Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Early Detection Related Abstracts

5 Nurse’s Role in Early Detection of Breast Cancer through Mammography and Genetic Screening and Its Impact on Patient's Outcome

Authors: Salwa Hagag Abdelaziz, Dorria Salem, Hoda Zaki, Suzan Atteya

Abstract:

Early detection of breast cancer saves many thousands of lives each year via application of mammography and genetic screening and many more lives could be saved if nurses are involved in breast care screening practices. So, the aim of the study was to identify nurse's role in early detection of breast cancer through mammography and genetic screening and its impact on patient's outcome. In order to achieve this aim, 400 women above 40 years, asymptomatic were recruited for mammography and genetic screening. In addition, 50 nurses and 6 technologists were involved in the study. A descriptive analytical design was used. Five tools were utilized: sociodemographic, mammographic examination and risk factors, women's before, during and after mammography, items relaying to technologists, and items related to nurses were also obtained. The study finding revealed that 3% of women detected for malignancy and 7.25% for fibroadenoma. Statistically, significant differences were found between mammography results and age, family history, genetic screening, exposure to smoke, and using contraceptive pills. Nurses have insufficient knowledge about screening tests. Based on these findings the present study recommended involvement of nurses in breast care which is very important to in force population about screening practices.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Early Detection, Mammography, genetic screening

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4 Identification of a Panel of Epigenetic Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Blood of Individuals with Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Katarzyna Lubecka, Kirsty Flower, Megan Beetch, Lucinda Kurzava, Hannah Buvala, Samer Gawrieh, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Tracy Gonzalez, George McCabe, Naga Chalasani, James M. Flanagan, Barbara Stefanska

Abstract:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most prevalent type of primary liver cancer, is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Late onset of clinical symptoms in HCC results in late diagnosis and poor disease outcome. Approximately 85% of individuals with HCC have underlying liver cirrhosis. However, not all cirrhotic patients develop cancer. Reliable early detection biomarkers that can distinguish cirrhotic patients who will develop cancer from those who will not are urgently needed and could increase the cure rate from 5% to 80%. We used Illumina-450K microarray to test whether blood DNA, an easily accessible source of DNA, bear site-specific changes in DNA methylation in response to HCC before diagnosis with conventional tools (pre-diagnostic). Top 11 differentially methylated sites were selected for validation by pyrosequencing. The diagnostic potential of the 11 pyrosequenced probes was tested in blood samples from a prospective cohort of cirrhotic patients. We identified 971 differentially methylated CpG sites in pre-diagnostic HCC cases as compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05, paired Wilcoxon test, ICC ≥ 0.5). Nearly 76% of differentially methylated CpG sites showed lower levels of methylation in cases vs. controls (P = 2.973E-11, Wilcoxon test). Classification of the CpG sites according to their location relative to CpG islands and transcription start site revealed that those hypomethylated loci are located in regulatory regions important for gene transcription such as CpG island shores, promoters, and 5’UTR at higher frequency than hypermethylated sites. Among 735 CpG sites hypomethylated in cases vs. controls, 482 sites were assigned to gene coding regions whereas 236 hypermethylated sites corresponded to 160 genes. Bioinformatics analysis using GO, KEGG and DAVID knowledgebase indicate that differentially methylated CpG sites are located in genes associated with functions that are essential for gene transcription, cell adhesion, cell migration, and regulation of signal transduction pathways. Taking into account the magnitude of the difference, statistical significance, location, and consistency across the majority of matched pairs case-control, we selected 11 CpG loci corresponding to 10 genes for further validation by pyrosequencing. We established that methylation of CpG sites within 5 out of those 10 genes distinguish cirrhotic patients who subsequently developed HCC from those who stayed cancer free (cirrhotic controls), demonstrating potential as biomarkers of early detection in populations at risk. The best predictive value was detected for CpGs located within BARD1 (AUC=0.70, asymptotic significance ˂0.01). Using an additive logistic regression model, we further showed that 9 CpG loci within those 5 genes, that were covered in pyrosequenced probes, constitute a panel with high diagnostic accuracy (AUC=0.887; 95% CI:0.80-0.98). The panel was able to distinguish pre-diagnostic cases from cirrhotic controls free of cancer with 88% sensitivity at 70% specificity. Using blood as a minimally invasive material and pyrosequencing as a straightforward quantitative method, the established biomarker panel has high potential to be developed into a routine clinical test after validation in larger cohorts. This study was supported by Showalter Trust, American Cancer Society (IRG#14-190-56), and Purdue Center for Cancer Research (P30 CA023168) granted to BS.

