Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 157

Culture Related Abstracts

157 Growth of New Media Advertising

Authors: Palwinder Bhatia

Abstract:

As all know new media is a broad term in media studies that emerged in the latter part of the 20th century which refers to on-demand access to content any time, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media content. The role of new media in advertisement is impeccable these days. It becomes the cheap and best way of advertising. Another important promise of new media is the democratization of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content. New media brings a revolution in about every field. It makes bridge between customer and companies. World make a global village with the only help of new media. Advertising helps in shaping the consumer behavior and effect on consumer psychology, sociology, social anthropology and economics. People do comments and like the particular brands on the networking sites which create mesmerism impact on the behavior of customer. Recent study did by Times of India shows that 64% of Facebook users have liked a brand on Facebook.

Keywords: Media, Culture, Film, Visual, Advertisement

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
156 Contradictions of Contemporary Culture and Civilization, Processes of Tradition and Innovation

Authors: T. H. Gabitov, Z. N. Ismagambetova, Saira Shamahay, G. K. Abdigalieva, K. A. Biazdikova, A. A. Mukhanbet, B. E. Moldagaliyev

Abstract:

In the article was shown attitude to contemporary traditional culture and cultural heritage preservation issues and features of further development of a culture. Concerning innovation, appeal to cultural heritage, ability of reception of a culture and cultural diffusion in the process of globalization, it is offered further positive development of Kazakhstan’s based human experience and achieved with time. System of traditions is considered as a phenomenon which describes unity, harmony and stability of social body. Contradictions of contemporary culture and civilization, processes of tradition and innovation, cultural changes, and creativities are considered as second side of a society development. Innovation is analyzed as a method of renewal of a culture, tradition and innovation are considered as universal feature of any culture.

Keywords: Innovation, Culture, Values, Civilization, Reality, morality‎, Customs, Social Relations, tradition

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155 The name of Thai Muslim students: The Reflection of value and Identity of Thai Muslim

Authors: Apichaya Kaewuthai

Abstract:

To study the meaning of Muslim name in order to analyse the underlining value and identity from first year to forth year Muslim students at Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai Campus. The questionnaires are employed as a main analytical tool to acquire the names from 80 Muslim students in four study years. The meanings of obtained names are subsequently analysed and summarized base upon related documents to uncover the beneath value. The study reveals that name of male is derived from the name of prophet; Nabi Muhammad, merit, dignity, origins, leadership and the faith in Islam. For female, on the other hand, their names are related to virtue and beauty, cleanliness and peace, hope and flowers which comply with their characteristics. One of the reasons contribute to the principle of naming is the regulation of Ministry of Culture which states that the name should represent one’s nature and characters. The given name reflects value and identity of Muslim which can be classified into three categories including 1) Value related to belief in Islam 2) value related to relationship among families and relatives 3) value about relationship with nature and environment. All the above mentioned reflect Muslim value and identity vividly. The name of Muslim students allows the researcher to perceive the perspective, belief and value in giving the name of Thai Muslim. Besides, it reveals social condition and their culture. It can also be the fundamental of studying the meaning of name in other races.

Keywords: Culture, Economic, the naming, Thai Muslim

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154 Islamic Architecture and the Challenges against It

Authors: Mohammad Torabiyan, Kazem Mosawi Nejad

Abstract:

Today architecture has become as a powerful media for introducing cultures to the world, which in turn brings about a change in the global insight, power gaining, investment and development. Islamic architecture is based on the language of Koran and shows the depth and richness of Islam through spiritual soul. This is in a way that belief in monotheism and faith in Islamic teachings are manifested as Islam's aesthetic thought in Islamic architecture. Unfortunately, Islamic architecture has been damaged a lot due to lack of necessary information and also successive wars which have overtaken the Muslims as well as the dominance of colonizing counties. Islamic architecture is rooted in the history, culture and civilization of Muslims but its deficiencies and shortcomings should be removed through systematizing the Islamic architecture researchers. Islamic countries should act in a way that the art of Islamic architecture shows its true place in different architecture eras and makes everybody aware that Islamic architecture has a historical root and is connected eternally to the genuineness, religious art and culture of Muslims and civilization.

