Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 98

Computational Fluid Dynamics Related Abstracts

98 A Geometrical Multiscale Approach to Blood Flow Simulation: Coupling 2-D Navier-Stokes and 0-D Lumped Parameter Models

Authors: Azadeh Jafari, Robert G. Owens


In this study, a geometrical multiscale approach which means coupling together the 2-D Navier-Stokes equations, constitutive equations and 0-D lumped parameter models is investigated. A multiscale approach, suggest a natural way of coupling detailed local models (in the flow domain) with coarser models able to describe the dynamics over a large part or even the whole cardiovascular system at acceptable computational cost. In this study we introduce a new velocity correction scheme to decouple the velocity computation from the pressure one. To evaluate the capability of our new scheme, a comparison between the results obtained with Neumann outflow boundary conditions on the velocity and Dirichlet outflow boundary conditions on the pressure and those obtained using coupling with the lumped parameter model has been performed. Comprehensive studies have been done based on the sensitivity of numerical scheme to the initial conditions, elasticity and number of spectral modes. Improvement of the computational algorithm with stable convergence has been demonstrated for at least moderate Weissenberg number. We comment on mathematical properties of the reduced model, its limitations in yielding realistic and accurate numerical simulations, and its contribution to a better understanding of microvascular blood flow. We discuss the sophistication and reliability of multiscale models for computing correct boundary conditions at the outflow boundaries of a section of the cardiovascular system of interest. In this respect the geometrical multiscale approach can be regarded as a new method for solving a class of biofluids problems, whose application goes significantly beyond the one addressed in this work.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, geometrical multiscale models, haemorheology model, coupled 2-D navier-stokes 0-D lumped parameter modeling

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97 A Numerical Model Simulation for an Updraft Gasifier Using High-Temperature Steam

Authors: T. M. Ismail, M. A. El-Salam


A mathematical model study was carried out to investigate gasification of biomass fuels using high-temperature air and steam as a gasifying agent using high-temperature air up to 1000°C. In this study, a 2D computational fluid dynamics model was developed to study the gasification process in an updraft gasifier, considering drying, pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification reactions. The gas and solid phases were resolved using a Euler−Euler multiphase approach, with exchange terms for the momentum, mass, and energy. The standard k−ε turbulence model was used in the gas phase, and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The results show that the present model giving a promising way in its capability and sensitivity for the parameter effects that influence the gasification process.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, gasification, biomass fuel, fixed bed gasifier

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96 Hydrodynamic Behavior Study of Fast Mono Hull and Catamaran Vessels in Calm Waters Using Free Surface Flow Analysis

Authors: Pouya Molana, Mohammad Ali Badri, Amin Rezvanpour


In this paper, planning catamaran and mono-hull vessels resistance and trim in calm waters were considered. Hydrodynamic analysis of fast mono-hull planning vessel was also investigated. In order to hull form geometry optimization, numerical methods of different parameters were used for this type of vessels. Hull material was selected in carbon fiber composite. Exact architectural aspects were specified and stability calculations were performed as well. Hydrodynamic calculations to extract the resistance force using semi-analytical methods and numerical modeling were carried out. Free surface numerical analysis of vessel in designed draft using finite volume method and double phase were evaluated and verified by experimental tests.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, fast vessel, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic optimization, free surface flow

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95 Wind Interference Effect on Tall Building

Authors: Atul K. Desai, Jigar K. Sevalia, Sandip A. Vasanwala


When a building is located in an urban area, it is exposed to a wind of different characteristics then wind over an open terrain. This is development of turbulent wake region behind an upstream building. The interaction with upstream building can produce significant changes in the response of the tall building. Here, in this paper, an attempt has been made to study wind induced interference effects on tall building. In order to study wind induced interference effect (IF) on Tall Building, initially a tall building (which is termed as Principal Building now on wards) with square plan shape has been considered with different Height to Width Ratio and total drag force is obtained considering different terrain conditions as well as different incident wind direction. Then total drag force on Principal Building is obtained by considering adjacent building which is termed as Interfering Building now on wards with different terrain conditions and incident wind angle. To execute study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Code namely Fluent and Gambit have been used.

