Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 108

Corrosion Related Abstracts

108 Corellation between Soil Electrical Resistivity and Metal Corrosion Based on Soil Types for Structure Designs

Authors: L. O. A. Oyinkanola, J.A. Fajemiroye

Abstract:

Soil resistivity measurements are an important parameter employed in the designing earthing installations. Thus, The knowledge of soil resistivity with respect to how it varies with related parameters such as moisture content, Temperature and depth at the intended site is very vital to determine how the desired earth resistance value can be attained and sustained over the life of the installation with the lowest cost and effort. The relationship between corrosion and soil resistivity has been investigated in this work. Varios soil samples: Sand, Gravel, Loam, Clay and Silt were collected from different spot within the vicinity.

Keywords: Corrosion, Hydraulic Conductivity, Clay, resistivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
107 Titanium-Aluminium Oxide Coating on Aluminized Steel

Authors: Fuyan Sun, Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie

Abstract:

In this study, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to form titanium-aluminium oxide coating on aluminized steel. The present work was mainly to study the effects of treatment time of PEO process on properties of the titanium coating. A potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test was employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the coating were studied by using pin-on-disc test. The thermal transfer behaviours of uncoated and PEO-coated aluminized steels were also studied. It could be seen that treatment time of PEO process significantly influenced the properties of the titanium oxide coating. Samples with a longer treatment time had a better performance for corrosion and wear protection. This paper demonstrated different treatment time could alter the surface behaviour of the coating material.

Keywords: Corrosion, Wear, thermal property, titanium-aluminum oxide, plasma electrolytic oxidation

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106 Effect of Nickel Coating on Corrosion of Alloys in Molten Salts

Authors: C. S. Sona, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati, Divya Raghunandanan, Bhavesh D. Gajbhiye

Abstract:

Molten fluoride salts are considered as potential coolants for next generation nuclear plants where the heat can be utilized for production of hydrogen and electricity. Among molten fluoride salts, FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol %) is a potential candidate for the coolant due to its superior thermophysical properties such as high temperature stability, boiling point, volumetric heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Major technical challenge in implementation is the selection of structural material which can withstand corrosive nature of FLiNaK. Corrosion study of alloys SS 316L, Hastelloy B, Ni-201 was performed in molten FLiNaK at 650°C. Nickel was found to be more resistant to corrosive attack in molten fluoride medium. Corrosion experiments were performed to study the effect of nickel coating on corrosion of alloys SS 316L and Hastelloy B. Weight loss of the alloys due to corrosion was measured and corrosion rate was estimated. The surface morphology of the alloys was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

Keywords: Corrosion, weight loss, FLiNaK, hastelloy

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105 Characterisation and in vitro Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite and Hydroxyapatite: Silicon Oxide Coatings on 316L SS

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Buta Singh Sidhu

Abstract:

In the current investigation plasma spray technique was used for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA – silicon oxide (SiO2) coatings on 316L SS substrate. In HA-SiO2 coating, 20 wt% SiO2 was mixed with HA. The feedstock and coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The corrosion resistance of the uncoated, HA coated and HA + 20 wt% SiO2 coated 316L SS was investigated by electrochemical corrosion testing in simulated human body fluid (Ringer’s solution). The influence of SiO2 (20 wt%) on corrosion resistance was determined. After the corrosion testing, the samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM/EDX analyses. The addition of SiO2 reduces the crystallinity of the coating. The corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was found to increase after the deposition of the HA + 20 wt% SiO2 and HA coatings.

Keywords: Corrosion, SiO2, Ringer’s solution

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104 The Corrosion Resistance of the 32CrMoV13 Steel Nitriding

Authors: Said Benramache, Okba Belahssen, Lazhar Torchane, Abdelouahed Chala

Abstract:

This paper presents corrosion behavior of the plasma-nitrided 32CrMoV13 steel. Different kinds of samples were tested: non-treated, plasma nitrided samples. The structure of layers was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behavior was evaluated by electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy). The corrosion tests were carried out in acid chloride solution (HCl 1M). Experimental results showed that the nitrides ε-Fe2−3N and γ′-Fe4N present in the white layer are nobler than the substrate but may promote, by galvanic effect, a localized corrosion through open porosity. The better corrosion protection was observed for nitrided sample.

Keywords: Corrosion, EIS, plasma-nitrided

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103 Methods for Mitigating Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid in Sewerage Systems: State of the Art Review

Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, M. Avella

Abstract:

Corrosion is an imminent process in nature, which affects all types of materials. In sewerage systems, the corrosion process caused by microorganisms, also known as biogenic sulfuric acid attack, has been studied. This affects the structural integrity of the concrete drainage pipes and the sewage treatment plants. This article is a review of research which focuses on the study of how to reduce the production of hydrogen sulfide, how to improve the resistance of concrete through the use of additives and the implementation of antimicrobial techniques to reduce bacterial growth.