Keywords: Culture, Islamic Architecture, Art, Civilization, Muslims

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153 In vitro Culture of Flowers of Maerua crassiflia

Authors: Abobkar Abrahem Mohamed Saad, Asma Abud Alsalam

Abstract:

Closed flowers of Maerua crassifolia were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with benzyl amino purine BA (1.0 mg/l). The colour of flowers changed from green to pale brown after one week. They opened after two weeks. The anthers became clear which was observed after 3 weeks. Calluses are induced from sepals after one month. 19 anthers were observed with average length of 1.9 cm. The amount of calluses increased after 40 days. These calluses were fragmented and subcultured on MS+ 2-4D (1.0 mg/l) in order to increase growth.

Keywords: Culture, In vitro, Flowers, Maerua

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152 Women’s Rights in Conflict with People’s Cultural Autonomy: Problems of Cultural Accommodation

Authors: Nazia Khan

Abstract:

The paper explores the cultural rights accommodation by the state which has left many unresolved problems. The cultural rights sometimes violate the basic individual rights of the members inside the community like women. The paper further explicates certain cultural norms and practices which violates the rights of women inside the community in the name of culture.

Keywords: Culture, Women, Communities, rights, vulnerable, accomadation

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151 The Dimensions of Culture in the Productive Internationalization Process: An Overview about Brazilian Companies in Bolivia

Authors: Renato Dias Baptista

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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the elements of the cultural dimension in the internationalization process of Brazilian companies in Bolivia. This paper is based on research on two major Brazilian transnational companies which have plants in Bolivia. To achieve the objectives, the interconnective characteristics of culture in the process of productive internationalization were analyzed aiming to highlight it as a guiding element opposite the premises of the Brazilian leadership in the integration and development of the continent. The analysis aims to give relevance to the culture of a country and its relations with internationalization.

Keywords: Culture, Transnational, Internationalization, Brazil, Bolivia

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150 Art and Culture in the Development Period to Modernization in the Reign of King Rama VI

Authors: Weena Eiamprapai

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The growth of Thai society in western style in the middle of Rattanakosin period can be defined as modernization /civilization. These terms had an influence on the development of the country in the reign of King Rama V owing to the governance reform, and cultures influenced by the West. Those were passed on until the reign of King Rama VI. The preference was not only for the renovation of architecture and arts based on Thai customs reflecting the prosperity and beauty of handicrafts but also for the acceptance of westernization. The remain of this acceptance includes the concept of such value as gentlemanly behavior like that in Victorian Era of the United Kingdom, and the support of women’s status. Moreover, the wide spread of modernization leads to the movement to change the country’s governance system from absolute monarchy to democracy by a group of people called Rattanakosin Era (R.E.) 130 party.

Keywords: Culture, Art, modernization, development period, King Rama VI

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
149 Civility in Indonesia: Comparison of Indonesian People's Friendliness with the Past

Authors: Abshari Nabilah Fiqi, Sekar Ayu Dian Kusumaningtyas, Amira Eka Pratiwi

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Since a very long time ago, Indonesia are well known for their hospitality. Hospitality has been one of the civility concepts that represented Indonesia’s culture. However, as an Indonesian, we found that nowadays we are starting to lose this particular culture. The influence of modern culture is undeniably strong. As a capital city, Jakarta is one of the most modern cities in Indonesia. We conduct this experimental study to find out whether the people in Jakarta are still willing to maintain their identity as a friendly Indonesian or not by testing their willingness to reply greetings from strangers.