Keywords: Wind, Computational Fluid Dynamics, tall building, turbulent, wake region

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94 Hydrodynamic Behaviour Study of Fast Mono-Hull and Catamaran Vessels in Calm Waters Using Free Surface Flow Analysis

Authors: Mohammad Sadeghian, Mohsen Sadeghian


In this paper, planning catamaran and mono-hull vessels resistance and trim in calm waters were considered. Hydrodynamic analysis of fast mono-hull planning vessel was also investigated. For hull form geometry optimization, numerical methods of different parameters were used for this type of vessels. Hull material was selected as carbon fiber composite. Exact architectural aspects were specified and stability calculations were performed, as well. Hydrodynamic calculations to extract the resistance force using semi-analytical methods and numerical modeling were carried out. Free surface numerical analysis of vessel in designed draft using finite volume method and double phase were evaluated and verified by experimental tests.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, fast vessel, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic optimization, free surface flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
93 Assessment of Fluid Flow Hydrodynamics for Cylindrical and Conical Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: A. B. Deoghare, N. G. Thangan, P. M. Padole


Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) aids in modeling the prototype of a real world processes. CFD approach is useful in predicting the fluid flow, heat transfer mass transfer and other flow related phenomenon. In present study, hydrodynamic characteristics of gas-solid cylindrical fluidized bed is compared with conical fluidized beds. A 2D fluidized bed consists of different configurations of particle size of iron oxide, bed height and superficial velocities of nitrogen. Simulations are performed to capture the complex physics associated with it. The Eulerian multiphase model is prepared in ANSYS FLUENT v.14 which is used to simulate fluidization process. It is analyzed with nitrogen as primary phase and iron oxide as secondary phase. The bed hydrodynamics is assessed prominently to examine effect on fluidization time, pressure drop, minimum fluidization velocity, and gas holdup in the system.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, fluidized bed, bed hydrodynamics, Eulerian multiphase approach

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92 Investigation of Enhancement of Heat Transfer in Natural Convection Utilizing of Nanofluids

Authors: N. Perera, R. Hasan, S. Etaig


This paper analyses the heat transfer performance and fluid flow using different nanofluids in a square enclosure. The energy equation and Navier-Stokes equation are solved numerically using finite volume scheme. The effect of volume fraction concentration on the enhancement of heat transfer has been studied icorporating the Brownian motion; the influence of effective thermal conductivity on the enhancement was also investigated for a range of volume fraction concentration. The velocity profile for different Rayleigh number. Water-Cu, water AL2O3 and water-TiO2 were tested.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, natural convection, nanofluid and thermal conductivity

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91 Numerical Study of a Butterfly Valve for Vibration Analysis and Reduction

Authors: Malik I. Al-Amayreh, Mohammad I. Kilani, Ahmed S. Al-Salaymeh


This works presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of a butterfly valve used to control the flow of combustible gas mixture in an industrial process setting. The work uses CFD simulation to analyze the flow characteristics in the vicinity of the valve, including the velocity distributions, streamlines and path lines. Frequency spectrum of the pressure pulsations downstream the valves, and the vortex shedding allow predicting the torque fluctuations acting on the valve shaft and the possibility of generating mechanical vibration and resonance. These fluctuations are due to aerodynamic torque resulting from fluid turbulence and vortex shedding in the valve vicinity. The valve analyzed is located in a pipeline between two opposing 90o elbows, which exposes the valve and the surrounding structure to the turbulence generated upstream and downstream the elbows at either end of the pipe. CFD simulations show that the best location for the valve from a vibration point of view is in the middle of the pipe joining the elbows.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, butterfly valve vibration analysis, fluid flow circuit design, fluctuation

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90 Numerical Design and Characterization of MOVPE Grown Nitride Based Semiconductors