Keywords: Concrete, Nano Materials, Corrosion, zeolites, bactericides, biogenic sulfuric acid, hydrogen sulphide

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102 Evaluation of Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid (BSA) on the Concrete Structures of Sewerage Systems: Chemical Tests

Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, O. Rojas

Abstract:

The research studies of the kinetics of the corrosion process that attacks concrete and occurs within sewerage systems agree on the amount of variables that interfere in the process. This study aims to check the impact of the pH levels of the corrosive environment and the concrete surface, the concentrations of chemical sulfuric acid, and in turn, measure the resistance of concrete to this attack under controlled laboratory conditions; it also aims to contribute to the development of further research related to the topic, in order to compare the impact of biogenic sulfuric acid and chemical sulfuric acid involvement on concrete structures, especially in scenarios such as sewerage systems.

Keywords: Concrete, Corrosion, acid sulfuric, biogenic

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101 Investigation of Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Anti-Corrosive Behavior of Al2O3/Cr2O3 Nanocomposite on Zn Rich Bath

Authors: N. Malatji, A. P. I. Popoola

Abstract:

Zn-Al2O3 and Cr2O3 nanocomposite coatings were successfully produced by electrodeposition technique from chloride acidic bath. Particle loading of Al2O3 (50nm) particles were varied from 5-10 g/L and for Cr2O3(100nm) was 10-20 g/L. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) affixed with energy dispersive spectrometry was used to study the surface morphology and content of the nanoparticles incorporated into the coatings. Microhardness, thermal stability, wear and corrosion behavior of the coatings were also evaluated to study the effect of these nanoparticles on these properties. Zn-Al2O3 nanocomposite was found to exhibit good surface properties especially corrosion resistance. On the other side, Cr2O3 incorporation resulted in the improvement of only mechanical properties. Therefore, Zn-Al2O3 proved to be a better coating for most industrial applications where both chemical and mechanical properties are required.

Keywords: Corrosion, Tribology, Thermal Stability, Nanocomposite Coatings, electrodeposition

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100 Electrochemical Studies of the Inhibition Effect of 2-Dimethylamine on the Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steel Type 304 in Dilute Hydrochloric Acid

Authors: Roland Tolulope Loto, Cleophas Akintoye Loto, Abimbola Patricia Popoola

Abstract:

The inhibiting action of 2-dimethylamine on the electrochemical behaviour of austenitic stainless steel (type 304) in dilute hydrochloric was evaluated through weight-loss method, open circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization tests at specific concentrations of the organic compound. Results obtained reveal that the compound performed effectively giving a maximum inhibition efficiency of 79% at 12.5% concentration from weight loss analysis and 80.9% at 12.5% concentration from polarization tests. The average corrosion potential of -321 mV was obtained the same concentration from other tests which is well within passivation potentials on the steel thus, providing good protection against corrosion in the acid solutions. 2-dimethylamine acted through physiochemical interaction at the steel/solution interface from thermodynamic calculations and obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of the inhibition efficiency determined from the three methods are in reasonably good agreement. Polarization studies showed that the compounds behaved as cathodic type inhibitor.

Keywords: Corrosion, Adsorption, steel, inhibition, hydrochloric acid

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99 Corrosion of Steel in Relation with Hydrogen Activity of Concentrated HClO4 Media: Realisation Sensor and Reference Electrode

Authors: B. Hammouti, H. Oudda, A. Benabdellah, A. Benayada, A. Aouniti

Abstract:

Corrosion behaviour of carbon steel was studied in various concentrated HClO4 solutions. To explain the acid attack in relation of H+ activity, new sensor was realised: two carbon paste electrodes (CPE) were constructed by incorporating ferrocene (Fc) and orthoquinone into the carbon paste matrix and crossed by weak current to stabilize potential difference. The potentiometric method at imposed weak current between these two electrodes permits the in situ determination of both concentration and acidity level of various concentrated HClO4 solutions. The different factors affecting the potential at imposed current as current intensity, temperature and H+ ion concentration are studied. The potentials measured between ferrocene and chloranil electrodes are directly linked to the acid concentration. The acidity Ri(H) function defined represents the determination of the H+ activity and constitutes the extend of pH is concentrated acid solutions. Ri(H) has been determined and compared to Strehlow Ro(H), Janata HGF and Hammett Ho functions. The collected data permit to give a scale of strength of mineral concentrated acids at a given concentration. Ri(H) is numerically equal to the thermodynamic Ro(H), but deviated from Hammett functions based on indicator determination. The CPE electrode with inserted ferrocene in presence of ferricinium (Fc+) ion in concentrated HClO4 at various concentrations is realized without junction potential and may plays the role of a practical reference electrode (FRE) in concentrated acids. Fc+ was easily prepared in biphasic medium HClO4-acid by the quantitative oxidation of ferrocene by the ortho-chloranil (oQ). Potential of FRE is stable with time. The variation of equilibrium potential of the interface Fc/ Fc+ at various concentrations of Fc+ (10-4 - 2 10-2 M) obeyed to the Nernst equation with a slope 0.059 Volt per decade. Corrosion rates obtained by weight loss and electrochemical techniques were then easily linked to acidity level.

