Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

convective heat transfer Related Abstracts

6 Numerical Investigation of Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of a Flat Tube in Cross-Flow of Air

Authors: Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Hamidreza Bayat, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi


Heat transfer from flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube which is varied in range of 100 to 300. In these range of Reynolds number flow is considered to be laminar, unsteady, and incompressible. Equations are solved by using finite volume method. Results show that increasing l/D from 1 to 2 has insignificant effect on heat transfer and Nusselt number of flat tube is slightly lower than circular tube. However, thermal-hydraulic performance of flat tube is up to 2.7 times greater than circular tube.

Keywords: heat exchanger, laminar flow, flat tube, convective heat transfer

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5 Numerical Studies on Bypass Thrust Augmentation Using Convective Heat Transfer in Turbofan Engine

Authors: R. Adwaith, J. Gopinath, Vasantha Kohila B., R. Chandru, Arul Prakash R.


The turbofan engine is a type of air breathing engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion produces thrust mainly from the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core. The present research has developed an effective method numerically by increasing the thrust generated from the bypass air. This thrust increase is brought about by heating the walls of the bypass valve from the combustion chamber using convective heat transfer method. It is achieved computationally by the use external heat to enhance the velocity of bypass air of turbofan engines. The bypass valves are either heated externally using multicell tube resistor which convert electricity generated by dynamos into heat or heat is transferred from the combustion chamber. This increases the temperature of the flow in the valves and thereby increase the velocity of the flow that enters the nozzle of the engine. As a result, mass-flow of air passing the core engine for producing more thrust can be significantly reduced thereby saving considerable amount of Jet fuel. Numerical analysis has been carried out on a scaled down version of a typical turbofan bypass valve, where the valve wall temperature has been increased to 700 Kelvin. It is observed from the analysis that, the exit velocity contributing to thrust has significantly increased by 10 % due to the heating of by-pass valve. The degree of optimum increase in the temperature, and the corresponding effect in the increase of jet velocity is calculated to determine the operating temperature range for efficient increase in velocity. The technique used in the research increases the thrust by using heated by-pass air without extracting much work from the fuel and thus improve the efficiency of existing turbofan engines. Dimensional analysis has been carried to prove the accuracy of the results obtained numerically.

Keywords: convective heat transfer, bypass valve, turbofan engine, multi-cell tube, thrust

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4 Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Sub-Channels of Pressurized Water Reactors with Hexagonal Array: A Numerical Approach

Authors: M. A. R. Sarkar, Md. Asif Ullah


This paper illustrates 2-D and 3-D simulations of sub-channels of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) having hexagonal array of fuel rods. At a steady state, the temperature of outer surface of the cladding of fuel rod is kept about 1200°C. The temperature of this isothermal surface is taken as boundary condition for simulation. Water with temperature of 290°C is given as a coolant inlet to the primary water circuit which is pressurized upto 157 bar. Turbulent flow of pressurized water is used for heat removal. In 2-D model, temperature, velocity, pressure and Nusselt number distributions are simulated in a vertical sectional plane through the sub-channels of a hexagonal fuel rod assembly. Temperature, Nusselt number and Y-component of convective heat flux along a line in this plane near the end of fuel rods are plotted for different Reynold’s number. A comparison between X-component and Y-component of convective heat flux in this vertical plane is analyzed. Hexagonal fuel rod assembly has three types of sub-channels according to geometrical shape whose boundary conditions are different too. In 3-D model, temperature, velocity, pressure, Nusselt number, total heat flux magnitude distributions for all the three sub-channels are studied for a suitable Reynold’s number. A horizontal sectional plane is taken from each of the three sub-channels to study temperature, velocity, pressure, Nusselt number and convective heat flux distribution in it. Greater values of temperature, Nusselt number and Y-component of convective heat flux are found for greater Reynold’s number. X-component of convective heat flux is found to be non-zero near the bottom of fuel rod and zero near the end of fuel rod. This indicates that the convective heat transfer occurs totally along the direction of flow near the outlet. As, length to radius ratio of sub-channels is very high, simulation for a short length of the sub-channels are done for graphical interface advantage. For the simulations, Turbulent Flow (K-Є ) module and Heat Transfer in Fluids (ht) module of COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS 5.0 are used.

Keywords: convective heat transfer, nusselt number, sub-channels, Reynold’s number

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3 Numerical Investigation of Electrohydrodynamics: Enhanced Heat Transfer in a Solid Sample

Authors: Suwimon Saneewong Na Ayuttaya


This paper presents a numerical investigation of electrically driven flow for enhancing convective heat transfer in a channel flow. This study focuses on the electrode arrangements, number of electrode and electrical voltage on Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) and effect of airflow driven on solid sample surface. The inlet airflow and inlet temperature are 0.35 m/s and 60 oC, respectively. High electrical voltage is tested in the range of 0-30 kV and number of electrode is tested in the range of 1-5. The numerical results show that electric field intensity is depended on electrical voltage and number of electrode. Increasing number of electrodes is increased shear flow, so swirling flow is increased. The swirling flows from aligned and staggered arrangements are affecting within the solid sample. When electrical voltage is increased, temperature distribution and convective heat transfer on the solid sample are significantly increased due to the electric force much stronger.