Keywords: Biomarker, Early Detection, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, DNA Methylation

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3 Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease Based on Blood Biomarkers and Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Man-Yun Liu, Emily Chia-Yu Su

Abstract:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the public health crisis of the 21st century. AD is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia, a costly disease on the healthcare system. Unfortunately, the cause of AD is poorly understood, furthermore; the treatments of AD so far can only alleviate symptoms rather cure or stop the progress of the disease. Currently, there are several ways to diagnose AD; medical imaging can be used to distinguish between AD, other dementias, and early onset AD, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Compared with other diagnostic tools, blood (plasma) test has advantages as an approach to population-based disease screening because it is simpler, less invasive also cost effective. In our study, we used blood biomarkers dataset of The Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) which was funded by National Institutes of Health (NIH) to do data analysis and develop a prediction model. We used independent analysis of datasets to identify plasma protein biomarkers predicting early onset AD. Firstly, to compare the basic demographic statistics between the cohorts, we used SAS Enterprise Guide to do data preprocessing and statistical analysis. Secondly, we used logistic regression, neural network, decision tree to validate biomarkers by SAS Enterprise Miner. This study generated data from ADNI, contained 146 blood biomarkers from 566 participants. Participants include cognitive normal (healthy), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patient suffered Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Participants’ samples were separated into two groups, healthy and MCI, healthy and AD, respectively. We used the two groups to compare important biomarkers of AD and MCI. In preprocessing, we used a t-test to filter 41/47 features between the two groups (healthy and AD, healthy and MCI) before using machine learning algorithms. Then we have built model with 4 machine learning methods, the best AUC of two groups separately are 0.991/0.709. We want to stress the importance that the simple, less invasive, common blood (plasma) test may also early diagnose AD. As our opinion, the result will provide evidence that blood-based biomarkers might be an alternative diagnostics tool before further examination with CSF and medical imaging. A comprehensive study on the differences in blood-based biomarkers between AD patients and healthy subjects is warranted. Early detection of AD progression will allow physicians the opportunity for early intervention and treatment.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Diagnostics, Early Detection, alzheimer's disease, blood-based biomarkers

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2 Development of an Interactive and Robust Image Analysis and Diagnostic Tool in R for Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Harpreet Singh, Priya Ranjan, Kumar Dron Shrivastav, Ankan Mukherjee Das, Arti Taneja, Rajiv Janardhanan

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancer among women worldwide which can be cured if detected early. Manual pathology which is typically utilized at present has many limitations. The current gold standard for cervical cancer diagnosis is exhaustive and time-consuming because it relies heavily on the subjective knowledge of the oncopathologists which leads to mis-diagnosis and missed diagnosis resulting false negative and false positive. To reduce time and complexities associated with early diagnosis, we require an interactive diagnostic tool for early detection particularly in developing countries where cervical cancer incidence and related mortality is high. Incorporation of digital pathology in place of manual pathology for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis can increase the precision and strongly reduce the chances of error in a time-specific manner. Thus, we propose a robust and interactive cervical cancer image analysis and diagnostic tool, which can categorically process both histopatholgical and cytopathological images to identify abnormal cells in the least amount of time and settings with minimum resources. Furthermore, incorporation of a set of specific parameters that are typically referred to for identification of abnormal cells with the help of open source software -’R’ is one of the major highlights of the tool. The software has the ability to automatically identify and quantify the morphological features, color intensity, sensitivity and other parameters digitally to differentiate abnormal from normal cells, which may improve and accelerate screening and early diagnosis, ultimately leading to timely treatment of cervical cancer.

Keywords: Digital Pathology, Screening, Early Detection, Cervical Cancer

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1 The Magnification of Early Detect Nutrition Case through Local Potential Utilization in Urban Region, Indonesia

Authors: Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Efa Nugroho, Bertakalswa Hermawati, Sri Ratna Rahayu

Abstract:

The double burden of nutrition problem must be faced by Indonesia as developing country. The implemented program did not improve the nutritional status, therefore need to consider to utilize local potential. The objective of this research was to find out the effectivity of magnification model of early detect through local potential utilization in urban region, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The research used an experimental design with the quantitative-qualitative approach. The population was all toddlers under five within the research region, sample determination by purposive sampling, as many as 216 toddlers. Quantitative data analysis used effectively criteria by Sugiono. Qualitative data was analyzed using NVivo. The optimization of local potential in the effort of nutrition status improvement shows number of nutrition case found was increased 225% (very effective), number of cases treated was increased 175% (very effective), number of cases counselled was increased 200% (effective), and number of cases that have improvement increase 75% (effective). The local potential need to be utilized in the effort of nutrition program improvement one of it is through the community empowerment, particularly health care and health high education institution as partner.

Keywords: Early Detection, nutrition status, local potential, health cadre

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