Keywords: Corrosion, ferrocene, strehlow, concentrated acid, Generalised pH, sensor carbon paste electrode

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98 Green Corrosion Inhibitor from Essential Oil of Linseed for Aluminum in Na2CO3 Solution

Authors: M. Essahli, L. Bazzi, E. Azzouyahar, A. Lamiri

Abstract:

Effect of addition of linseed oil (LSO) on the corrosion of aluminium in 0.1 M Na2CO3 has been studied by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with inhibitor content to attain 70% for LSO at 4g/L. Inhibition efficiency E (%) obtained from the various methods is in good agreement. The temperature effect on the corrosion behavior of aluminium was studied by potentiodynamic technique in the range from 298 to 308 K.

Keywords: Corrosion, Aluminum, carbonate, green inhibitors, linseed oil

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97 Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition of New Synthesized Thiophene Schiff Base on Mild Steel in HCL Solution

Authors: B. Hammouti, A. Aouniti, H. Elmsellem, S. Radi, A. Chetouani

Abstract:

The synthesis of new organic molecules offers various molecular structures containing heteroatoms and substituents for corrosion protection in acid pickling of metals. The most synthesized compounds are the nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, which are known to be excellent complex or chelate forming substances with metals. The choice of the inhibitor is based on two considerations: first it could be synthesized conveniently from relatively cheap raw materials, secondly, it contains the electron cloud on the aromatic ring or, the electro negative atoms such as nitrogen and oxygen in the relatively long chain compounds. In the present study, (NE)‐2‐methyl‐N‐(thiophen‐2‐ylmethylidene) aniline(T) was synthesized and its inhibiting action on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid was examined by different corrosion methods, such as weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results suggest that this compound is an efficient corrosion inhibitor and the inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in inhibitor concentration. Adsorption of this compound on mild steel surface obeys Langmuir’s isotherm. Correlation between quantum chemical calculations and inhibition efficiency of the investigated compound is discussed using the Density Functional Theory method (DFT).

Keywords: Corrosion, schiff base, mild steel, inhibition, HCl, quantum chemical

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96 Study of the Behavior of Copper Immersed in Sea Water of the Bay of Large Agadir by Electrochemical Methods

Authors: Aicha Chaouay, Lahsen Bazzi, Mustapha Hilali

Abstract:

Seawater has chemical and biological characteristics making it particularly aggressive in relation to the corrosion of many materials including copper and steels low or moderate allies. Note that these materials are widely used in the manufacture of port infrastructure in the marine environment. These structures are exposed to two types of corrosion including: general corrosion and localized corrosion caused by the presence of sulfite-reducing micro-organisms. This work contributes to the study of the problematic related to bacterial contamination of the marine environment of large Agadir and evaluating the impact of this pollution on the corrosion resistance of copper. For the realization of this work, we conducted monthly periodic draws between (October 2012 February 2013) of seawater from the Anza area of the Bay of Agadir. Thus, after each sampling, a study of the electro chemical corrosion behavior of copper was carried out. Electro chemical corrosion parameters such as the corrosion potential, the corrosion current density, the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacity were evaluated. The electro chemical techniques used in this work are: the route potentiodynamic polarization curves and electro chemical impedance.