Keywords: Culture, hospitality, City, modern, civility, greetings

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148 The Yak of Thailand: Folk Icons Transcending Culture, Religion, and Media

Authors: David M. Lucas, Charles W. Jarrett

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In the culture of Thailand, the Yak serve as a mediated icon representing strength, power, and mystical protection not only for the Buddha, but for population of worshipers. Originating from the forests of China, the Yak continue to stand guard at the gates of Buddhist temples. The Yak represents Thai culture in the hearts of Thai people. This paper presents a qualitative study regarding the curious mix of media, culture, and religion that projects the Yak of Thailand as a larger than life message throughout the political, cultural, and religious spheres. The gate guardians, or gods as they are sometimes called, appear throughout the religious temples of Asian cultures. However, the Asian cultures demonstrate differences in artistic renditions (or presentations) of such sentinels. Thailand gate guards (the Yak) stand in front of many Buddhist temples, and these iconic figures display unique features with varied symbolic significance. The temple (or wat), plays a vital role in every community; and, for many people, Thailand’s temples are the country’s most endearing sights. The authors applied folk-nography as a methodology to illustrate the importance of the Thai Yak in serving as meaningful icons that transcend not only time, but the culture, religion, and mass media. The Yak represent mythical, religious, artistic, cultural, and militaristic significance for the Thai people. Data collection included interviews, focus groups, and natural observations. This paper summarizes the perceptions of the Thai people concerning their gate sentries and the relationship, communication, connection, and the enduring respect that Thai people hold for their guardians of the gates.

Keywords: Communication, Image, Media, Culture, Protection, Religion, Yak, folknography, icon

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147 Points of View on Turkish Trade Marks by Foreigners Living in Konya

Authors: İmran Ugur, Zulfiye Acar

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Trade marks are composed of figures, signs or symbols such as logos, colours and designs to be formed for service or products to be different from their counterparts. However, trade marks have nowadays a large meaning that defines its classical description. It has an understanding that pioneers novelties by forming the perception of quality, being emotional constituents and leading to links to their consumers. While entering different markets all over the world, Turkish trade marks are encountering a new type of consumers in Turkey migrating from different countries. Most of these new consumers meet Turkish trade marks for the first time. The present study was performed to investigate the perception of Turkish trade marks living in Konya. How these consumers look at the trade marks of clothes, food, beverages, GSM operators and whiteware appliances, and perceive these trade marks were tried to be determined. Which trade marks they chose according to their preferences, and the awareness of Turkish trade marks were evaluated in the study.

Keywords: Culture, Brand Awareness, Brand, trade marks

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146 Lived Experience of Breast Cancer for Arab Muslim Women

Authors: Nesreen M. Alqaissi

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Little is known about the lived experiences of breast cancer among Arab Muslim women. The researcher used a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design to explore the lived experiences of breast cancer as described by Jordanian Muslim women. A purposive sample of 20 women with breast cancer was recruited. Data were collected utilizing individual semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using Heideggerian Hermeneutical methodology. Results: Five related themes and one constitutive pattern: (a) breast cancer means death; (b) matriarchal family members as important source of support; (c) spirituality as a way to live and survive breast cancer; (d) concealing cancer experiences to protect self and families; (e) physicians as protectors and treatment decision makers; (f) the constitutive pattern: culture influencing Jordanian women experiences with breast cancer. In conclusion, researchers and healthcare providers should consider the influence of culture, spirituality, and families, when caring for women with breast cancer from Jordan.

Keywords: Culture, Breast Cancer, Spirituality, jordan, Arab Muslim, lived experiences

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145 Empowering the Citizens: The Potential of Zimbabwean Library and Information Science Schools in Contributing towards Socio-Economic Transformation

Authors: Collence Takaingenhamo Chisita, Munyaradzi Shoko

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Library and Information Science Schools play significant roles in socio–economic transformation but in most cases they are downplayed or overshadowed by other institutions, and professions. Currently Zimbabwe boasts of high literacy rate in Africa and this success would have been impossible without the contributions of library schools and related institutions. Libraries and librarians are at the epicentre of socio-economic development and their role cannot be downplayed. It is out of this context that the writer will explore the extent to which library schools are contributing towards socio-economic transformation, for example, human capital development and facilitating access to information. The writer will seek to explain and clarify how LIS schools are engaged in socio-economic transformation through supporting education and culture through community engagement. The paper will examine the LIS education models, for example, general education and Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) or Competency Based Education and Training (CBET). It will also seek to find out how LIS Schools are contributing to the information/knowledge economy through education, training and research. The writer will also seek to find out how LIS Education is responding to socio-economic and political dynamics in Zimbabwe amidst forces of globalisation and cultural identities. Furthermore, the writer will explore the extent to which LIS education can help to reposition Zimbabwe in the global knowledge economy. The author will examine how LIS schools integrate culture and technology.