Authors: T. Wejrzanowski, K. J. Kurzydlowski, J. Skibinski, P. Caban


In the present study numerical simulations of epitaxial growth of gallium nitride in Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy reactor AIX-200/4RF-S are addressed. The aim of this study was to design the optimal fluid flow and thermal conditions for obtaining the most homogeneous product. Since there are many agents influencing reactions on the crystal growth area such as temperature, pressure, gas flow or reactor geometry, it is difficult to design optimal process. Variations of process pressure and hydrogen mass flow rates have been considered. According to the fact that it’s impossible to determine experimentally the exact distribution of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor during crystal growth, detailed 3D modeling has been used to get an insight of the process conditions. Numerical simulations allow to understand the epitaxial process by calculation of heat and mass transfer distribution during growth of gallium nitride. Including chemical reactions in the numerical model allows to calculate the growth rate of the substrate. The present approach has been applied to enhance the performance of AIX-200/4RF-S reactor.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Epitaxial Growth, finite volume method, gallium nitride

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89 Three Dimensional Large Eddy Simulation of Blood Flow and Deformation in an Elastic Constricted Artery

Authors: Xi Gu, Guan Heng Yeoh, Victoria Timchenko


In the current work, a three-dimensional geometry of a 75% stenosed blood vessel is analysed. Large eddy simulation (LES) with the help of a dynamic subgrid scale Smagorinsky model is applied to model the turbulent pulsatile flow. The geometry, the transmural pressure and the properties of the blood and the elastic boundary were based on clinical measurement data. For the flexible wall model, a thin solid region is constructed around the 75% stenosed blood vessel. The deformation of this solid region was modelled as a deforming boundary to reduce the computational cost of the solid model. Fluid-structure interaction is realised via a two-way coupling between the blood flow modelled via LES and the deforming vessel. The information of the flow pressure and the wall motion was exchanged continually during the cycle by an arbitrary lagrangian-eulerian method. The boundary condition of current time step depended on previous solutions. The fluctuation of the velocity in the post-stenotic region was analysed in the study. The axial velocity at normalised position Z=0.5 shows a negative value near the vessel wall. The displacement of the elastic boundary was concerned in this study. In particular, the wall displacement at the systole and the diastole were compared. The negative displacement at the stenosis indicates a collapse at the maximum velocity and the deceleration phase.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, large eddy simulation, Fluid Structural Interaction, constricted artery

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88 Aerodynamic Prediction and Performance Analysis for Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle

Authors: Tang Wei, Yang Xiaofeng, Gui Yewei, Du Yanxia


Complex lifting entry was selected for precise landing performance during the Mars Science Laboratory entry. This study aims to develop the three-dimensional numerical method for precise computation and the surface panel method for rapid engineering prediction. Detailed flow field analysis for Mars exploration mission was performed by carrying on a series of fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computations. The static aerodynamic performance was then discussed, including the surface pressure, lift and drag coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio with the numerical and engineering method. Computation results shown that the shock layer is thin because of lower effective specific heat ratio, and that calculated results from both methods agree well with each other, and is consistent with the reference data. Aerodynamic performance analysis shows that CG location determines trim characteristics and pitch stability, and certain radially and axially shift of the CG location can alter the capsule lifting entry performance, which is of vital significance for the aerodynamic configuration des0ign and inner instrument layout of the Mars entry capsule.

Keywords: Hypersonic, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Mars entry capsule, static aerodynamics

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87 Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Cavitating Turbulent Flow in Francis Turbines with ANSYS

Authors: Raza Abdulla Saeed


In this study, the three-dimensional cavitating turbulent flow in a complete Francis turbine is simulated using mixture model for cavity/liquid two-phase flows. Numerical analysis is carried out using ANSYS CFX software release 12, and standard k-ε turbulence model is adopted for this analysis. The computational fluid domain consist of spiral casing, stay vanes, guide vanes, runner and draft tube. The computational domain is discretized with a three-dimensional mesh system of unstructured tetrahedron mesh. The finite volume method (FVM) is used to solve the governing equations of the mixture model. Results of cavitation on the runner’s blades under three different boundary conditions are presented and discussed. From the numerical results it has been found that the numerical method was successfully applied to simulate the cavitating two-phase turbulent flow through a Francis turbine, and also cavitation is clearly predicted in the form of water vapor formation inside the turbine. By comparison the numerical prediction results with a real runner; it’s shown that the region of higher volume fraction obtained by simulation is consistent with the region of runner cavitation damage.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Numerical Simulation, hydraulic francis turbine, two-phase mixture cavitation model

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86 Investigation of Bubble Growth During Nucleate Boiling Using CFD

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, Akhilesh Kotian, Achutha Kini U.