Keywords: Corrosion, Microbial Contamination, Copper, Bay of Agadir, seawater (Morocco)

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95 Corrosion Behvaior of CS1018 in Various CO2 Capture Solvents

Authors: Mert Atilhan, Aida Rafat, Ramazan Kahraman

Abstract:

The aggressive corrosion behavior of conventional amine solvents is one of main barriers against large scale commerizaliation of amine absorption process for carbon capture application. Novel CO2 absorbents that exhibit minimal corrosivity against operation conditions are essential to lower corrosion damage and control and ensure more robustness in the capture plant. This work investigated corrosion behavior of carbon steel CS1018 in various CO2 absrobent solvents. The tested solvents included the classical amines MEA, DEA and MDEA, piperazine activated solvents MEA/PZ, MDEA/PZ and MEA/MDEA/PZ as well as mixtures of MEA and Room Temperature Ionic Liquids RTIL, namely MEA/[C4MIM][BF4] and MEA/[C4MIM][Otf]. Electrochemical polarization technique was used to determine the system corrosiveness in terms of corrosion rate and polarization behavior. The process parameters of interest were CO2 loading and solution temperature. Electrochemical resulted showed corrosivity order of classical amines at 40°C is MDEA> MEA > DEA wherase at 80°C corrosivity ranking changes to MEA > DEA > MDEA. Corrosivity rankings were mainly governed by CO2 absorption capacity at the test temperature. Corrosivity ranking for activated amines at 80°C was MEA/PZ > MDEA/PZ > MEA/MDEA/PZ. Piperazine addition seemed to have a dual advanatge in terms of enhancing CO2 absorption capacity as well as nullifying corrosion. For MEA/RTIL mixtures, the preliminary results showed that the partial repalcement of aqueous phase in MEA solution by the more stable nonvolatile RTIL solvents reduced corrosion rates considerably.

Keywords: Corrosion, Ionic Liquids, CO2 Capture, Amines, piperazine

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94 High-Temperature Corrosion of Aluminized and Chromized Fe-25.8%Cr-19.5%Ni Alloys in N2/H2S/H2O-mixed Gases

Authors: Min Jung Kim, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

Alloys of Fe-25.8%Cr-19.5%Ni (SUS310 stainless steel) were either chromized or aluminized via pack cementation, and corroded at 800 oC for 100 h in 1 atm of (0.9448 atm of N2+0.031 atm of H2O+0.0242 atm of H2S)-mixed gases. The chromized layer consisted primarily of Cr1.36Fe0.52 and some Cr23C6. Its corrosion resulted in the formation of Cr2S3 and some FeS and Fe5Ni4S8. The aluminized coating consisted primarily of FeAl. Its corrosion resulted in the formation of α-Al2O3, Al2S3, and Cr2S3. Aluminizing was more effective than chromizing in increasing the corrosion resistance of the substrate, due mainly to the formation of α-Al2O3.

Keywords: Corrosion, aluminizing, chromizing, H2S gas

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93 Potentiodynamic Polarization Behavior of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treated AA7075

Authors: Vakil Singh, Vaibhav Pandey, K. Chattopadhyay, N. C. Santhi Srinivas

Abstract:

Aluminium alloy 7075 consist of different intermetallic precipitate particles MgZn2, CuAl2, which result in heterogeneity of micro structure and influence the corrosion properties of the alloy. Artificial ageing was found to enhance the strength properties, but highly susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking. Various conventional surface modification techniques are developed for improving corrosion properties of aluminum alloys. This led to development of novel surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) technique the so called ultrasonic shot peening which gives nano-grain structure at surface. In the present investigation the influence of surface mechanical attrition treatment on corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy 7075 was studied in 3.5wt% NaCl solution. Two different size of 1 mm and 3 mm steel balls are used as peening media and SMAT was carried out for different time intervals 5, 15 and 30 minutes. Surface nano-grains/nano-crystallization was observed after SMAT. The formation of nano-grain structure was observed for larger size balls with time of treatment and consequent increase in micro strain. As-SMATed sample with 1 mm balls exhibits better corrosion resistance as compared to that of un-SMATed sample. The enhancement in corrosion resistance may be due to formation of surface nano-grain structure which reduced the electron release rate. In contrast the samples treated with 3 mm balls showed very poor corrosion resistance. A decrease in corrosion resistance was observed with increase in the time of peening. The decrease in corrosion resistance in the shotpeened samples with larger diameter balls may due to increase in microstrain and defect density.

Keywords: Corrosion, ultrasonic shot peening, aluminum alloy 7075, SMAT, surface nano-grains

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92 Study of Corrosion Behavior of Experimental Alloys with Different Levels of Cr and High Levels of Mo Compared to Aisi 444

Authors: Ana P. R. N. Barroso, Maurício N. Kleinberg, Frederico R. Silva, Rodrigo F. Guimarães, Marcelo M. V. Parente, Walney S. Araújo

Abstract:

The fight against accelerated wear of the equipment used in the oil and gas sector is a challenge for minimizing maintenance costs. Corrosion being one of the main agents of equipment deterioration, we seek alternative materials that exhibit improved corrosion resistance at low cost of production. This study aims to evaluate the corrosion behavior of experimental alloys containing 15% and 17% of chromium (Cr) and 5% of molybdenum (Mo) in comparison with an AISI 444 commercial alloy. Microstructural analyzes were performed on samples of the alloys before and after the electrochemical tests. Two samples of each solubilized alloy were also taken for analysis of the corrosion behavior by testing potentiodynamic polarization (PP) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with immersion time of 24 hours in electrolytic solution with acidic character. The graphics obtained through electrochemical tests of PP and EIS indicated that among the experimental alloys, the alloy with higher chromium content (17%) had a higher corrosion resistance, confirming the beneficial effect of adding chromium. When comparing the experimental alloys with the AISI 444 commercial alloy, it is observed that the AISI 444 commercial alloy showed superior corrosion resistance to that of the experimental alloys for both assays, PP and EIS. The microstructural analyzes performed after the PP and EIS tests confirmed the results previously described. These results suggest that the addition of these levels of molybdenum did not favor the electrochemical behavior of experimental ferritic alloys for the electrolytic medium studied.

Keywords: Corrosion, Molybdenum, electrochemical tests, experimental alloys

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91 Performance Study of Experimental Ferritic Alloy with High Content of Molybdenum in Corrosive Environment of Soybean Methyl Biodiesel

Authors: Ana P. R. N. Barroso, Maurício N. Kleinberg, Frederico R. Silva, Rodrigo F. Guimarães, Marcelo M. V. Parente, Natasha l. Gomes, Jackson Q. Malveira

Abstract:

Increased production of biofuels, especially biodiesel, as an option to replace the diesel derived from oil is already a reality in countries seeking a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel, as is the case in Brazil. However, it is known that the use of fuels, renewable or not, implies that it is in contact with various metallic materials which may cause corrosion. In the search for more corrosion resistant materials has been experimentally observed that the addition of molybdenum in ferritic steels increases their protective character without significantly burdening the cost of production. In order to evaluate the effect of adding molybdenum, samples of commercial steel (austenitic, ferritic and carbon steel) and the experimental ferritic alloy with a high molybdenum content (5.3%) were immersed separately into biodiesel derived from transesterification of soy oil to monitor the corrosion process of these metal samples, and in parallel to analyze the oxidative degradation of biodiesel itself. During the immersion time of 258 days, biodiesel samples were taken for analysis of acidity, kinematic viscosity, density and refraction. Likewise, the metal samples were taken from the biodiesel to be weighed and microstructurally analyzed by light microscopy. The results obtained at the end of 258 days shown that biodiesel presented a considerable increase on the values of the studied parameters for all the samples. However, this increase was not able to produce significant mass loss in metallic samples. As regards the microstructural analysis, it showed the onset of surface oxidation on the carbon steel sample. As for the other samples, no significant surface changes were shown. These results are consistent with literature for short immersion times. It is concluded that the increase in the values of the studied parameters is not significant yet, probably due to the low time of immersion and exposure of the samples. Thus, it is necessary to continue the tests so that the objectives of this work are achieved.

Keywords: Corrosion, Biodiesel, Immersion, experimental alloy

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90 The Role and Impact of Cold Spray Technology on Surface Engineering

Authors: Ionel Botef

Abstract:

Studies show that, for viable product realisation and maintenance, a spectrum of novel processing technologies and materials to improve performance and reduce costs and environmental impact must constantly be addressed. One of these technologies, namely the cold spray process, has enabled a broad range of coatings and applications, including many that have not been previously possible or commercially practical, hence its potential for new aerospace, electronics, or medical applications. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to summarise the state of the art of this technology alongside its theoretical and experimental studies, and explore the role and impact of cold spraying on surface engineering.

Keywords: Maintenance, Corrosion, Surface Engineering, Cold Spray, microchannels, ageing aircrafts

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89 Study of Cathodic Protection for Trunk Pipeline of Al-Garraf Oil Field

Authors: Maysoon Khalil Askar

Abstract:

The delineation of possible areas of corrosion along the external face of an underground oil pipeline in Trunk line of Al- Garraf oil field was investigated using the horizontal electrical resistivity profiling technique and study the contribution of pH, Moisture Content in Soil and Presence chlorides, sulfates and total dissolve salts in soil and water. The test sites represent a physical and chemical properties of soils. The hydrogen-ion concentration of soil and groundwater range from 7.2 to 9.6, and the resistivity values of the soil along the pipeline were obtained using the YH302B model resistivity meter having values between 1588 and 720 Ohm-cm. the chloride concentration in soil and groundwater is high (more than 1000 ppm), total soulable salt is more than 5000 ppm, and sulphate range from 0.17% and 0.98% in soil and more than 600 ppm in groundwater. The soil is poor aeration, the soil texture is fine (clay and silt soil), the water content is high (the groundwater is close to surface), the chloride and sulphate is high in the soil and groundwater, the total soulable salt is high in ground water and finally the soil electric resistivity is low that the soil is very corrosive and there is the possibility of the pipeline failure. These methods applied in the study are quick, economic and efficient for detecting along buried pipelines which need to be protected. Routine electrical geophysical investigations along buried oil pipelines should be undertaken for the early detection and prevention of pipeline failure with its attendant environmental, human and economic consequences.

