-service quality for foreign and domestic information technology companies in the Arab Republic of Egypt. So the researcher sought to include the dimensions of the marketing culture, which are (customer service, management style, sales mission, internal communications, technology, wages and rewards, innovation) as measures of marketing culture for its effect on improving the e-service quality in this research. The research population consists of employees and customers of the companies under study. The research problem was the following question: What is the effect of the actual application of marketing culture on improving the e-service quality? To answer that, three main hypotheses were adopted, and they were tested by statistical means for the data collected through a questionnaire prepared and distributed for this purpose. Accordingly, the research presented a set of results, the most important of which are: the need to pay attention to the dimensions of the marketing culture to improve the e-service quality, foreign companies were the most popular companies in applying the marketing culture compared to local companies. The research also recommends designing a system to continuously measure the performance of electronic service providers and work on spreading the culture of innovation among employees, linking reward programs to the extent of commitment to applying the elements of marketing culture while doing business.

Keywords: Marketing Culture, e-service quality, measurement models, quality measurements

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3149 Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) Performance Indicators Help Predict Outcomes of Matched Savings Program

Authors: Carlos M. Parra, Matthew Sutherland, Ranjita Poudel

Abstract:

Reduced mental-bandwidth related to low socioeconomic status (low-SES) might lead to impulsivity and risk-taking behavior, which poses as a major hurdle towards asset building (savings) behavior. Understanding the relationship between risk-related personality metrics as well as laboratory risk behavior and real-life savings behavior can help facilitate the development of effective asset building programs, which are vital for mitigating financial vulnerability and income inequality. As such, this study explored the relationship between personality metrics, laboratory behavior in a risky decision-making task and real-life asset building (savings) behaviors among individuals with low-SES from Miami, Florida (FL). Study participants (12 male, 15 female) included racially and ethnically diverse adults (mean age 41.22 ± 12.65 years), with incomplete higher education (18% had High School Diploma, 30% Associates, and 52% Some College), and low annual income (mean $13,872 ± $8020.43). Participants completed eight self-report surveys and played a widely used risky decision-making paradigm called the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Specifically, participants played three runs of BART (20 trials in each run; total 60 trials). In addition, asset building behavior data was collected for 24 participants who opened and used savings accounts and completed a 6-month savings program that involved monthly matches, and a final reward for completing the savings program without any interim withdrawals. Each participant’s total savings at the end of this program was the main asset building indicator considered. In addition, a new effective use of average pump bet (EUAPB) indicator was developed to characterize each participant’s ability to place winning bets. This indicator takes the ratio of each participant’s total BART earnings to average pump bet (APB) in all 60 trials. Our findings indicated that EUAPB explained more than a third of the variation in total savings among participants. Moreover, participants who managed to obtain BART earnings of at least 30 cents out of their APB, also tended to exhibit better asset building (savings) behavior. In particular, using this criterion to separate participants into high and low EUAPB groups, the nine participants with high EUAPB (mean BART earnings of 35.64 cents per APB) ended up with higher mean total savings ($255.11), while the 15 participants with low EUAPB (mean BART earnings of 22.50 cents per APB) obtained lower mean total savings ($40.01). All mean differences are statistically significant (2-tailed p  .0001) indicating that the relation between higher EUAPB and higher total savings is robust. Overall, these findings can help refine asset building interventions implemented by policy makers and practitioners interested in reducing financial vulnerability among low-SES population. Specifically, by helping identify individuals who are likely to readily take advantage of savings opportunities (such as matched savings programs) and avoiding the stipulation of unnecessary and expensive financial coaching programs to these individuals. This study was funded by J.P. Morgan Chase (JPMC) and carried out by scientists from Florida International University (FIU) in partnership with Catalyst Miami.

Keywords: balloon analogue risk task (BART), matched savings programs, asset building capability, low-SES participants

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3148 Analyzing Regional Structural Changes and Wage Outcomes in Malaysia

Authors: Siti Aiysyah Tumin

Abstract:

Policymakers are increasingly aware of the different realities faced by workers and households in different regions in Malaysia, as evident by the multiple mentions of “regional disparity” in the country’s most recent policy document, Shared Prosperity Vision 2030. This paper looks at the nature of structural economic changes—the transition from agriculture, to manufacturing, to different types of services—in different states in Malaysia and links it to an important labor market outcome for workers, which is their salaries and wages, in the last decade. This paper will use panel data methods to identify conditional association between the sectoral structure of a state’s economy and workers' remuneration between 2010 and 2018. Findings from this paper will highlight how structural changes at the regional level matter if policymakers were to improve workers’ wages and address regional income disparity.

Keywords: Employment, Labor Market, Structural Change, wage

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3147 The Lexicographic Serial Rule

Authors: Thi Thao Nguyen, Andrew McLennan, Shino Takayama

Abstract:

We study the probabilistic allocation of finitely many indivisible objects to finitely many agents. Well known allocation rules for this problem include random priority, the market mechanism proposed by Hylland and Zeckhauser [1979], and the probabilistic serial rule of Bogomolnaia and Moulin [2001]. We propose a new allocation rule, which we call the lexico-graphic (serial) rule, that is tailored for situations in which each agent's primary concern is to maximize the probability of receiving her favourite object. Three axioms, lex efficiency, lex envy freeness and fairness, are proposed and fully characterize the lexicographic serial rule. We also discuss how our axioms and the lexicographic rule are related to other allocation rules, particularly the probabilistic serial rule.