Boiling process is characterized by the rapid formation of vapour bubbles at the solid–liquid interface (nucleate boiling) with pre-existing vapour or gas pockets. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an important tool to study bubble dynamics. In the present study, CFD simulation has been carried out to determine the bubble detachment diameter and its terminal velocity. Volume of fluid method is used to model the bubble and the surrounding by solving single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each of the fluids throughout the domain. In the simulation, bubble is generated by allowing water-vapour to enter a cylinder filled with liquid water through an inlet at the bottom. After the bubble is fully formed, the bubble detaches from the surface and rises up during which the bubble accelerates due to the net balance between buoyancy force and viscous drag. Finally when these forces exactly balance each other, it attains a constant terminal velocity. The bubble detachment diameter and the terminal velocity of the bubble are captured by the monitor function provided in FLUENT. The detachment diameter and the terminal velocity obtained is compared with the established results based on the shape of the bubble. A good agreement is obtained between the results obtained from simulation and the equations in comparison with the established results.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, bubble growth, terminal velocity, detachment diameter

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85 Numerical and Experimental Study on Bed-Wall Heat Transfer in Conical Fluidized Bed Combustor

Authors: Ik–Tae Im, H. M. Abdelmotalib, M. A. Youssef, S. B. Young


In this study the flow characteristics and bed-to-wall heat transfer in a gas-solid conical fluidized bed combustor were investigated using both experimental and numerical methods. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations were carried out using a commercial software, Fluent V6.3. A two-fluid Eulerian-Eulerian model was applied in order to simulate the gas–solid flow and heat transfer in a conical sand-air bed with 30o con angle and 22 cm static bed height. Effect of different fluidizing number varying in the range of 1.5 - 2.3, drag models namely (Syamlal-O’Brien and Gidaspow), and friction viscosity on flow and bed-to-wall heat transfer were analyzed. Both bed pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing inlet gas velocity. The Gidaspow drag model showed a better agreement with experimental results than other drag model. The friction viscosity had no clear effect on both hydrodynamics and heat transfer.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Hydrodynamics, Computational Fluid Dynamics, heat transfer coefficient

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84 Numerical Simulation of the Air Pollutants Dispersion Emitted by CPH Using ANSYS CFX

Authors: Oliver Mărunţălu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Elena Elisabeta Manea, Dana Andreya Bondrea, Lăcrămioara Diana Robescu


This paper presents the results obtained by numerical simulation of the pollutants dispersion in the atmosphere coming from the evacuation of combustion gases resulting from the fuel combustion used by electric thermal power plant using the software ANSYS CFX-CFD. The model uses the Navier-Stokes equation to simulate the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. We considered as important factors in elaboration of simulation the atmospheric conditions (pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction), the exhaust velocity of the combustion gases, chimney height and the obstacles (buildings). Using the air quality monitoring stations we have measured the concentrations of main pollutants (SO2, NOx and PM). The pollutants were monitored over a period of 3 months, after that we calculated the average concentration, which is used by the software. The concentrations are: 8.915 μg/m3 (NOx), 9.587 μg/m3 (SO2) and 42 μg/m3 (PM). A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dispersion of the pollutant as well the concentration of this pollutants in the atmosphere.