Keywords: Corrosion, Water Content, soil resistivity, cathodic protection, chloride concentration

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88 Failure Analysis of a Hydrocarbon Carrying/Piping System

Authors: Esteban Morales Murillo, Ephraim Mokgothu

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings of a study conducted to investigate the wall thinning in a piping system carrying a mix of hydrocarbons in a petrochemical plant. A detailed investigation including optical inspection and several characterisation techniques such as optical microscopy, SEM/EDX, and XRF/C-S analyses was conducted. The examinations revealed that the wall thinning in the piping system was a result of high-temperature H2/H2S corrosion caused by a susceptible material for this mechanism and operating parameters and effluent concentrations beyond the prescribed limits. The sulfide layers found to testify to the large amounts of H2S that led to material degradation. Deposit analysis revealed that it consisted primarily of carbon, oxygen, iron, chromium and sulfur. Metallographic examinations revealed that the attack initiated from the internal surface and that spheroidization of carbides did occur. The article discusses in detail the contribution failure factors on the Couper-Gorman H2/H2S curves to draw conclusions. Recommendations based on the above findings are also discussed.

Keywords: Corrosion, Couper-Gorman, high-temperature corrosion, sulfidation, wall thinning, piping system

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87 Corrosion Characterization of Al6061, Quartz Metal Matrix Composites in Alkali Medium

Authors: Radha H. R., Krupakara P. V.

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites are attracting today's manufacturers of many automobile parts so that they lost longer and their properties can be tailored according to the requirement. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the corrosion characteristics of Aluminium 6061 / quartz metal matrix composites in alkali medium like sodium hydroxide solutions. Metal matrix composites are heterogeneous mixtures of a matrix and reinforcement. In this work the matrix selected is Aluminium 6061 alloy which is commercially available and the reinforcement selected is quartz particulates of 50-80 micron size which is available in plenty in and around Bangalore district, India. Composites containing Aluminium 6061 with 2, 4 and 6 weight percent of quartz are manufactured by liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Corrosion tests like static weight loss and open circuit potential tests are conducted in different concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide. To compare the results the matrix Aluminium 6061 is also casted in the same way. Specimens for the test are prepared according to ASTM standards. In all the tests the metal matrix composites showed better corrosion resistance than matrix alloy.

Keywords: Corrosion, vortex, quartz, aluminium 6061

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86 Investigation on Corrosion Behavior of Copper Brazed Joints

Authors: A. M. Hadian, A. M. Aminazad, F. Ghasimakbari

Abstract:

DHP (Deoxidized High Phosphorus )copper is widely used in various heat transfer units such as, air conditioners refrigerators, evaporators and condensers. Copper sheets and tubes (ISODHP) were brazed with four different brazing alloys. Corrosion resistances of the joints were examined by polarization and salt spray tests. The selected fillers consisted of three silver-based brazing alloys (hard solder); AWS-BCu5 BAg8, DINLAg30, and a copper-based filler AWS BCuP2. All the joints were brazed utilizing four different brazing processes including furnace brazing under argon, vacuum, air atmosphere and torch brazing. All of the fillers were used with and without flux. The microstructure of the brazed sheets was examined using both optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Hardness and leak tests were carried out on all the brazed tubes. In all three silver brazing alloys selective and galvanic corrosion were observed in filler metals, but in copper phosphor alloys the copper adjacent to the joints were noticeably corroded by pitting method. Microstructure of damaged area showed selective attack of copper lamellae as well. Interfacial attack was observed along boundaries as well as copper attack within the filler metal itself. It was found that the samples brazed with BAg5 filler metal using vacuum furnace show a higher resistance to corrosion. They also have a good ductility in the brazed zone.