Keywords: Development, Culture, Collaboration, Globalisation, Empowerment, information/knowledge economy

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144 Fostering Multiculturalism on University Campuses: A Global Perspective

Authors: Ashok Chaskar

Abstract:

The present paper aims at fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses as each university campus now a day is crowded with variety of students representing different countries and cultures. The students of different countries and communities have to respect cultural diversity and promote the idea of inclusion. Multiculturalism has defining promotional values and functions, which establish cultural contacts, exchanges cultural ideologies and promotes the value of harmonious coexistence of many cultures. Living together on university campuses is a life-long experience to the students coming from various backgrounds, therefore multiculturalism can teach them the value of appreciation of interdependence, understanding cultural differences, spirit of respect, mutual understanding, peaceful coexistence, spirit of solidarity and help them in managing conflicts. By fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses, the students can learn new things; they can share their new experiences and contribute innovative ideas with each other. However, religious and ethnic diversity enrich the educational experiences of the students of various backgrounds.

Keywords: Culture, Tolerance, Cultural Pluralism, Cultural Diversity, Autonomy, ethnic diversity, ethnic groups, egalitarianism, socio-cultural harmony, harmonious coexistence

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143 From “Learning to Read” to “Reading to Learn”

Authors: Lucélia Alcântara

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Reading has been seen as a passive skill by many people for a long time. However, when one comes to study it deeply and in a such a way that the act of reading equals acquiring knowledge through living an experience that belongs to him/her, passive definitely becomes active. Material development with a focus on reading has to consider much more than reading strategies. The following questions are asked: Is the material appropriate to the students’ reality? Does it make students think and state their points of view? With that in mind a lesson has been developed to illustrate theory becoming practice. Knowledge, criticality, intercultural experience and social interaction. That is what reading is for.

Keywords: Learning, Culture, Reading, material development

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142 The Antrophological Determination of Pedagogy

Authors: Sara Kakuk

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Pedagogy has always been open to other disciplines that reflect about the educational process (philosophy, sociology, psychology, anthropology, technology, etc.). Its interdisciplinary openness puts education, as the subject of pedagogy within a broader context of the community, enabling the knowledge of other disciplines to contribute to a better understanding of the fundamental pedagogical notion of education. The purpose of pedagogy as a science serves humans, strives towards humans, must be for humans, and this is its ultimate goal. Humans are essentially dependent on education, which is also considered as a category of humans’ being, because through education an entire world develops in humans. Anthropological assumptions of humans as "deficient beings" see the solution in education, but they also indicate a wealth of shortcomings, because they provide an opportunity for enrichment and formation of culture, living and the self. In that context, this paper illustrates the determination of pedagogy through an anthropological conception of humans and the phenomenon of education. It presents a review of anthropological ideas about education, by providing an analysis of relevant literature dealing with the anthropological notion of humans, which provides fruitful conditions for a pedagogical reconsideration of education.

Keywords: Education, pedagogy, Anthropology, Humans, Culture

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141 Socio-Religious Mythology of the Igala of Central Nigeria Area

Authors: Abdullahi Musa Yusuf

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Culture and traditions are an embodiment of every society. In Africa, people are socialized into believing that the world is full of mysteries. Mysteries that can only be explain through the interpretation of some forces which are ordinarily beyond the comprehension of Man. These forces have the power and capability of influencing the lives of the living either benevolently or malevolently. To decipher these mysteries various religious and cultural practices were evolved. This paper is therefore an attempt to explain the traditional religious belief system and the relationship existing between the forces of the living and dead among the Igala people of the Central Nigeria Region.