Keywords: Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Dispersion, Air Pollutants

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83 A Study of Laminar Natural Convection in Annular Spaces between Differentially Heated Horizontal Circular Cylinders Filled with Non-Newtonian Nano Fluids

Authors: Behzad Ahdiharab, Senol Baskaya, Tamer Calisir


Heat exchangers are one of the most widely used systems in factories, refineries etc. In this study, natural convection heat transfer using nano-fluids in between two cylinders is numerically investigated. The inner and outer cylinders are kept at constant temperatures. One of the most important assumptions in the project is that the working fluid is non-Newtonian. In recent years, the use of nano-fluids in industrial applications has increased profoundly. In this study, nano-Newtonian fluids containing metal particles with high heat transfer coefficients have been used. All fluid properties such as homogeneity has been calculated. In the present study, solutions have been obtained under unsteady conditions, base fluid was water, and effects of various parameters on heat transfer have been investigated. These parameters are Rayleigh number (103 < Ra < 106), power-law index (0.6 < n < 1.4), aspect ratio (0 < AR < 0.8), nano-particle composition, horizontal and vertical displacement of the inner cylinder, rotation of the inner cylinder, and volume fraction of nanoparticles. Results such as the internal cylinder average and local Nusselt number variations, contours of temperature, flow lines are presented. The results are also discussed in detail. From the validation study performed it was found that a very good agreement exists between the present results and those from the open literature. It was found out that the heat transfer is always affected by the investigated parameters. However, the degree to which the heat transfer is affected does change in a wide range.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Computational Fluid Dynamics, non-Newtonian, nano fluid, circular space

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82 A Computational Study on Flow Separation Control of Humpback Whale Inspired Sinusoidal Hydrofoils

Authors: T. H. New, J. Joy, I. H. Ibrahim


A computational study on bio-inspired NACA634-021 hydrofoils with leading-edge protuberances has been carried out to investigate their hydrodynamic flow control characteristics at a Reynolds number of 14,000 and different angles-of-attack. The numerical simulations were performed using ANSYS FLUENT and based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver mode incorporated with k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. The results obtained indicate varying flow phenomenon along the peaks and troughs over the span of the hydrofoils. Compared to the baseline hydrofoil with no leading-edge protuberances, the leading-edge modified hydrofoils tend to reduce flow separation extents along the peak regions. In contrast, there are increased flow separations in the trough regions of the hydrofoil with leading-edge protuberances. Interestingly, it was observed that dissimilar flow separation behaviour is produced along different peak- or trough-planes along the hydrofoil span, even though the troughs or peaks are physically similar at each interval for a particular hydrofoil. Significant interactions between adjacent flow structures produced by the leading-edge protuberances have also been observed. These flow interactions are believed to be responsible for the dissimilar flow separation behaviour along physically similar peak- or trough-planes.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, flow separation control, hydrofoils, leading-edge protuberances

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81 Integrating Computational Modeling and Analysis with in Vivo Observations for Enhanced Hemodynamics Diagnostics and Prognosis

Authors: Shreyas S. Hegde, Anindya Deb, Suresh Nagesh


Computational bio-mechanics is developing rapidly as a non-invasive tool to assist the medical fraternity to help in both diagnosis and prognosis of human body related issues such as injuries, cardio-vascular dysfunction, atherosclerotic plaque etc. Any system that would help either properly diagnose such problems or assist prognosis would be a boon to the doctors and medical society in general. Recently a lot of work is being focused in this direction which includes but not limited to various finite element analysis related to dental implants, skull injuries, orthopedic problems involving bones and joints etc. Such numerical solutions are helping medical practitioners to come up with alternate solutions for such problems and in most cases have also reduced the trauma on the patients. Some work also has been done in the area related to the use of computational fluid mechanics to understand the flow of blood through the human body, an area of hemodynamics. Since cardio-vascular diseases are one of the main causes of loss of human life, understanding of the blood flow with and without constraints (such as blockages), providing alternate methods of prognosis and further solutions to take care of issues related to blood flow would help save valuable life of such patients. This project is an attempt to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to solve specific problems related to hemodynamics. The hemodynamics simulation is used to gain a better understanding of functional, diagnostic and theoretical aspects of the blood flow. Due to the fact that many fundamental issues of the blood flow, like phenomena associated with pressure and viscous forces fields, are still not fully understood or entirely described through mathematical formulations the characterization of blood flow is still a challenging task. The computational modeling of the blood flow and mechanical interactions that strongly affect the blood flow patterns, based on medical data and imaging represent the most accurate analysis of the blood flow complex behavior. In this project the mathematical modeling of the blood flow in the arteries in the presence of successive blockages has been analyzed using CFD technique. Different cases of blockages in terms of percentages have been modeled using commercial software CATIA V5R20 and simulated using commercial software ANSYS 15.0 to study the effect of varying wall shear stress (WSS) values and also other parameters like the effect of increase in Reynolds number. The concept of fluid structure interaction (FSI) has been used to solve such problems. The model simulation results were validated using in vivo measurement data from existing literature

