Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 112

Diabetes Related Abstracts

112 The Effect of Costus igneus Extract on Learning and Memory in Normal and Diabetic Rats

Authors: Shalini Adiga, Shashikant Chetty, Jisha, Shobha Kamath

Abstract:

Background: Moderate impairment of learning and memory has been observed in both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus in humans and experimental animals. A Change in glucose utilization and oxidative stress that occur in diabetes are considered the main reasons for cognitive dysfunction. Objective: Costus igneus (CI) which is known to possess hypoglycemic activity was evaluated in this study for its effect on learning and memory in normal and diabetic rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control, CI-alcoholic extract treated normal (250 and 500mg/kg), diabetic control and CI-treated diabetic groups. CI treatment was continued for 4 weeks. For induction of diabetes, a single dose of streptozotocin was injected (30 mg/kg i.p). Entrance latency and time spent in the dark room during acquisition and at 24 and 48h after an aversive shock in a passive avoidance model was used as an index of learning and memory. Glutathione and malondialdehyde levels in brain and blood glucose were measured. Data was analysed using ANOVA. Results: During the three trials in exploration test, the diabetic control rats exhibited no significant change in entrance latency or in the total time spent in the dark compartment. During retention testing, the entrance latency of the diabetic treated groups was two times less at 24h and three times less at 48h after aversive stimulus as compared to diabetic rats. The normal drug-treated rats showed similar behaviour as the saline control. Treatment with CI significantly reduced the raised blood sugar and MDA levels of diabetic rats. Conclusion: Costus igneus prevented the cognitive dysfunction in diabetic rats which can be attributed to its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities.

Keywords: Learning and Memory, Diabetes, Cognitive Dysfunction, Costus igneous

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111 Factors Related with Self-Care Behaviors among Iranian Type 2 Diabetic Patients: An Application of Health Belief Model

Authors: Ali Soroush, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Touraj Ahmadi Jouybari, Fazel Zinat-Motlagh, Abbas Aghaei, Mari Ataee

Abstract:

Diabetes is a disease with long cardiovascular, renal, ophthalmic and neural complications. It is prevalent all around the world including Iran, and its prevalence is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to self-care behavior based on health belief model among sample of Iranian diabetic patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 301 type 2 diabetic patients in Gachsaran, Iran. Data collection was based on an interview and the data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using ANOVA, t-tests, Pearson correlation, and linear regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. Linear regression analyses showed the health belief model variables accounted for 29% of the variation in self-care behavior; and perceived severity and perceived self-efficacy are more influential predictors on self-care behavior among diabetic patients.

Keywords: Diabetes, patients, self-care behaviors, health belief model

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110 Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of a Combination Extract of Nigella Sativa & Cinnamomum Cassia in Streptozotocin Induced Type-I Diabetic Rats

Authors: Ginpreet Kaur, Mohammad Yasir Usmani, Mohammed Kamil Khan

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is a disease with a high global burden and results in significant morbidity and mortality. In India, the number of people suffering with diabetes is expected to rise from 19 to 57 million in 2025. At present, interest in herbal remedies is growing to reduce the side effects associated with conventional dosage form like oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to investigate the antidiabetic activities of combinatorial extract of N. sativa & C. cassia in Streptozotocin induced type-I Diabetic Rats. Thus, the present study was undertaken to screen postprandial glucose excursion potential through α- glucosidase inhibitory activity (In Vitro) and effect of combinatorial extract of N. sativa & C. cassia in Streptozotocin induced type-I Diabetic Rats (In Vivo). In addition changes in body weight, plasma glucose, lipid profile and kidney profile were also determined. The IC50 values for both extract and Acarbose was calculated by extrapolation method. Combinatorial extract of N. sativa & C. cassia at different dosages (100 and 200 mg/kg orally) and Metformin (50 mg/kg orally) as the standard drug was administered for 28 days and then biochemical estimation, body weights and OGTT (Oral glucose tolerance test) were determined. Histopathological studies were also performed on kidney and pancreatic tissue. In In-Vitro the combinatorial extract shows much more inhibiting effect than the individual extracts. The results reveals that combinatorial extract of N. sativa & C. cassia has shown significant decrease in plasma glucose (p<0.0001), total cholesterol and LDL levels when compared with the STZ group The decreasing level of BUN and creatinine revealed the protection of N. sativa & C. cassia extracts against nephropathy associated with diabetes. Combination of N. sativa & C. cassia significantly improved glucose tolerance to exogenously administered glucose (2 g/kg) after 60, 90 and 120 min interval on OGTT in high dose streptozotocin induced diabetic rats compared with the untreated control group. Histopathological studies shown that treatment with N. sativa & C. cassia extract alone and in combination restored pancreatic tissue integrity and was able to regenerate the STZ damaged pancreatic β cells. Thus, the present study reveals that combination of N. sativa & C. cassia extract has significant α- glucosidase inhibitory activity and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment.

Keywords: Diabetes, Herbs, lipid levels, OGTT, glucosidase

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109 Effect of Sanitary-Environmental Conditions of Diabetic Hypertension Incidence of Displaced Persons

Authors: Radmila Maksimovic, Sonja Ketin, Rade Biocanin, Jelena Maksimovic

Abstract:

The abnormal conditions of life and work genetic factors often play a major role in incidence of diabetes-diabetes, heart disease and vascular disease, jaundice, and post traumatic stress. Trauma and post traumatic stress are most common in the displaced persons,and the focus of this paper is to shed light on this issue in former Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia and now in our country. This is caused by increased beta-cell sensitivity to viruses, the development of autoimmune antibodies against its own pancreascells, degenerative changes in cells that r esult in change of structure and insulin. In this paper, we dealt with traumatic events and long-term psycho social consequences for internally displaced persons, several years after displacement, and found a high level of PTSD symptoms. This stress is present in almost 1/3 of internally displaced persons, and every sixth person is suffering from PTSD in the past. Respondents generally suffer from symptoms of intrusion, but there was a large number of symptoms, avoidance and increased arousal. We also found that gender, age andeducation related to the symptoms. Females, and older respondents and internally displaced persons with lower levels of education how a higher level of PTSD symptoms, especially symptoms of intrusion and increase darousal. It is a highly traumatized sample in which more than 1/2 of respondents experienced more than three traumatic events in life,although the number of traumas experienced before, during and after the conflict varies.We found that during the war, internally displaced persons haveexperienced more traumatic events compared with the periodbefore and after the conflict. Trauma are different in type. No significant correlation between the number of experienced trauma and PTSD, suggesting that it is necessary to further study the structure of past traumas and the intermediary effects of certain risk factors and protective factors.