Keywords: swirling flow, convective heat transfer, electrohydrodynamics (EHD), solid sample

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2 Study of Laminar Convective Heat Transfer, Friction Factor, and Pumping Power Advantage of Aluminum Oxide-Water Nanofluid through a Channel

Authors: M. Mahbubur Rahman, M. Insiat Islam Rabby, Eshanul Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul Islam


The numerical and simulative analysis of laminar heat exchange convection of aluminum oxide (Al₂O₃) - water nanofluid for the developed region through two parallel plates is presented in this present work. The second order single phase energy equation, mass and momentum equation are solved by using finite volume method with the ANSYS FLUENT 16 software. The distance between two parallel plates is 4 mm and length is 600 mm. Aluminum oxide (Al₂O₃) is used as nanoparticle and water is used as the base/working fluid for the investigation. At the time of simulation 1% to 5% volume concentrations of the Al₂O₃ nanoparticles are used for mixing with water to produce nanofluid and a wide range of interval of Reynolds number from 500 to 1100 at constant heat flux 500 W/m² at the channel wall has also been introduced. The result reveals that for increasing the Reynolds number the Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient are increased linearly and friction factor decreased linearly in the developed region for both water and Al₂O₃-H₂O nanofluid. By increasing the volume fraction of Al₂O₃-H₂O nanofluid from 1% to 5% the value of Nusselt number increased rapidly from 0.7 to 7.32%, heat transfer coefficient increased 7.14% to 31.5% and friction factor increased very little from 0.1% to 4% for constant Reynolds number compared to pure water. At constant heat transfer coefficient 700 W/m2-K the pumping power advantages have been achieved 20% for 1% volume concentration and 62% for 3% volume concentration of nanofluid compared to pure water.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Nanoparticles, Thermal Conductivity, convective heat transfer, pumping power, constant heat flux, volume concentration

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1 Investigating the Thermal Comfort Properties of Mohair Fabrics

Authors: Jiri Militky, Adine Gericke, Mohanapriya Venkataraman


Mohair, obtained from the Angora goat, is a luxury fiber and recognized as one of the best quality natural fibers. Expansion of the use of mohair into technical and functional textile products necessitates the need for a better understanding of how the use of mohair in fabrics will impact on its thermo-physiological comfort related properties. Despite its popularity, very little information is available on the quantification of the thermal and moisture management properties of mohair fabrics. This study investigated the effect of fibrous matter composition and fabric structural parameters on conductive and convective heat transfers to attain more information on the thermal comfort properties of mohair fabrics. Dry heat transfer through textiles may involve conduction through the fibrous phase, radiation through fabric interstices and convection of air within the structure. Factors that play a major role in heat transfer by conduction are fabric areal density (g/m2) and derived quantities such as cover factor and porosity. Convective heat transfer through fabrics is found in environmental conditions where there is wind-flow or the object is moving (e.g. running or walking). The thermal comfort properties of mohair fibers were objectively evaluated firstly in comparison with other textile fibers and secondly in a variety of fabric structures. Two sample sets were developed for this purpose, with fibre content, yarn structure and fabric design as main variables. SEM and microscopic images were obtained to closely examine the physical structures of the fibers and fabrics. Thermal comfort properties such as thermal resistance and thermal conductivity, as well as fabric thickness, were measured on the well-known Alambeta test instrument. Clothing insulation (clo) was calculated from the above. The thermal properties of fabrics under heat convection was evaluated using a laboratory model device developed at the Technical University of Liberec (referred to as the TP2-instrument). The effects of the different variables on fabric thermal comfort properties were analyzed statistically using TIBCO Statistica Software. The results showed that fabric structural properties, specifically sample thickness, played a significant role in determining the thermal comfort properties of the fabrics tested. It was found that regarding thermal resistance related to conductive heat flow, the effect of fiber type was not always statistically significant, probably as a result of the amount of trapped air within the fabric structure. The very low thermal conductivity of air, compared to that of the fibers, had a significant influence on the total conductivity and thermal resistance of the samples. This was confirmed by the high correlation of these factors with sample thickness. Regarding convective heat flow, the most important factor influencing the ability of the fabric to allow dry heat to move through the structure, was again fabric thickness. However, it would be wrong to totally disregard the effect of fiber composition on the thermal resistance of textile fabrics. In this study, the samples containing mohair or mohair/wool were consistently thicker than the others even though weaving parameters were kept constant. This can be ascribed to the physical properties of the mohair fibers that renders it exceptionally well towards trapping air among fibers (in a yarn) as well as among yarns (inside a fabric structure). The thicker structures trap more air to provide higher thermal insulation, but also prevent the free flow of air that allow thermal convection.

Keywords: Thermal Resistance, convective heat transfer, mohair fabrics, thermal comfort properties

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