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, blood flow, hemodynamics, results validation, arteries

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80 2D CFD-PBM Coupled Model of Particle Growth in an Industrial Gas Phase Fluidized Bed Polymerization Reactor

Authors: M. Najafi, H. Kazemi Esfeh, V. Akbari, M. Ehdaei, T. N. G. Borhani, A. Shamiri


In an industrial fluidized bed polymerization reactor, particle size distribution (PSD) plays a significant role in the reactor efficiency evaluation. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models coupled with population balance equation (CFD-PBM) have been extensively employed to investigate the flow behavior in the poly-disperse multiphase fluidized bed reactors (FBRs) utilizing ANSYS Fluent code. In this study, an existing CFD-PBM/ DQMOM coupled modeling framework has been used to highlight its potential to analyze the industrial-scale gas phase polymerization reactor. The predicted results reveal an acceptable agreement with the observed industrial data in terms of pressure drop and bed height. The simulated results also indicate that the higher particle growth rate can be achieved for bigger particles. Hence, the 2D CFD-PBM/DQMOM coupled model can be used as a reliable tool for analyzing and improving the design and operation of the gas phase polymerization FBRs.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, population balance equation, fluidized bed polymerization reactor, direct quadrature method of moments

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79 Numerical Simulation on Two Components Particles Flow in Fluidized Bed

Authors: wang jia, Wang Heng, Zhong Zhaoping, Guo Feihong, Wang Xiaoyi


Flow of gas and particles in fluidized beds is complex and chaotic, which is difficult to measure and analyze by experiments. Some bed materials with bad fluidized performance always fluidize with fluidized medium. The material and the fluidized medium are different in many properties such as density, size and shape. These factors make the dynamic process more complex and the experiment research more limited. Numerical simulation is an efficient way to describe the process of gas-solid flow in fluidized bed. One of the most popular numerical simulation methods is CFD-DEM, i.e., computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method. The shapes of particles are always simplified as sphere in most researches. Although sphere-shaped particles make the calculation of particle uncomplicated, the effects of different shapes are disregarded. However, in practical applications, the two-component systems in fluidized bed also contain sphere particles and non-sphere particles. Therefore, it is needed to study the two component flow of sphere particles and non-sphere particles. In this paper, the flows of mixing were simulated as the flow of molding biomass particles and quartz in fluidized bad. The integrated model was built on an Eulerian–Lagrangian approach which was improved to suit the non-sphere particles. The constructed methods of cylinder-shaped particles were different when it came to different numerical methods. Each cylinder-shaped particle was constructed as an agglomerate of fictitious small particles in CFD part, which means the small fictitious particles gathered but not combined with each other. The diameter of a fictitious particle d_fic and its solid volume fraction inside a cylinder-shaped particle α_fic, which is called the fictitious volume fraction, are introduced to modify the drag coefficient β by introducing the volume fraction of the cylinder-shaped particles α_cld and sphere-shaped particles α_sph. In a computational cell, the void ε, can be expressed as ε=1-〖α_cld α〗_fic-α_sph. The Ergun equation and the Wen and Yu equation were used to calculate β. While in DEM method, cylinder-shaped particles were built by multi-sphere method, in which small sphere element merged with each other. Soft sphere model was using to get the connect force between particles. The total connect force of cylinder-shaped particle was calculated as the sum of the small sphere particles’ forces. The model (size=1×0.15×0.032 mm3) contained 420000 sphere-shaped particles (diameter=0.8 mm, density=1350 kg/m3) and 60 cylinder-shaped particles (diameter=10 mm, length=10 mm, density=2650 kg/m3). Each cylinder-shaped particle was constructed by 2072 small sphere-shaped particles (d=0.8 mm) in CFD mesh and 768 sphere-shaped particles (d=3 mm) in DEM mesh. The length of CFD and DEM cells are 1 mm and 2 mm. Superficial gas velocity was changed in different models as 1.0 m/s, 1.5 m/s, 2.0m/s. The results of simulation were compared with the experimental results. The movements of particles were regularly as fountain. The effect of superficial gas velocity on cylinder-shaped particles was stronger than that of sphere-shaped particles. The result proved this present work provided a effective approach to simulation the flow of two component particles.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Multiphase Flow, fluidized bed, discrete element method