Keywords: Trauma, Diabetes, treatment, jaundice, living environment, displaced persons, diabetic hypertension, post-traumatic stress (PTSD)

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108 Effect of Cistanche tinctoria Methanolic Extract on the Maternal-Fetal Outcome and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Amina Bouzitouna, Kheireddine Ouali, Sandra Amri, Houria Rahmoun, Mourad Bensouilah

Abstract:

Aim of this study: To evaluate the effect of Cisthanche tinctoria treatment on maternal-fetal outcome and antioxidant systems of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and methods: Virgin female Wistar rats were injected with 50 mg/kg streptozotocin before mating. Oral administration of an methanolic extract of Cistanche tinctoria was given to non-diabetic and diabetic pregnant rats at doses of 200 mg/kg from 0 to 19th day of pregnancy. At day 20 of pregnancy the rats were killed and a maternal blood sample was collected for the determination Vitamin C (Vit C) and malonaldehyde (MDA). The gravid uterus was weighed with its contents and fetuses were analyzed. Results and conclusion: The data showed that the diabetic dams presented an increased glycemic level, resorption, placental weight, placental index, and fetal anomalies, and reduced VIT C and MDA determinations, live fetuses, maternal weight gain, gravid uterine weight, and fetal weight. It was also verified that Cisthanche tictoria treatment had no hypoglycemic effect, did not improve maternal outcomes in diabetic rats, but it contributed to maintain GSH concentration similarly to non-diabetic groups, suggesting relation with the decreased incidence of visceral anomalies.

Keywords: Diabetes, pregnancy, cistanche tinctoria, reproductive outcome, anomaly, orobanchacées

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107 Effects of Knowledge on Fruit Diets by Integrating Posters and Actual-Sized Fruit Models in Health Education for Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Suchada Wongsawat

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The objectives of this quasi-experiment were: 1) to compare pretest and posttest scores of the experimental group who were given health education on the “Fruit Diets for Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus”; and 2) to compare the posttest scores between experimental group and controlled group. The samples of this study were elderly patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Tambon Kanai Health Promoting Hospital, Thailand. The samples were randomly assigned to experimental and controlled groups, with 30 patients in each group. Statistics used in the data analysis included frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, paired t-test and independent t-test. The study revealed that the patients in the experimental group had significantly higher posttest scores than the pretest scores in the health education at the .05 statistical level. The posttest scores of the experimental group in the health education were significantly higher than the controlled group at the .05 statistical level.

Keywords: Health Education, Diabetes, Elderly, Fruit

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106 Attenuation of Pancreatic Histology, Hematology and Biochemical Parameters in Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Azadirachta excelsa

Authors: I. Nur Hilwani, S. Nurdiana, A. S. Nor Haziqah, M. K. Nur Ezwa Khairunnisa, Y. Siti Amna M. J. Norashirene, S. Nurul Izzati

Abstract:

Azadirachta excelsa or locally known as sentang are frequently used as a traditional medicine by diabetes patients in Malaysia. However, less attention has been given to their toxicity effect. Thus, the study is an attempt to examine the protective effect of A. excelsa on the pancreas and to determine possible toxicity mediated by the extract. Diabetes was induced experimentally in rats by high-fat-diet for 16 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at dosage of 35 mg/kg of body weight. Declination of the fasting blood glucose level was observed after continuous administration of A. excelsa for 14 days twice daily. This is due to the refining structure of the pancreas. However, surprisingly, the plant extract reduced the leukocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCHC and lymphocytes. In addition, the rat treated with the plant extract exhibited increment in AST and eosinocytes level. Overall, the finding shows that A. excelsa possesses antidiabetic activity by improving the structure of pancreatic islet of Langerhans but involved in ameliorating of hematology and biochemical parameters.

Keywords: Diabetes, Pancreas, Azadirachta excelsa, hemato-biochemical parameters

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105 Assessment of the Effect of Orally Administered Itopride on Gall Bladder Ejection Fraction by a Fatty Meal Cholescintigraphy in Patients with Diabetes

Authors: Avani Jain, S. Shelley, M. Indirani, Shilpa Kalal, Hasmukh Jain, Jayakanth Amalachandran

Abstract:

Aim of the Study: To assess the effect of orally administered Itopride on gall bladder ejection fraction by fatty meal cholescintigraphy in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients (20 males, 10 females, mean age 46+10 yrs) with history of diabetes mellitus (mean duration 4.8+4.1 yrs, fasting blood glucose level 130+35 mg/dl and 2-hours post-prandial blood glucose level 196+76 mg/dl) and found to have gall bladder dysfunction on fatty-meal stimulated cholescintigraphy were selected for this study. These patients underwent a repeat cholescintigraphy similar to baseline study, with 50 mg of Itopride orally along with fatty meal. Pre- and post-Itopride GBEF were then compared to assess the effect of Itopride on gall bladder contraction. Results: Out of these 30 patients, 2 had dyskinetic, 4 had akinetic, 22 had moderately hypokinetic and the remaining 2 had hypokinetic gall bladder function in the baseline study with > 60% GBEF being taken as the normal value. Mean percentage of GBEF in the baseline study was 32%+13% and the mean percentage of GBEF in the post-Itopride study was 57%+17% with change in mean percentage of GBEF being 24%+21%. GBEF of the “baseline study” was significantly lower as compared to GBEF in the “post-Itopride study” (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Diabetic patients with biliary-type pain often tend to have impaired gallbladder function. Cholescintigraphy with fatty meal-stimulation is a simple, cheap and useful investigation for assessment of gallbladder dysfunction in these patients, before any structural changes occur within the lumen or wall of the gall bladder. Improvement in gallbladder ejection fraction after oral administration of a single dose of Itopride, a newer prokinetic drug with fewer side effects, as assessed by cholescintigraphy, provides enough evidence of future therapeutic response. Administration of Itopride, in therapeutic dosage, therefore may be expected to cause significant improvement in gallbladder ejection fraction and hence prolong stone formation within the gall bladder and also prevent the associated long term complications. Hence, based on scintigraphic evidence, Itopride may be recommended, by clinicians, for management of symptomatic diabetic patients having gallbladder dysfunction.

Keywords: Diabetes, gall bladder ejection fraction, itopride, fatty meal, cholescintigraphy

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104 Biochemical and Electrochemical Characterization of Glycated Albumin: Clinical Relevance in Diabetes Associated Complications

Authors: Alok Raghav, Jamal Ahmad

Abstract:

Background: Serum albumin glycation and advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation correlates in diabetes and its associated complications. Extensive modified human serum albumin is used to study the biochemical, electrochemical and functional properties in hyperglycemic environment with relevance to diabetes. We evaluate Spectroscopic, side chain modifications, amino acid analysis, biochemical and functional group properties in four glucose modified samples. Methods: A series four human serum albumin samples modified with glucose was characterized in terms of amino acid analysis, spectroscopic properties and side chain modifications. The diagnostic technique employed incorporates UV Spectroscopy, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, biochemical assays for side chain modifications, amino acid estimations. Conclusion: Glucose modified human serum albumin confers AGE formation causes biochemical and functional property that depend on the reactivity of glucose and its concentration used for in-vitro glycation. A biochemical and functional characterization of modified albumin in-vitro produced AGE product that will be useful to interpret the complications and pathophysiological significance in diabetes.

Keywords: Diabetes, glycation, human serum albumin, biochemical and electrochemical characterization

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103 Effect of “Evidence Based Diabetes Management” Educational Sessions on Primary Care Physicians

Authors: Surjeet Bakshi, Surabhi Sharma

Abstract:

Objective: To assess the impact of educational sessions by reputed regional faculties on knowledge of primary care physicians on evidence based diabetes management methods and practice. Study Design: Retrospective pre-post intervention study. Methodology: Nine cities in Kerala from August to October, 2012 were selected for the study. 125 MBBS doctors participated in the study. 11 regional faculties provided six educational sessions throughout the period. Validated questionnaires were used to evaluate the knowledge of the participants on evidence based diabetes management methods before and after the intervention. Results: The mean score on pre-test was 8 and the mean score on post-test was 9. A paired t-test was conducted on participant’s pre- and post test score and the results were statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Even though the general attitude to and level of knowledge of diabetes management is good among the primary care physicians in India, there do exist some knowledge gaps which might influence their future practices when it comes to counselling and information on diabetes management methods. In the present study, the performance and awareness level of the participants have expressively improved among primary care physicians. There is a significant improvement in the test score and the training conducted. It seems that if such study programmes are included in the students study programme, it will give higher score in the knowledge and attitude towards diabetes management.

Keywords: Management, Diabetes, Knowledge, primary care physicians, evidence base, improvement score

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102 Robotic Arm Allowing a Diabetic Quadriplegic Patient to Self-Administer Insulin

Authors: L. Parisi

Abstract:

A method which allows a diabetic quadriplegic patient that has had four limb amputations (above the knee and elbow) to self-administer injections of insulin has been designed. The aim of this research project is to improve a quadriplegic patient’s self-management, affected by diabetes, by designing a suitable device for self-administering insulin.The quadriplegic patient affected by diabetes has to be able to self-administer insulin safely and independently to guarantee stable healthy conditions. The device also should be designed to adapt to a number of different varying personal characteristics such as height and body weight.

Keywords: Diabetes, insulin, quadriplegia, robotic arm, self-administration

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101 The Modulatory Effect of Some Antioxidants on Animal Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High Fructose Fed Diet

Authors: Hala M. Abdelkarem, Abeer H. Gafeer

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The metabolic syndrome (Mts) is a constellation of risk factors. The main objective of this study is to compare the ameliorating effect of metformin, lipitor, orilstate, lipoic acid and carnitin on insulin, lipid profile, leptin, adenonectin levels in metabolic syndrom (high fructose fed rats HF). Seventy male albino rats were divided into seven groups. G1: normal control. G2: G7 rats fed HF for 8wks. After four wk HF feeding, G3, G4, G5, G6, and G7 were orally administered (200 mg/kg daily) metformin, lipitor, orilstate, lipoic acid and carnitin respectively. All drugs were adminiseterd once daily. After 8 weeks of feeding, a significant increase in blood glucose level was observed in HF fed rats compared to normal rats, but this increase was significantly decreased after administration of metformin and lipitor. The raised of serum insulin level in HF fed rats was significantly decreased after administration of lipoic, carnitin, metformin. Significant higher concentrations of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol & low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL- C) were observed in HF fed rats and these increases were significantly lowered after the administration of all the previous drugs. There was a significant decrease in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in HF group administration of all drugs alleviates this reduction. The increased of serum leptin level in HF group was decreased significantly in met and orilstate groups. Whereas the reduction of serum adiponectin level in HF fed rats was increased in Lipitor, carnitin, orilstate groups. These data suggested that benefial effect of metformin, lipitor, orilstate, lipoic acid carnitin in reducing risk for people with decreased insulin sensitivity, increased oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia such as those with the metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Diabetes, metabolic syndrome, Antioxidants, proinflammation