Keywords: Efficiency, Envy free, Lexicographic, Probabilistic Serial Rule

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3146 Asymmetries in Monetary Policy Response: The Role of Uncertainty in the Case of Nigeria

Authors: Elias Udeaja, Elijah Udoh

Abstract:

Exploring an extended SVAR model (SVAR-X), we use the case of Nigeria to hypothesize for the role of uncertainty as the underlying source of asymmetries in the response of monetary policy to output and inflation. Deciphered the empirical finding is the potential of monetary policy exhibiting greater sensitive to shocks due to output growth than they do to shocks due to inflation in recession periods, while the reverse appears to be the case for a contractionary monetary policy. We also find the asymmetric preference in the response of monetary policy to changes in output and inflation as relatively more pronounced when we control for uncertainty as the underlying source of asymmetries.

Keywords: Uncertainty, developing economies, Asymmetry Response, Monetary Policy Shocks

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3145 Conceptualising Project Complexity in Ghana’s Construction Industry: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Kwasi Dartey-Baah, Mias De Klerk

Abstract:

Project complexity has been cited as one of the essential areas of project management. It can be observed from environmental, social, technological, and organisational viewpoints, and its handling is critical to project success. Conceptualised in varied industries, this paper seeks to ascertain the meaning and understanding of project complexity within the Ghanaian construction industry based on the three dimensions of complexities (faith, fact, and interaction) using experts' opinions. Taking the form of a focus group discussion, the paper sought to gain an in-depth understanding of project complexity issues in Ghana’s construction industry. The method use obtained data from experts (a purposely selected group) comprising project leaders and project management academics. The findings indicated that the experts broadly agreed with the complexity items but offered varied reasons for their agreement. In the composite assessment of the complexity dimensions of (faith, fact, and interaction), it emerged that there was some agreement with the complexity dimensions of fact and interaction within Ghana’s construction industry. On the other hand, with the dimension for complexity by faith, it was noted that the experts in Ghana’s construction construed complexity by faith, not as the absence of evidence but the evidence that hinges on at least a member of the project team. It is expected that other researches on project complexity will focus on other industries to enhance the knowledge of the same within the field of project management.

Keywords: construction industry, Ghana, project complexity, complexity by faith, complexity by fact, complexity by interaction

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3144 Water and Sanitation Challenges: A Case of King Sabatha Dalindyebo Municipality

Authors: Masibulele Fiko, Sanjay Balkara, Beauty Makiwane, Samson Asoba

Abstract:

Several municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa suffer from severe infrastructure dilapidation and a backlog in repairs and replacement. This scourge is most critical in black dominated areas, such as the rural communities and townships. Several critical service delivery activities have been impaired consequent to the deteriorating facilities and a lot of human endeavors impacted adversely. As such, this study investigated the water and sanitation challenges in King Sabatha Dalindyebo municipality, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Questionnaires were distributed to the communities and interviews were conducted with the communities’ leaders. The Participants mentioned that their main sources of water supply were a dam, streams, springs and wells; and the distances to the water sources were thought to be too long and women were often attacked and sometimes raped. South African local authorities are facing problems of insufficient funds to meet their daily operations. The municipality should provide street taps. The alternative way for government to supply financial aid to local authorities is to introduce the private sector in the service rendering process.

Keywords: Communities, Sanitation, Municipality, managers

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3143 Stochastic Optimization of a Vendor-Managed Inventory Problem in a Two-Echelon Supply Chain

Authors: Bita Payami-Shabestari, Dariush Eslami

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to develop a multi-product economic production quantity model under vendor management inventory policy and restrictions, including limited warehouse space, budget, and number of orders, average shortage time, and maximum permissible shortage. Since the 'costs' cannot be predicted with certainty, it is assumed that data behave under uncertain environment. The problem is first formulated into the framework of a bi-objective of multi-product economic production quantity model. Then, the problem is solved with three multi-objective decision-making (MODM) methods. The following this, three methods had been compared on information on the optimal value of the two objective functions and the central processing unit (CPU) time with the statistical analysis method and the multi-attribute decision-making (MADM). The results are compared with statistical analysis method and the multi-attribute decision-making (MADM). The results of the study demonstrate that augmented-constraint in terms of optimal value of the two objective functions and the CPU time perform better than global criteria and goal programming. Sensitivity analysis is done to illustrate the effect of parameter variations on the optimal solution. The contribution of this research is the use of random costs data in developing a multi-product economic production quantity model under vendor management inventory policy with several constraints.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, economic production quantity, random cost, vendor-managed inventory

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3142 Hybrid Equity Warrants Pricing Formulation under Stochastic Dynamics

Authors: Sharmila Karim, Teh Raihana Nazirah Roslan, Siti Zulaiha Ibrahim

Abstract:

A warrant is a financial contract that confers the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a security at a certain price before the expiration. The standard procedure to value equity warrants using call option pricing models, such as the Black–Scholes model, had been proven to contain many flaws, such as the assumption of constant interest rate and constant volatility. In fact, existing alternative models focused more on demonstrating techniques for pricing, rather than testing warrant pricing models empirically. Therefore, a mathematical model for pricing and analyzing equity warrants which accommodate stochastic interest rate and stochastic volatility is essential to incorporate the dynamic relationships between the identified variables and reflect the real market. Here, the aim is to develop dynamic pricing formulations for hybrid equity warrants by incorporating stochastic interest rates from the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross (CIR) model, along with stochastic volatility from the Heston model. The development of the model involves the derivations of stochastic differential equations that govern the model dynamics. The resulting equations which involve Cauchy problem and heat equations are then solved using partial differential equation approaches. The analytical pricing formulas obtained in this study comply with the form of analytical expressions embedded in the Black-Scholes model and other existing pricing models for equity warrants. This facilitates the practicality of this proposed formula for comparison purposes and further empirical study.

Keywords: stochastic, Hybrid Models, Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model, equity warrants, Heston model

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