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78 CFD Analysis of Solar Floor Radiant Heating System with ‎PCM

Authors: Mohammad Nazififard, Reihane Faghihi


This paper is aimed at understanding convective heat transfer of enclosed phase change material (PCM) in the solar and low-temperature hot water radiant floor heating geometry. In order to obtain the best performance of PCM, a radiant heating structure of the energy storage floor is designed which places heat pipes in the enclosed phase change material (PCM) layer, without concrete in it. The governing equations are numerically solved. The PCM thermal storage time is considered in relation to the floor surface temperature under different hot water temperatures. Moreover the PCM thermal storage time is numerically estimated under different supply water temperatures and flow rate. Results show the PCM floor heating system has a potential of making use of the daytime solar energy for heating at night efficiently.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Heating System, phase change material, solar floor

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77 A Numerical Simulation of Arterial Mass Transport in Presence of Magnetic Field-Links to Atherosclerosis

Authors: H. Aminfar, M. Mohammadpourfard, K. Khajeh


This paper has focused on the most important parameters in the LSC uptake; inlet Re number and Sc number in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. The magnetic field is arising from the thin wire with electric current placed vertically to the arterial blood vessel. According to the results of this study, applying magnetic field can be a treatment for atherosclerosis by reducing LSC along the vessel wall. Homogeneous porous layer as a arterial wall has been regarded. Blood flow has been considered laminar and incompressible containing Ferro fluid (blood and 4 % vol. Fe₃O₄) under steady state conditions. Numerical solution of governing equations was obtained by using the single-phase model and control volume technique for flow field.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Magnetic Field, LDL surface concentration (LSC), porous wall

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76 Prediction of Finned Projectile Aerodynamics Using a Lattice-Boltzmann Method CFD Solution

Authors: Zaki Abiza, Miguel Chavez, David M. Holman, Ruddy Brionnaud


In this paper, the prediction of the aerodynamic behavior of the flow around a Finned Projectile will be validated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solution, XFlow, based on the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM). XFlow is an innovative CFD software developed by Next Limit Dynamics. It is based on a state-of-the-art Lattice-Boltzmann Method which uses a proprietary particle-based kinetic solver and a LES turbulent model coupled with the generalized law of the wall (WMLES). The Lattice-Boltzmann method discretizes the continuous Boltzmann equation, a transport equation for the particle probability distribution function. From the Boltzmann transport equation, and by means of the Chapman-Enskog expansion, the compressible Navier-Stokes equations can be recovered. However to simulate compressible flows, this method has a Mach number limitation because of the lattice discretization. Thanks to this flexible particle-based approach the traditional meshing process is avoided, the discretization stage is strongly accelerated reducing engineering costs, and computations on complex geometries are affordable in a straightforward way. The projectile that will be used in this work is the Army-Navy Basic Finned Missile (ANF) with a caliber of 0.03 m. The analysis will consist in varying the Mach number from M=0.5 comparing the axial force coefficient, normal force slope coefficient and the pitch moment slope coefficient of the Finned Projectile obtained by XFlow with the experimental data. The slope coefficients will be obtained using finite difference techniques in the linear range of the polar curve. The aim of such an analysis is to find out the limiting Mach number value starting from which the effects of high fluid compressibility (related to transonic flow regime) lead the XFlow simulations to differ from the experimental results. This will allow identifying the critical Mach number which limits the validity of the isothermal formulation of XFlow and beyond which a fully compressible solver implementing a coupled momentum-energy equations would be required.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, Mach, Pitch, lift, drag, LBM, finned projectile, lattice-boltzmann method