Keywords: Corrosion, Copper, brazing, filler metal

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85 Liquid Sulphur Storage Tank

Authors: Roya moradifar, Naser Agharezaee

Abstract:

In this paper corrosion in the liquid sulphur storage tank at South pars gas complex phases 2&3 is presented. This full hot insulated field-erected storage tanks are used for the temporary storage of 1800m3 of molten sulphur. Sever corrosion inside the tank roof was observed during over haul inspections, in the direction of roof gradient. Investigation shown, in spite of other parts of tank there was no insulation around these manholes. Internal steam coils do not maintain a sufficiently high tank roof temperature in the vapor space. Sulphur and formation of liquid water at cool metal surface, this combination leads to the formation of iron sulfide. By employing a distributed external heating system, the temperatures of any point of the tank roof should be based on ambient dew point and the liquid storage solidification point. Also other construction and operation of tank is more important. This paper will review potential corrosion mechanism and operational case study which illustrate the importance of heating systems.

Keywords: Corrosion, steam, tank, sulphur

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84 Mechanical Behavior of Corroded RC Beams Strengthened by NSM CFRP Rods

Authors: Belal Almassri, Amjad Kreit, Firas Al Mahmoud, Raoul François

Abstract:

Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete leads to several major defects. Firstly, a reduction in the crosssectional area of the reinforcement and in its ductility results in premature bar failure. Secondly, the expansion of the corrosion products causes concrete cracking and steel–concrete bond deterioration and also affects the bending stiffness of the reinforced concrete members, causing a reduction in the overall load-bearing capacity of the reinforced concrete beams. This paper investigates the validity of a repair technique using Near Surface Mounted (NSM) carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) rods to restore the mechanical performance of corrosion-damaged RC beams. In the NSM technique, the CFRP rods are placed inside pre-cut grooves and are bonded to the concrete with epoxy adhesive. Experimental results were obtained on two beams: a corroded beam that had been exposed to natural corrosion for 25 years and a control beam, (both are 3 m long) repaired in bending only. Each beam was repaired with one 6-mm-diameter NSM CFRP rod. The beams were tested in a three-point bending test up to failure. Overall stiffness and crack maps were studied before and after the repair. Ultimate capacity, ductility and failure mode were also reviewed. Finally some comparisons were made between repaired and non-repaired beams in order to assess the effectiveness of the NSM technique. The experimental results showed that the NSM technique improved the overall characteristics (ultimate load capacity and stiffness) of the control and corroded beams and allowed sufficient ductility to be restored to the repaired corroded elements, thus restoring the safety margin, despite the non-classical mode of failure that occurred in the corroded beam, with the separation of the concrete cover due to corrosion products.

Keywords: Corrosion, Mechanical testing, Strength, Carbon Fibre

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83 Evaluation of Corrosion by Impedance Spectroscopy of Embedded Steel in an Alternative Concrete Exposed a Chloride Ion

Authors: W. Aperador, E. Ruíz

Abstract:

In this article evaluates the protective effect of the concrete alternative obtained from the fly ash and iron and steel slag mixed in binary form and were placed on structural steel ASTM A 706. The study was conducted comparatively with specimens exposed to natural conditions free of chloride ion. The effect of chloride ion on the specimens was generated of form accelerated under controlled conditions (3.5% NaCl and 25 ° C temperature). The Impedance data were acquired over a range of 1 mHz to 100 kHz. At frequencies high is found the response of the interface means of the exposure-concrete and to frequency low the response of the interface corresponding to concrete-steel.

Keywords: Corrosion, Impedance spectroscopy, alternative concrete, alkaline activation

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82 Investigation of the Inhibition Effect of 2,3-Diaminopyridine on Mild Steel Corrosion in Solution Simulating Water of Pores Concrete in Absence and Presence of Chloride Ions

Authors: Fatiha Benghanem, Mokhtar Berarma, Saida Keraghel, Ali Ourari

Abstract:

Corrosion is the result of the reaction between a material and its environment. Steel in concrete is protected from corrosion by a passive film promoted by concrete alkalinity. For the initiation of corrosion, this protective film must be destroyed and this can be mainly done in two ways: by the attack of chlorides on the steel or by carbonation of the cover concrete due the reaction with carbon dioxide, which causes reduction in the alkalinity of concrete. The literature reports several ways to decrease or to prevent reinforcement corrosion. Among them, the use of corrosion inhibitors has been an envisaged solution. Two approaches are generally used to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors for concrete application; one uses simulated pore solution testing , and the other uses actual concrete or mortar specimens. Both methods are some times used in conjunction. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 2,3-diaminopyridine as a corrosion inhibitors of steel in alkaline media which simulate the electrolyte in the concrete pores. The effectiveness of this compound as corrosion inhibitor was investigated by measuring the corrosion potentials, the polarization curves and the corrosion current densities of steel with and without chlorides. The study of corrosion inhibition by this compound led to the conclusion that he has low rates of inhibition in the absence of aggressive ions and high rates in their presence. This type of organic compounds are promoting for the protection of armatures in concrete.