Keywords: Culture, Mythology, Nigeria, tradition

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140 The Effect of Culture on User Interface Design of Social Media- A Case Study on Preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic User Interface of Facebook

Authors: Hana Almakky, Reza Sahandi, Jacqui Taylor

Abstract:

Social media continue to grow, and user interfaces may become more appealing if cultural characteristics are incorporated into their design. Facebook was designed in the west, and the original language was English. Subsequently, the words in the user interface were translated to other languages, including Arabic. Arabic words are written from right to left, and English is written from left to right. The translated version may misrepresent the original design and users preferences may influence their culture, which should be considered in the user interface design. Previous research indicates that users are more comfortable when interacting with a user interface, which relates to their own culture. Therefore, this paper, using a survey investigates the preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic version of user interface of Facebook.

Keywords: Social Media, Culture, Saudi Arabia, user interface design, Facebook

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139 Female Entrepreneurship in Transitional Economies: An In-Depth Comparative Study about Challenges Facing Female Entrepreneurs in Nigeria and Egypt

Authors: Dina Mohamed Ayman, Rafieu Akin

Abstract:

In an attempt to increase the female total entrepreneurial activities (TEA) within Egypt and Nigeria, this paper aims to investigate the challenges facing female entrepreneurs operating in Egypt, in relative to Nigeria. In this regard, both researchers undertook a qualitative approach due to the scarcity of the literature reviewed on the topic; in those particular countries, and as an in-depth comparative mode. Therefore, ten Egyptian entrepreneurs in relative to ten Nigerian entrepreneurs were in-depth investigated. The research findings prove that female entrepreneurs face complex problems for being both gender and country-specific. Regarding the gender-specific obstacles, the work/life imbalance due to the scarcity of child-care nurseries and the prevalence of the gender-role division while performing the house chores rather than the concept of co-operation, acted as a main source of cultural challenge because women are considered mostly as 'housewives'. However, interestingly, this specific gender-discrimination challenge is proven to have no grounded effect in terms of the business-establishment and daily dealings neither in Egypt nor Nigeria, as one of the sample exclaimed 'as long as you pay, then no gender difference is set on the table'. Other country-specific challenges facing female entrepreneurs, lied in, the aggregate weak entrepreneurial framework governing both countries, also, women faced the difficulty of access to financial institutions with collateral requirements that are usually "hardly to be met", besides, the absence of the "micro-credit-Grameen-banks" concept. As well, the scarcity of incubators and business training centers providing network, consultancy and well-trained workforce to female entrepreneurs constitute a major hurdle for women entrepreneurs operating in both countries. Finally, this paper will conclude the research by offering a set of public-policy recommendations to pave the way for females to choose self-employment as a career path.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Culture, micro-credit, obstacles, female entrepreneurship, framework conditions

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138 Social and Culture Capital in Patthana Soi Ranongklang Community, Dusit District, Bangkok

Authors: Phusit Phukamchanoad, Bua Srikos

Abstract:

Research aimed to study the characteristics of a community in the social, economical and cultural context. This research used interviews and surveys members in Patthana Soi Ranongklang community, Dusit District, Bangkok. The results are as follows: In terms of overall conditions and characteristics, Patthana Soi Ranongklang community is located on the property of Treasury Department. 50 years ago the location of this community consisted of paddy fields with limited convenience in terms of transportation. Rama V Road was only a small narrow road with only three-wheelers and no buses. The majority of community members moved in from Makkhawan Rangsan Bridge. Thus, most community members were either workers or government officials as they were not the owners of the land. Therefore, there were no primary occupations within this 7 acres of the community. The development of the community started in 1981. At present, the community is continuously being developed and modernization is rapidly flowing in. One of the reasons was because main roads were amended, especially Rama V Road that allows more convenient transportation, leading to heightened citizens’ convenience. In terms of the economy and society, the research found out that the development and expansion of Rama V Road cause a change in the conditions of the area and buildings. Some building were improved and changed along the time, as well as the development of new facilities that cause the community members to continually become more materialistic. Jobs within the community started to appear, and areas were improved to allow for new building and housing businesses. The trend of jobs become more in variety, in terms of both jobs at home, such as workers, merchandizing, and small own businesses, and jobs outside the community, which became much more convenient as car drivers are used to the narrow roads inside the community. The location of the community next to Rama V Road also allows helo from government agencies to reach the community with ease. Moreover, the welfare of the community was well taken care of by the community committee. In terms of education, the research found that there are two schools: Wat Pracharabuedham School and Wat Noi Noppakun School, that are providing education within the community. The majority of the community received Bachelor degrees. In areas of culture, the research found that the culture, traditions, and beliefs of people in the community were mainly transferred from the old community, especially beliefs in Buddhism as the majority are Bhuddists. The main reason is because the old community was situated near Wat Makut Kasattriyaram. Therefore, the community members have always had Buddhist temples as the center of the community. In later years, more citizens moved in and bring along culture, traditions, and beliefs with them. The community members also took part in building a Dharma hall named Wat Duang Jai 72 Years Ranong Klang. Traditions that community members adhere to since the establishment of the community are the New Year merit making and Songkran Tradition.