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100 Prevalence, Awareness, and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Ahvaz: South West of Iran

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Hajieh Shahbazian, Leila Yazdanpanah, Saeed Ghanbari

Abstract:

Introduction: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetes in people aged over 20 years in Ahvaz, Iran. Material and Methods: The study population selected by cluster sampling. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) assessed after minimum 8 hours night fasting. A questionnaire included: age, sex, weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference and previous history of diabetes were completed for each patient. FBS≥126mg/dl and/or oral hypoglycemic treatment and/or insulin was defined as diabetes, FBS=100-125 mg/dl as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and FBS<100mg/dl as normal. Results: Study population was 936 persons (47.2 % male and 52.8% female). The mean age of a population was 42.2±14 years. Diabetes was detected in 15.1 % of population. Only 57cases(6.1%) were aware of their disease and 9% had unknown diabetes. Diabetes was detected in 14.5% of male (11.3% unknown and 3.2 % known diabetes) and in 11.7% of female (7% unknown and 4.7% known diabetes). Prevalence of diabetes had no significant difference (P=0.21) in male and female but unknown diabetes was significantly higher in male (P=0.025). Prevalence of diabetes was increased with rising of age between 20-60 years old but decreasing after 60 years old. Diabetes was related to age, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, TG level and BMI in both sex (P=0.0001). Conclusion: More than half of female and three-fourth of male diabetic patients are unaware of their disease in South of Iran. Diabetes screening should be intensified in this population.

Keywords: Diabetes, awareness, Prevalence, risk factor

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99 Antioxidant Activity of Germinated African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa) in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

Authors: N. Uchegbu Nneka

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the antioxidant activity of germinated African Yam Bean (AYB) on oxidative stress markers in alloxan-induced diabetic rat. Rats were randomized into three groups; control, diabetic and germinated AYB–treated diabetic rats. The Total phenol and flavonoid content and DPPH radical scavenging activity before and after germination were investigated. The glucose level, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione of the animals were also determined using the standard technique for four weeks. Germination increased the total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of AYB extract by 19.14%, 32.28%, and 57.25% respectively. The diabetic rats placed on germinated AYB diet had a significant decrease in the blood glucose and lipid peroxidation with a corresponding increase in glutathione (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that consumption of germinated AYB can be a good dietary supplement in inhibiting hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia and the prevention of diabetic complication associated with oxidative stress.

Keywords: Diabetes, antioxidant, African yam bean, total phenol

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98 Hypoglycemic Activity studies on Root Extracts of Sanseviera liberica Root in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Omowunmi Amao

Abstract:

Sansevieria liberica belongs to the family Agavaceae (Ruscaceae or Dracaenaceae). They are widely distributed throughout the tropics. Literature review suggests that in Nigeria, the leaves and roots of Sansevieria liberica are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma, abdominal pains, colic, diarrhea, eczema, gonorrhea, hemorrhoids, hypertension, monorrhagia, piles, sexual weakness, snake bites, and wounds of the foot. In this context, the standardized Methanolic extract of roots of Sansevieria liberica is hypothesized for the evaluation of the hypoglycemic activity. Material and Methods: Inbreed adult male sprague-Dawley albino rats were used in the experiment. The suspension of standardized Methanol extract (ME) of Sansevieria liberica was treated for hypoglycemic activity in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) method. The suspension of standardized Methanolic extract (ME) of Sansevieria liberica was also treated for hypoglycemic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results: The Methanolic extract (ME) of Sanseviera liberica root (100 mg/kg, 200mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg) showed potential hypoglycemic activity in diabetic rats, and further in OGTT method. Furthermore, Methanolic extract of Sanseviera liberica root showed significant (P<0.05) increase in final body weight, total hemoglobin, insulin, albumin and high-density lipoprotein levels, however, decrease in fluid intake, glycosylated hemoglobin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein levels. Additionally, it improved oxidative stress in terms of reducing lipid peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and elevating catalase activity. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Methanolic extract of Sanseviera liberica root was found to be potential hypoglycemic, and would be a promising candidate for the treatment of diabetes.

Keywords: Diabetes, Sanseviera liberica, hypoglycemic activity, diabetes and metabolism

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97 Correlation between Creatinine Level with Erectile Dysfunction among Diabetics in Temerloh Health Clinic

Authors: Mohammad Zainie Bin Hassan

Abstract:

Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complication commonly seen among men with diabetes which can be assessed based upon International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Creatinine level is a blood test that indicates kidney functionality. Object: To evaluate the association between ED, determined by the IIEF-5scores and Creatinine level in diabetic men attending Temerloh Health Clinic, Pahang, Malaysia.Hence, to identify raising Creatinine level related with ED or not. Methods: All married diabetic patients will be investigated face to face after consented for answering the IIEF-5 questionnaire. Creatinine level will be taken by using standard method.Patients with no sexual partner, refuse to answer the questionnaire, cancer, stroke, heart disease and language barrier will be excluded.Data obtained from IIEF-5 score and Creatinine level will be analyzed by using Pearson correlation. All statistical value determined by p=0.05. ED will be categorized accordingly to IIEF-5 scores: no ED (22-25), mild (17-21), moderate (12-16), severe (8-11) and very severe (1-7). Results: A total of 450 patients were investigated with 385 patients were included (85.6% respondant rate) and 65 patients were excluded in this study with age range from 29 to 85 years old. 7% had no ED, 28% mild ED, 34% moderate ED, 16% severe ED and 15% had very severe ED. There was a significant negative correlation between Creatinine level and IIEF-5 scores (r=-0.218, p <0.001). This result implicated that poor kidney function which indicated by high Creatinine level associated significantly with erectile dysfunction. 93% had ED with a different range of severity which triggers for appropriate aggressive ED management among diabetics. Conclusion: The high level of Creatinine is associated with erectile dysfunction among diabetics in Temerloh Health Clinic.