Keywords: Corrosion, mild steel, inhibitors, conjunction

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
81 Using the Micro Computed Tomography to Study the Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium Alloy at Different pH Values

Authors: Chia-Jung Chang, Chih-Han Chang, Sheng-Che Chen, Ming-Long Yeh, Chih-Wei Wang

Abstract:

Introduction and Motivation: In recent years, magnesium alloy is used to be a kind of medical biodegradable materials. Magnesium is an essential element in the body and is efficiently excreted by the kidneys. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of magnesium alloy is closest to human bone. However, in some cases magnesium alloy corrodes so quickly that it would release hydrogen on surface of implant. The other product is hydroxide ion, it can significantly increase the local pH value. The above situations may have adverse effects on local cell functions. On the other hand, nowadays magnesium alloy corrode too fast to maintain the function of implant until the healing of tissue. Therefore, much recent research about magnesium alloy has focused on controlling the corrosion rate. The in vitro corrosion behavior of magnesium alloys is affected by many factors, and pH value is one of factors. In this study, we will study on the influence of pH value on the corrosion behavior of magnesium alloy by the Micro-CT (micro computed tomography) and other instruments.Material and methods: In the first step, we make some guiding plates for specimens of magnesium alloy AZ91 by Rapid Prototyping. The guiding plates are able to be a standard for the degradation of specimen, so that we can use it to make sure the position of specimens in the CT image. We can also simplify the conditions of degradation by the guiding plates.In the next step, we prepare the solution with different pH value. And then we put the specimens into the solution to start the corrosion test. The CT image, surface photographs and weigh are measured on every twelve hours. Results: In the primary results of the test, we make sure that CT image can be a way to quantify the corrosion behavior of magnesium alloy. Moreover we can observe the phenomenon that corrosion always start from some erosion point. It’s possibly based on some defect like dislocations and the voids with high strain energy in the materials. We will deal with the raw data into Mass Loss (ML) and corrosion rate by CT image, surface photographs and weigh in the near future. Having a simple prediction, the pH value and degradation rate will be negatively correlated. And we want to find out the equation of the pH value and corrosion rate. We also have a simple test to simulate the change of the pH value in the local region. In this test the pH value will rise to 10 in a short time. Conclusion: As a biodegradable implant for the area with stagnating body fluid flow in the human body, magnesium alloy can cause the increase of local pH values and release the hydrogen. Those may damage the human cell. The purpose of this study is finding out the equation of the pH value and corrosion rate. After that we will try to find the ways to overcome the limitations of medical magnesium alloy.

Keywords: Corrosion, Biodegradable Materials, Magnesium Alloy, micro-CT

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80 Experimental Studies on the Corrosion Effects of the Concrete Made with Tannery Effluent

Authors: K. Nirmalkumar

Abstract:

An acute water scarcity is prevailing in the dry season in and around Perundurai (Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India) where there are more number of tannery units. Hence an attempt was made to use the effluent from the tannery industry for construction purpose. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and the special properties such as chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack were studied by casting various concrete specimens in form of cube, cylinders and beams, etc. It was observed that the concrete had some reduction in strength while subjected to chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack. So admixtures were selected and optimized in suitable proportion to counter act the adverse effects and the results were found to be satisfactory. In this research study the corrosion results of specimens prepared by using treated and untreated tannery effluent were compared with the concrete specimens prepared by using potable water. It was observed that by the addition of admixtures, the adverse effects due to the usage of the treated and untreated tannery effluent are counteracted.

Keywords: Concrete, Corrosion, fly ash, calcium nitrite

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79 Corrosion Protection of Steel 316 by Electrochemically Synthesized Conductive Poly (O-Toluidine)

Authors: H. Acar, M. Karakışla, L. Aksu, M. Saçak

Abstract:

The corrosion protection effect of poly(o-toluidine) (POT) coated on steel 316 electrode was determined in corrosive media such as NaCl, H2SO4 and HCl with the use of Tafel curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The POT coatings were prepared with cyclic voltammetry technique in aqueous solution of oxalic acid and they were characterized by FTIR and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The Tafel curves revealed that the POT coating provides the most effective protection compared to the bare steel 316 electrode in NaCl as corrosive medium. The results were evaluated based upon data decrease of corrosion current and shift to positive potentials with the increase of number of scans. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were found to support Tafel data of POT coating.

Keywords: Corrosion, Impedance spectroscopy, steel 316, poly(o-toluidine)

Procedia PDF Downloads 201