Keywords: Culture, Social Capital, way of life, Patthana Soi Ranongklang community

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137 Corruption in the Financial Services Industry: Is Regulation the Panacea?

Authors: Maria Krambia-Kapardis, Elisavet Charalambous

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Corruption has given rise to extensive discussion due to its notorious consequences. It undermines democracy, brings in inequalities and imbalances and weakens governance. With the recent financial turmoil pinpointing that corruption has played a vital part, lessons have to be learned and actions have to be taken. Regulation can be the means for doing so as it advances transparency and accountability, leaving no space for corruption to flourish. Much depends though on the culture of a state and how determined it is to mark the end of corruption.

Keywords: Culture, Corruption, European Union, banking regulation

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136 Comparison of Growth and Biomass of Red Alga Cultured on Rope and Net

Authors: Esmaeil Kouhgardi, Saeedeh Dashti, Hakimeh Fekrandish

Abstract:

This research has been conducted to study the method of culture and comparing growth and biomass of Gracilariacorticata cultured on rope and net for 50 days through two treatments (first treatment: culture of alga on net and the second treatment: culture of alga on rope and each treatment was repeated by four cases). During culture period, the water of aquariums was replaced once every two days for 40-50%. Also, 0.3-0.5 grams of Urea fertilizer was added to the culture environment for fertilization. Moreover, some of the environmental factors such as pH, salinity and temperature of the environment were measured on a daily basis. During the culture period, extent of longitudinal growth of the species of both treatments was equal. The said length was reached from 8-10 cm to 10.5-13 cm accordingly. The resulted weight in repetitions of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment in such a way as in the first treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 21.119 grams and in the second treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 17.663 grams. On a whole, it may be stated that that kind of alga being studied has a considerable growth with respect to its volume. The results have revealed that the percentage of daily growth and wet weight at the end of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment and it was registered as 0.934, 6.072 and 811.432 in the first treatment and 0.797, 4.990 and 758.071 in the second treatment respectively. This difference is significant (P < 0.05). Growth and biomass of G. corticata through culture on net was more emphasizing on numerous branches due to wider bed. Moreover, higher level of the species in this method was exposed to sunlight and this increased biosynthesis and eventually increases of growth and biomass.

Keywords: biomass, Culture, Growth, red alga, net, rope

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135 Detonating Culture, Statistic and Developmenet in Imo State of Nigeria

Authors: Ejikeme Ugiri

Abstract:

In an executive summary, UNESCO describes Framework for Cultural Statistics as a tool for organizing cultural statistics both nationally and internationally. This is based on conceptual foundation and a common understanding of culture that will enable the measurement of a wide range of cultural expressions. This means therefore that cultural expression in whatever guise has the potentiality of contributing reasonably to the development of a given society. The paper looked into the various tangible and intangible cultures in Imo State of Nigeria. Due to government’s insensitivity, there is need to remind ourselves of the need to pay adequate attention to the cultural heritage bequeathed to us by our forefathers for the sake of posterity. Documenting this information in written form therefore becomes imperative. The study concludes that culture if developed, could reasonably contribute to economic and social growth of the society.