Keywords: Diabetes, correlation, erectile dysfunction, creatinine level

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96 A New Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor Isolated from the Stem Bark of Anthocleista Djalonensis

Authors: Oseyemi O. Olubomehin, Edith O. Ajaiyeoba, Kio A. Abo, Eleonora D. Goosen

Abstract:

Diabetes is a major degenerative disease of global concern and it is the third most lethal disease of mankind, accounting for about 3.2 million deaths annually. Lowering postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme such as alpha-amylase is one of the therapeutic approaches to treat Type 2 Diabetes. Alpha-amylase inhibitors from plants have been found to be effective in managing postprandial hyperglycemia. In continuation of our anti-diabetic activities of this plant, bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation using 0.1-1.0 mg/mL furnished djalonenol, a monoterpene diol with a significant 53.7% α-amylase inhibition (p<0.001) from the stem bark which was comparable to acarbose which gave a 54.9% inhibition. Spectral characterization using Infra-red, Gas Chromatogrphy-Mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D NMR of the isolated compound was done to elucidate the structure of the compound.

Keywords: Diabetes, hyperglycemia, alpha-amylase inhibitor, postprandial

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95 Anti-Diabetic Effect of Withania somnifera in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Farah Ali, Tehreem Fiayyaz, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Imran Mirza

Abstract:

The present work was undertaken to investigate effects of various extracts of W. somnifera (WS) for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Animals were divided into nine groups of six rabbits each. The animals of group 1 and 2 were given lactose (250 mg/kg, p.o) and WS root powder (100 mg/kg, p.o) respectively daily from day 1-20. Animals of group 3 were given alloxan (100 mg/kg, i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Powdered root of WS in the doses of 100, 150, 200 mg/kg and its aqueous (AWS) and ethanol extracts (EWS) (equivalent to 200 mg/kg of crude drug) were given to the treated animals (groups 4-8), respectively orally for three weeks (day 1-20 o.d), along with alloxan (100 mg/kg, i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Group 9 was given metformin (200 mg/kg) daily from day 1-20, along with a single dose of alloxan (100 mg/ kg, i.v) on day 1. Fasting serum glucose concentration in groups 3-9 was increased significantly (p<0.05) on day 3 as compared to normal control (NC) group (1). WS (100, 150, 200 mg/kg, p.o) decreased the fasting serum glucose concentration, with a maximum decrease (88.3 mg/dl) in group 2 (treated control) on day 21 of the experiment. These results indicate that metformin (reference control), (AWS) and (EWS) significantly antagonized the diabetic effects of alloxan.

Keywords: Diabetes, Blood, Glucose, Rabbits, Sugar, serum

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94 Saponins from the Fruits of Solanum anguivi Reverse Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia and Increase Antioxidant Status in Stretozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti, Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo

Abstract:

This work investigated the antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of saponins from the fruit of Solanum anguivi, a plant generally used in folk medicine to treat diabetes and hypertension and to compare its effect with metformin in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of STZ (65 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Saponin (40 and 100 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage once daily for 21 days. Metformin (200 mg/kg b.w.) was administered as the positive control. The effect of saponin on blood glucose, serum lipids and enzymatic antioxidants defense systems, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), as well as MDA levels in serum, liver and pancreas were studied. Saponins from S. anguivi fruits reduced the blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in STZ-diabetic rats. They also significantly abolished the increase in MDA level in serum, liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of SOD and CAT in serum, liver and pancreas were significantly increased as well as concentration of HDL in the serum. Metformin had the same effect as saponin but saponins seems to be more potent in reducing serum TC, TG, LDL, and MDA, and increasing SOD and CAT. Conclusions: These results suggest that saponins from S. anguivi fruits have anti-diabetic and antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertriglyceridemic antiperoxidative activities mediated through their antioxidant properties. Also, saponins appeared to have more hypolipidemic, antiperoxidative and antioxidant activity than metformin.

Keywords: Diabetes, metformin, saponin, streptozotocin, Solanum anguivi

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93 Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Depression Comorbid with Diabetes: Preliminary Findings

Authors: Lisa Robins, Jill Newby, Kay Wilhelm, Therese Fletcher, Jessica Smith, Trevor Ma, Adam Finch, Lesley Campbell, Jerry Greenfield, Gavin Andrews

Abstract:

Background:Depression treatment for people living with depression comorbid with diabetes is of critical importance for improving quality of life and diabetes self-management, however depression remains under-recognised and under-treated in this population. Cost—effective and accessible forms of depression treatment that can enhance the delivery of mental health services in routine diabetes care are needed. Provision of internet-delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (iCBT) provides a promising way to deliver effective depression treatment to people with diabetes. Aims:To explore the outcomes of the clinician assisted iCBT program for people with comorbid Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and diabetes compared to those who remain under usual care. The main hypotheses are that: (1) Participants in the treatment group would show a significant improvement on disorder specific measures (Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-9) relative to those in the control group; (2) Participants in the treatment group will show a decrease in diabetes-related distress relative to those in the control group. This study will also examine: (1) the effect of iCBT for MDD on disability (as measured by the SF-12 and SDS), general distress (as measured by the K10), (2) the feasibility of these treatments in terms of acceptability to diabetes patients and practicality for clinicians (as measured by the Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire; CEQ). We hypothesise that associated disability, and general distress will reduce, and that patients with comorbid MDD and diabetes will rate the program as acceptable. Method:Recruit 100 people with MDD comorbid with diabetes (either Type 1 or Type 2), and randomly allocate to: iCBT (over 10 weeks) or treatment as usual (TAU) for 10 weeks, then iCBT. Measure pre- and post-intervention MDD severity, anxiety, diabetes-related distress, distress, disability, HbA1c, lifestyle, adherence, satisfaction with clinicians input and the treatment. Results:Preliminary results comparing MDD symptom levels, anxiety, diabetes-specific distress, distress, disability, HbA1c levels, and lifestyle factors from baseline to conclusion of treatment will be presented, as well as data on adherence to the lessons, homework downloads, satisfaction with the clinician's input and satisfaction with the mode of treatment generally.

