Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

cooling rate Related Abstracts

5 Forgeability Study of Medium Carbon Micro-Alloyed Forging Steel

Authors: B. Singh, M. I. Equbal, P. Talukdar, R. K. Ohdar

Abstract:

Micro-alloyed steel components are used in automotive industry for the necessity to make the manufacturing process cycles shorter when compared to conventional steel by eliminating heat treatment cycles, so an important saving of costs and energy can be reached by reducing the number of operations. Micro-alloying elements like vanadium, niobium or titanium have been added to medium carbon steels to achieve grain refinement with or without precipitation strengthening along with uniform microstructure throughout the matrix. Present study reports the applicability of medium carbon vanadium micro-alloyed steel in hot forging. Forgeability has been determined with respect to different cooling rates, after forging in a hydraulic press at 50% diameter reduction in temperature range of 900-11000C. Final microstructures, hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength have been evaluated. The friction coefficients of different lubricating conditions, viz., graphite in hydraulic oil, graphite in furnace oil, DF 150 (Graphite, Water-Based) die lubricant and dry or without any lubrication were obtained from the ring compression test for the above micro-alloyed steel. Results of ring compression tests indicate that graphite in hydraulic oil lubricant is preferred for free forging and dry lubricant is preferred for die forging operation. Exceptionally good forgeability and high resistance to fracture, especially for faster cooling rate has been observed for fine equiaxed ferrite-pearlite grains, some amount of bainite and fine precipitates of vanadium carbides and carbonitrides. The results indicated that the cooling rate has a remarkable effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties at room temperature.

Keywords: hot forging, cooling rate, micro-alloyed, ring compression

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4 Effect of Welding Parameters on Penetration and Bead Width for Variable Plate Thickness in Submerged Arc Welding

Authors: R. K. Saxena, Harish K. Arya, Kulwant Singh

Abstract:

The heat flow in weldment changes its nature from 2D to 3D with the increase in plate thickness. For welding of thicker plates the heat loss in thickness direction increases the cooling rate of plate. Since the cooling rate changes, the various bead parameters like bead penetration, bead height and bead width also got affected by it. The present study incorporates the effect of variable plate thickness on penetration and bead width. The penetration reduces with increase in plate thickness due to heat loss in thickness direction for same heat input, while bead width increases for thicker plate due to faster cooling.

Keywords: Submerged Arc Welding, cooling rate, bead geometry, plate thickness

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3 Effect of Welding Parameters on Dilution and Bead Height for Variable Plate Thickness in Submerged Arc Welding

Authors: Kulwant Singh, Harish Kumar Arya, R. K Saxena, Deepti Jaiswal

Abstract:

The heat flow in weldment changes its nature from 2D to 3D with the increase in plate thickness. For welding of thicker plates the heat loss in thickness direction increases the cooling rate of plate. Since the cooling rate changes, the various bead parameters like bead penetration, bead height and bead width also got affected by it. The present study incorporates the effect of variable plate thickness on bead geometry and dilution. The penetration reduces with increase in plate thickness due to heat loss in thickness direction, while bead width and reinforcement increases for thicker plate due to faster cooling.

Keywords: Submerged Arc Welding, cooling rate, bead geometry, plate thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
2 Determination of the Cooling Rate Dependency of High Entropy Alloys Using a High-Temperature Drop-on-Demand Droplet Generator

Authors: Saeedeh Imani Moqadam, Ilya Bobrov, Jérémy Epp, Nils Ellendt, Lutz Mädler

Abstract:

High entropy alloys (HEAs), having adjustable properties and enhanced stability compared with intermetallic compounds, are solid solution alloys that contain more than five principal elements with almost equal atomic percentage. The concept of producing such alloys pave the way for developing advanced materials with unique properties. However, the synthesis of such alloys may require advanced processes with high cooling rates depending on which alloy elements are used. In this study, the micro spheres of different diameters of HEAs were generated via a drop-on-demand droplet generator and subsequently solidified during free-fall in an argon atmosphere. Such droplet generators can generate individual droplets with high reproducibility regarding droplet diameter, trajectory and cooling while avoiding any interparticle momentum or thermal coupling. Metallography as well as X-ray diffraction investigations for each diameter of the generated metallic droplets where then carried out to obtain information about the microstructural state. To calculate the cooling rate of the droplets, a droplet cooling model was developed and validated using model alloys such as CuSn%6 and AlCu%4.5 for which a correlation of secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) and cooling rate is well-known. Droplets were generated from these alloys and their SDAS was determined using quantitative metallography. The cooling rate was then determined from the SDAS and used to validate the cooling rates obtained from the droplet cooling model. The application of that model on the HEA then leads to the cooling rate dependency and hence to the identification of process windows for the synthesis of these alloys. These process windows were then compared with cooling rates obtained in processes such as powder production, spray forming, selective laser melting and casting to predict if a synthesis is possible with these processes.

Keywords: Microstructure, High Entropy Alloys, cooling rate, drop-on-demand, single droplet generation, X-ray Diffractometry

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1 3D CFD Modelling of the Airflow and Heat Transfer in Cold Room Filled with Dates

Authors: Tahar Khir, Zina Ghiloufi

Abstract:

A transient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to determine the velocity and temperature distribution in different positions cold room during pre-cooling of dates. The turbulence model used is the k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) with the standard wall function, the air. The numerical results obtained show that cooling rate is not uniform inside the room; the product at the medium of room has a slower cooling rate. This cooling heterogeneity has a large effect on the energy consumption during cold storage.

Keywords: CFD, Numerical Simulation, cooling rate, cold room, dDates, k-ω (SST)

Procedia PDF Downloads 64