Keywords: Development, Statistics, Culture, detonation

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134 Spoken Rhetoric in Arabic Heritage

Authors: Ihab Al-Mokrani

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The Arabic heritage has two types of spoken rhetoric: the first type which al-Jaahiz calls “the rhetoric of the sign,” which means body language, and the rhetoric of silence which is of no less importance than the rhetoric of the sign, the speaker’s appearance and movements, etc. The second type is the spoken performance of utterances which bears written rhetoric arts like metaphor, simile, metonymy, etc. Rationale of the study: First: in spite of the factual existence of rhetorical phenomena in the Arabic heritage, there has been no contemporary study handling the spoken rhetoric in the Arabic heritage. Second: Arabic Civilization is originally a spoken one. Comparing the Arabic culture and civilization, from one side, to the Greek, roman or Pharaonic cultures and civilizations, from the other side, shows that the latter cultures and civilizations started and flourished written while the former started among illiterate people who had no interest in writing until recently. That sort of difference on the part of the Arabic culture and civilization created a rhetoric different from rhetoric in the other cultures and civilizations. Third: the spoken nature of the Arabic civilization influenced the Arabic rhetoric in the sense that specific rhetorical arts have been introduced matching that spoken nature. One of these arts is the art of concision which compensates for the absence of writing’s means of preserving the text. In addition, this interprets why many of the definitions of the Arabic rhetoric were defining rhetoric as the art of concision. Also, this interprets the fact that the literary genres known in the Arabic culture were limited by the available narrow space like poetry, anecdotes, and stories, while the literary genres in the Greek culture were of wide space as epics and drama. This is not of any contrast to the fact that some Arabic poetry would exceed 100 lines of poetry as Arabic poetry was based on the line organic unity, which means that every line could stand alone with a full meaning that is not dependent on the rest of the poem; and that last aspect has never happened in any culture other than the Arabic culture.

Keywords: Culture, Arabic rhetoric, spoken rhetoric, Arabic heritage

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133 The Nature of Origin of New Criminal Occurrences in Gjakova Region: Cultural and Criminological “Intersection” in 1999-2009

Authors: Bekim Avdiaj

Abstract:

The transition period of Kosovo society brought fundamental changes in all the spheres of organizing life. This was the period when also in the cultural tradition the biggest movement and an emerging from ‘isolation’ or from the ‘shell’ occurred. Transformation of the traditional and embracing of the modern began here. The same was experienced and is currently being experienced also by Gjakova and its surrounding which is historically renowned for its great tradition and culture. The population of this region is actually facing a transition from the traditional system into the modern one and quite often with huge leaps. These ‘movements’ or ‘evolutions’ of the society of this region, besides the numerous positive things it ‘harvested’, also brought things that do not at all correspond with their tradition as well as new criminal occurrences which in the past were not present in this area. Furthermore, some of the ‘new’ behaviours that are embraced from other ‘cultures’ and ‘civilizations’, and which are often exceeded, are quite perturbing. The security situation is also worrying, particularly following the appearance of some new criminal occurrences. Therefore, with this research paper we will strive to analyse the new cultural “intersections” as well as the nature of the origin of some new very worrying criminal occurrences. We will present there also some factors inciting into these occurrences, which were confessed by the persons involved in these criminal occurrences and who come from this very region.

Keywords: Crime, Culture, occurrence, Gjakova Region

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132 Multilingualism and the Question of National Language in Nigeria

Authors: Salome Labeh

Abstract:

Diverse Languages that exist in Nigeria, gave rise to the need to choose among these languages, which one or ones to be used as the National Language(s) in Nigeria. The Multilingual Nature of Nigeria has been examined, in relation to the provisional result of 1991 census conducted in Nigeria and the status of language policy in the country, which eventually led to the discovery of the fact that Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba languages have the highest speaker in terms of population, and are already made co-official languages in Nigeria, alongside with English language. Then, these languages should be considered as the National Languages, if eventually a language policy emerges in Nigeria.