Keywords: Internet, Diabetes, Depression, cognitive behaviour therapy

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92 Screening of Potential Sources of Tannin and Its Therapeutic Application

Authors: Mamta Kumari, Shashi Jain

Abstract:

Tannins are a unique category of plant phytochemicals especially in terms of their vast potential health-benefiting properties. Researchers have described the capacity of tannins to enhance glucose uptake and inhibit adipogenesis, thus being potential drugs for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Thus, the present research was conducted to find out tannin content of food products. The percentage of tannin in various analyzed sources ranged from 0.0 to 108.53%; highest in kathaa and lowest in ker and mango bark. The percentage of tannins present in the plants, however, varies. Numerous studies have confirmed that the naturally occurring polyphenols are key factor for the beneficial effects of the herbal medicines. Isolation and identification of active constituents from plants, preparation of standardized dose & dosage regimen can play a significant role in improving the hypoglycaemic action.

Keywords: Diabetes, polyphenols, hypoglycemia, antioxidant, tannins

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91 Outcomes in New-Onset Diabetic Foot Ulcers Stratified by Etiology

Authors: Pedro Gomes, Lia Ferreira, Sofia Garcia, Jaime Babulal, Luís Costa, Luís Castelo, José Muras, Isabel Gonçalves, Rui Carvalho

Abstract:

Introduction: Foot ulcers and their complications are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the outcomes in terms of need for hospitalization, amputation, healing time and mortality in patients with new-onset diabetic foot ulcers in subgroups stratified by etiology. Methods: A retrospective study based on clinical assessment of patients presenting with new ulcers to a multidisciplinary diabetic foot consult during 2012. Outcomes were determined until September 2014, from hospital registers. Baseline clinical examination was done to classify ulcers as neuropathic, ischemic or neuroischemic. Results: 487 patients with new diabetic foot ulcers were observed; 36%, 15% and 49% of patients had neuropathic, ischemic and neuroischemic ulcers, respectively. For analysis, patients were classified as having predominantly neuropathic (36%) or ischemic foot (64%). The mean age was significantly higher in the group with ischemic foot (70±12 vs 63±12 years; p <0.001), as well as the duration of diabetes (18±10 vs 16 ± 10years, p <0.05). A history of previous amputation was also significantly higher in this group (24.7% vs 15.6%, p <0.05). The evolution of ischemic ulcers was significantly worse, with a greater need for hospitalization (27.2% vs 18%, p <0.05), amputation (11.5% vs 3.6% p <0.05) mainly major amputation (3% vs. 0%; p <0.001) and higher mean healing time (151 days vs 89 days, p <0.05). The mortality rate at 18 months, was also significantly higher in the ischemic foot group (7.3% vs 1.8%, p <0.05). Conclusions: All types of diabetic foot ulcers are associated with high morbidity and mortality, however, the presence of arterial disease confers a poor prognosis. Diabetic foot can be successfully treated only by the multidisciplinary team which can provide more comprehensive and integrated care.

Keywords: Diabetes, Etiology, outcome, foot ulcers

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90 Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems and the Improvement in Hypoglycemic Awareness Post-Islet Transplantation: A Single-Centre Cohort Study

Authors: Clare Flood, Shareen Forbes

Abstract:

Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder affecting >400,000 people in the UK alone, with the global prevalence expected to double in the next decade. Islet transplant offers a minimally-invasive procedure with very low morbidity and almost no mortality, and is now as effective as whole pancreas transplant. The procedure was introduced to the UK in 2011 for patients with the most severe type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) – those with unstable blood glucose, frequently occurring episodes of severe hypoglycemia and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH). Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of islet transplantation in improving glycemic control, reducing the burden of hypoglycemia and improving awareness of hypoglycemia through a single-centre cohort study at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. Glycemic control and degree of hypoglycemic awareness will be determined and monitored pre- and post-transplantation to determine effectiveness of the procedure. Methods: A retrospective analysis of data collected over three years from the 16 patients who have undergone islet transplantation in Scotland. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured and continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) were utilised to assess glycemic control, while Gold and Clarke score questionnaires tested IAH. Results: All patients had improved glycemic control following transplant, with optimal control seen visually at 3 months post-transplant. Glycemic control significantly improved, as illustrated by percentage time in hypoglycemia in the months following transplant (p=0.0211) and HbA1c (p=0.0426). Improved Clarke (p=0.0034) and Gold (p=0.0001) scores indicate improved glycemic awareness following transplant. Conclusion: While the small sample of islet transplant recipients at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh prevents definitive conclusions being drawn, it is indicated that through our retrospective, single-centre cohort study of 16 patients, islet transplant is capable of improving glycemic control, reducing the burden of hypoglycemia and IAH post-transplant. Data can be combined with similar trials at other centres to increase statistical power but from research in Edinburgh, it can be suggested that the minimally invasive procedure of islet transplantation offers selected patients with extremely unstable T1DM the incredible opportunity to regain control of their condition and improve their quality of life.