Keywords: Culture, Languages, Nigeria, multilingual

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131 A Linguistic Relativity Appraisal of an African Drama: The Lion and The Jewel

Authors: T. O. Adekunle, R. L. Makhubu, C. N. Ngwane

Abstract:

This research was designed to assess the validity of the Sapir Whorf hypothesis in relation to the linguistic and cultural notions of the Yoruba and Zulu language speakers’ via the evaluation of the culture enriched dramatic text The Lion and The Jewel by Wole Soyinka. The study queried both the hypothesis’ strong version, (language governs thought: linguistic classifications restrain and influence mental classifications); and its weak version, (linguistic classifications and their use influence thought as well as some other classes of non-linguistic activities) and their possible reliability. Participants were purposively selected and their ages ranged from 16-46 years old. The participants amounted to 38 (18 Yoruba and 20 Zulu) students of DUT who all speak both English and Zulu (Zulu participants) and English and Yoruba (Yoruba participants) and the mixed methods approach was used. Thus with the use of questionnaire and interviews the research questions were answered and the findings provided support for validity of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, languages indeed influence thought. The findings also revealed that linguistic influence on cognition is not limited to different language users alone, but also same language speakers per level of exposure to other languages and concepts.

Keywords: Cognition, Culture, Language, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Thought, DUT, linguistic relativity hypothesis, The Lion and The Jewel, Wole Soyinka, Yoruba, Zulu

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130 Culture and Commodification: A Study of William Gibson's the Bridge Trilogy

Authors: Aruna Bhat

Abstract:

Culture can be placed within the social structure that embodies both the creation of social groups, and the manner in which they interact with each other. As many critics have pointed out, culture in the Postmodern context has often been considered a commodity, and indeed it shares many attributes with commercial products. Popular culture follows many patterns of behavior derived from Economics, from the simple principle of supply and demand, to the creation of marketable demographics which fit certain criterion. This trend is exemplary visible in contemporary fiction, especially in contemporary science fiction; Cyberpunk fiction in particular which is an off shoot of pure science fiction. William Gibson is one such author who in his works portrays such a scenario, and in his The Bridge Trilogy he adds another level of interpretation to this state of affairs, by describing a world that is centered on industrialization of a new kind – that focuses around data in the cyberspace. In this new world, data has become the most important commodity, and man has become nothing but a nodal point in a vast ocean of raw data resulting into commodification of each thing including Culture. This paper will attempt to study the presence of above mentioned elements in William Gibson’s The Bridge Trilogy. The theories applied will be Postmodernism and Cultural studies.

Keywords: Postmodern, Culture, Data, commodity, cyberpunk

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129 Impact of SES and Culture on Well-Being of Adolescent

Authors: Shraddha B. Rai, Mahipatsinh D. Chavda, Bharat S. Trivedi

Abstract:

The aim of the present research is to study the effect of education and social belonging on well-being of youth. Well-being is one of the most important aspects of human being and the state of well-being can be attained in terms of healthy body with healthy mind. Well-being has been defined as encompassing people’s cognitive and affective evaluations of their lives. Well-being has been interchangeably used with health and quality of life. According to the WHO, the main determinants of health include the social, economic, and the physical environment and the persons individual characteristics and behaviors. WHO lists other factors that can influence the well-being of a person such as the gender, education, social support networks and health services. The main objective of the present investigation is to know the effect of education and social belonging on well-being of youth. The sample of 180 students belonging to Gujarati and English (convent) culture were selected randomly from Guajarati and English (convent) schools of Ahmedabad City of Gujarat (India). General well-being Scale by Dr. Ashok Kalia and Ms. Anita Deswal was administered to measure the Physical, Emotional, and Social and school well-being. The result shows that there is significant different found between Gujarati and English (convent) culture on Well-being in school students. SES is also affect significantly to wellbeing of students.

Keywords: Health, Culture, Quality of Life, Well-being, SES

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128 Enhancing English Language Learning through Learners Cultural Background

Authors: Rabi Abdullahi Danjuma, A. Attahiru, Fatima Bint

Abstract:

Language and culture are two concepts which are closely related that one affects the other. This paper attempts to examine the definition of language and culture by discussing the relationship between them. The paper further presents some instructional strategies for the teaching of language and culture as well as the influence of culture on language. It also looks at its implication to language education and finally some recommendation and conclusion were drawn.

Keywords: Teaching, Relationship, Culture, Language, Strategies

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