Keywords: Diabetes, islet, transplant, CGMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
89 Changes in the Body Weight and Wound Contraction Rate Following Treatment with Piper betel Extract in Diabetic Wounds

Authors: Nurul Z. Sani, Amalina N. Ghazali, Azree Elmy, Lee C. Yuen, Zar C. Thent

Abstract:

Piper betel (P. betel) leaves is widely used in Asian countries for treating diabetes mellitus and its complication. In our previous study, we observed the positive effect of P.betel extract on diabetic wounds following 3 and 7 days of treatment. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of P.betel leaves extract in the diabetic rats was observed in terms of body weight and wound contraction rates following 5 days of the treatment. Total 64 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used and the experimental rats received a single dose of 60mg/kg of Streptozotocin (STZ) injection, intraperitoneally. Four full thickness (6mm) cutaneous wounds were created on dorsum of each rat. The rats were divideid into (n=8): Non-treated Control (NC), Non-treated Diabetic (ND), diabetic treated with commercial cream (SN) and diabetic treated with 50mg/kg of P.betel extract (PB). The rats were sacrificed on day 0 and 5 post wounding. Significant increased in wound closure rate, body weight was observed in PB group compared to ND. Histological deterioration was restored in the P. betel extract treated wounds. It is concluded that topical application with P.betel extract for 5 days of post wounding offers positive scientific value in diabetic rats.

Keywords: Diabetes, Morphology, Wound Healing, body weight, piper betel

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88 Effect of Withania Somnifera in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Farah Ali, Musadiq Idris, Tehreem Fayyaz

Abstract:

The present work was undertaken to investigate effects of various extracts of W. somniferafor anti-diabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Rabbits were acclimatized for a week to standard laboratory temperature. Animals were fed according to a strict schedule (8 am, 3 pm and 10 pm) with green fodder (Medicago sativa) and tap water ad libitum. Animals were divided into nine groups of six rabbits each in a random manner. Body weights and physical activities of all rabbits were recorded before start of experiments. The animals of group 1 and 2 were given lactose (250 mg/kg,p.o) and Withaniasomniferaroot powder (100 mg/kg, p.o) respectively daily from day 1-20. Animals of group 3 were given alloxan (100 mg/kg,i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Powdered root of Withaniasomnifera in the doses of 100, 150, 200 mg/kg and its aqueous and ethanol extracts (equivalent to 200 mg/kg of crude drug) were given to the treated animals (groups 4-8), respectively by oral route for three weeks (day 1-20o.d), along with alloxan (100 mg/kg, i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Group 9 was treated with metformin (200 mg/kg, p.o) daily from day 1-20, along with a single dose of alloxan (100 mg/ kg, i.v) on day 1. Fasting serum glucose concentration in groups 3-9 was increased significantly (p<0.05) on day 3, with a maximum increase (215.3 mg/dl) in animals of toxic control (TC) group (3) on day 21 of the experiment as compared to normal control (NC) group (1). Effects of different doses (100, 150, 200 mg/kg, p.o) of W. somnifera root powder (WS) decreased the fasting serum glucose concentration as compared to toxic control group, with a maximum decrease (88.3 mg/dl) in group 2 (treated control) on day 21 of the experiment. Metformin (200 mg/kg, p.o) (reference control), aqueous extract (AWS) and ethanol extract (EWS) of W. somnifera (equivalent to 100 mg/kg W.somnifera root, p.o) antagonized the effects of alloxan as compared to toxic control group. These results indicate that the W. somnifera possess significant anti –diabetic activity.

Keywords: Diabetes, Blood, Glucose, Rabbits, Sugar, serum

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
87 The Effect of Withania Somnifera in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Farah Ali, Musadiq Idris, Tehreem Fayyaz

Abstract:

The present work was undertaken to investigate effects of various extracts of withania somnifera for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Rabbits were acclimatized for a week to standard laboratory temperature. Animals were fed according to a strict schedule (8 am, 3 pm and 10 pm) with green fodder (Medicago sativa) and tap water ad libitum. Animals were divided into nine groups of six rabbits each in a random manner. Body weights and physical activities of all rabbits were recorded before start of experiments. The animals of group 1 and 2 were given lactose (250 mg/kg, p.o) and Withania somniferaroot powder (100 mg/kg, p.o) respectively daily from day 1-20. Animals of group 3 were given alloxan (100 mg/kg, i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Powdered root of Withania somnifera in the doses of 100, 150, 200 mg/kg and its aqueous and ethanol extracts (equivalent to 200 mg/kg of crude drug) were given to the treated animals (groups 4-8), respectively by oral route for three weeks (day 1-20o.d), along with alloxan (100 mg/kg, i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Group 9 was treated with metformin (200 mg/kg, p.o) daily from day 1-20, along with a single dose of alloxan (100 mg/ kg, i.v) on day 1. Fasting serum glucose concentration in groups 3-9 was increased significantly (p<0.05) on day 3, with a maximum increase (215.3 mg/dl) in animals of toxic control (TC) group (3) on day 21 of the experiment as compared to normal control (NC) group (1). Effects of different doses (100, 150, 200 mg/kg, p.o) of W. somnifera root powder (WS) decreased the fasting serum glucose concentration as compared to toxic control group, with a maximum decrease (88.3 mg/dl) in group 2 (treated control) on day 21 of the experiment. Metformin (200 mg/kg, p.o) (reference control), aqueous extract (AWS) and ethanol extract (EWS) of W. somnifera (equivalent to 100 mg/kg W.somnifera root, p.o) antagonized the effects of alloxan as compared to toxic control group. These results indicate that the W. somnifera possess significant anti–diabetic activity.

Keywords: Diabetes, Blood, Glucose, Rabbits, Sugar, serum

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
86 In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of Nano Collagen Molecules to Enhance Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiate into Insulin Producing Cells

Authors: Chin-Tsu Ma, Yi-Jhen Wu, Hsia Ying Cheng, Han Hsiang Huang, Shyh Ming Kuo

Abstract:

The use of specific molecules including nutrients and pharmacological agents has been tried in modulation of stem cells differentiation (MSCs) to insulin producing cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of nano collagen molecules (nutrient or scaffold) to enhance the MSCs differentiation into insulin-producing cells in combination with nicotinamide and exendin-4 (pharmacological agents) in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the cells exhibit morphologically islet-like clusters after treatment with nano collagen molecules, nicotinamide and exendin-4. MSCs extra treated with nano collagen molecules showed significant increases in Nkx6.1 and insulin mRNA expression at 14-d and 21-d culture compared with those merely treated with nicotinamide and exendin-4. Early 7-day elevation in PDX-1 mRNA expression was observed. Furthermore, the MSCs exposed to nano collagen molecules produced the highest secretion of insulin (p < 0.05). Type-2 diabetes induced by high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin in rat model was built in this study. This rat exhibited higher food intake, water intake, lower glucose tolerance, lower-insulin tolerance, and higher HbA1C (significant increases, p < 0.01) as compared with the normal rat that demonstrated the model of type-2 diabetes was successfully built. Biopsy examinations also showed that obvious destruction of islet. After injection of differentiated MSCs into the destructed pancreas of diabetes rat, more regenerated islet were observed at the rats that treated with nano collagen molecules and exhibited much lower HbA1C as compared with the normal rat and diabetes rat after 4 weeks (significant deceases, p < 0.001). These results indicate that the culturing MSCs with nano collagen molecules, nicotinamide, and exendin-4 are beneficial for MSCs differentiation into islet-like cells. These nano collagen molecules may lead to alternations or up-regulation of gene expression and influence the differentiated outcomes induced by nicotinamide and exendin-4.

Keywords: Diabetes, MSCs, nicotinamide, nano collagen molecules

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85 Antidiabetic Effect of Methanolic Leaves Extract and Isolated Constituents from Saraca Asoca

Authors: Sunil Kumar

Abstract:

Background: The present study was performed to investigate the antidiabetic effect of the constituents isolated from Sarca asoca by enzyme inhibitory activity. Methods: The dried leaves of Sarca asoca were defatted with petroleum ether and further the same amount plant materials were extracted with methanol. The dried methanol extract was subjected to fractionation and chromatographic separation, which led to the isolation of kaemferol, β-sitosterol and quercetin stigmasterol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies as well as by comparison with the data available in the literature. The compounds were evaluated for in vitro enzyme inhibition effect. Results: The isolated compounds kaemferol, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol showed 45.32, 40.5 and 41.23% α-amylase inhibition respectively and 43.45, 39.29 and 32.43% α-glucosidase inhibition respectively at the conc. of 50 µg/kg. Conclusion: The compounds isolated from Sarca asoca showed in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity. So, Euphorbia hirta is a beneficial plant for management of diabetic disorders.

Keywords: Diabetes, quercetin, sitosterol, stigmasterol

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84 The Generation of Insulin Producing Cells from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by miR-375 and Anti-miR-9

Authors: Arefeh Jafarian, Mohammad Taghikani, Saied Abroun, Amir Allahverdi, Masoud Soleimani

Abstract:

Introduction: The miRNAs have key roles in control of pancreatic islet development and insulin secretion. In this regards, current study investigated the pancreatic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) by up-regulation of miR-375 and down-regulation of miR-9 by lentiviruses containing miR-375 and anti-miR-9. Findings: After 21 days of induction, islet-like clusters containing insulin producing cells (IPCs) were confirmed by dithizone (DTZ) staining. The IPCs and β cell specific related genes and proteins were detected using qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence on days 7, 14 and 21 of differentiation. Glucose challenge test was performed at different concentrations of glucose as well as extracellular and intracellular insulin and C-peptide were assayed using ELISA kit. In derived IPCs by miR-375 alone are capable to express insulin and other endocrine specific transcription factors, the cells lack the machinery to respond to glucose. The differentiated hMSCs by miR-375 and anti-miR-9 lentiviruses could secrete insulin and c-peptide in a glucose-regulated manner. Conclusion: It was found that over-expression of miR-375 led to a reduction in levels of Mtpn protein in derived IPCs, while treatment with anti-miR-9 following miR-375 over-expression had synergistic effects on MSCs differentiation and insulin secretion in a glucose-regulated manner. The researchers reported that silencing of miR-9 increased OC-2 protein in IPCs that may contribute to the observed glucose-regulated insulin secretion. These findings highlight miRNAs functions in stem cells differentiation and suggest that they could be used as therapeutic tools for gene-based therapy in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: Diabetes, Differentiation, MSCs, insulin producing cells, miR-375, miR-9

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
83 Association of AGT (M268T) Gene Polymorphism in Diabetes and Nephropathy in Pakistan

Authors: Syed M. Shahid, Rozeena Shaikh, Syeda N. Nawab, Abid Azhar

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent non-communicable disease worldwide. DM may lead to many vascular complications like hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and foot infections. Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is implicated by the polymorphisms in genes encoding the specific components of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) which include angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-II receptor and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genes. This study was designed to explore the possible association of AG (M268T) polymorphism in the patients of diabetes and nephropathy in Pakistan. Study subjects included 100 controls, 260 diabetic patients without renal insufficiency and 190 diabetic nephropathy patients with persistent albuminuria. Fasting blood samples were collected from all the subjects after getting institutional ethical approval and informed consent. The biochemical estimations, PCR amplification and direct sequencing for the specific region of AGT gene was carried out. A significantly high frequency of TT genotype and T allele of AGT (M268T) was observed in the patients of diabetes with nephropathy as compared to controls and diabetic patients without any known renal impairment. The TT genotype and T allele of AGT (M268T) polymorphism may be considered as a genetic risk factor for the development and progression of nephropathy in diabetes. Further cross sectional population studies would be of help to establish and confirm the observed possible association of AGT gene variations with development of nephropathy in diabetes.

Keywords: Diabetes, RAAS, AGT (M268T), nephropathy

Procedia PDF Downloads 388