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75 Investigation of Soot Regeneration Behavior in the DPF Cleaning Device

Authors: Man Young Kim, Won Jun Jo


To meet stringent diesel particulate matter regulations, DPF system is essential after treatment technology providing exceptional reliability and filtration performance. At low load driving conditions, the passive type of DPF system is ineffective for regeneration method due to the inadequate of engine exhaust heat in removing accumulated soot from the filter. Therefore, DPF cleaning device is necessary to remove the soot particles. In this work, the numerical analysis on the active regeneration of DPF in DPF cleaning device is performed to find the optimum operating conditions. In order to find the DPF regeneration characteristics during active regeneration, 5 different initial soot loading condition are investigated. As the initial soot mass increases, the maximum temperature of DPF and regeneration rate also increase.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, pressure drop, particulate matters, active regeneration, DPF cleaning device, Diesel Particulate Filter

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74 Three-Dimensional CFD Modeling of Flow Field and Scouring around Bridge Piers

Authors: P. Deepak Kumar, P. R. Maiti


In recent years, sediment scour near bridge piers and abutment is a serious problem which causes nationwide concern because it has resulted in more bridge failures than other causes. Scour is the formation of scour hole around the structure mounted on and embedded in erodible channel bed due to the erosion of soil by flowing water. The formation of scour hole around the structures depends upon shape and size of the pier, depth of flow as well as angle of attack of flow and sediment characteristics. The flow characteristics around these structures change due to man-made obstruction in the natural flow path which changes the kinetic energy of the flow around these structures. Excessive scour affects the stability of the foundation of the structure by the removal of the bed material. The accurate estimation of scour depth around bridge pier is very difficult. The foundation of bridge piers have to be taken deeper and to provide sufficient anchorage length required for stability of the foundation. In this study, computational model simulations using a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model were conducted to examine the mechanism of scour around a cylindrical pier. Subsequently, the flow characteristics around these structures are presented for different flow conditions. Mechanism of scouring phenomenon, the formation of vortex and its consequent effect is discussed for a straight channel. Effort was made towards estimation of scour depth around bridge piers under different flow conditions.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, scour, bridge pier, multigrid, pier shape

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
73 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Calculations of the Wind Turbine with an Adjustable Working Surface

Authors: Krzysztof Skiba, Zdzislaw Kaminski, Zbigniew Czyz


This paper discusses the CFD simulation of a flow around a rotor of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Numerical simulation, unlike experiments, enables us to validate project assumptions when it is designed and avoid a costly preparation of a model or a prototype for a bench test. CFD simulation enables us to compare characteristics of aerodynamic forces acting on rotor working surfaces and define operational parameters like torque or power generated by a turbine assembly. This research focused on the rotor with the blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on adjusting angular aperture α of the top and bottom parts of the blades mounted on an axis. If this angular aperture α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. The operation of turbines is characterized by parameters like the angular aperture of blades, power, torque, speed for a given wind speed. These parameters have an impact on the efficiency of assemblies. The distribution of forces acting on the working surfaces in our turbine changes according to the angular velocity of the rotor. Moreover, the resultant force from the force acting on an advancing blade and retreating blade should be as high as possible. This paper is part of the research to improve an efficiency of a rotor assembly. Therefore, using simulation, the courses of the above parameters were studied in three full rotations individually for each of the blades for three angular apertures of blade working surfaces, i.e. 30 °, 60 °, 90 °, at three wind speeds, i.e. 4 m / s, 6 m / s, 8 m / s and rotor speeds ranging from 100 to 500 rpm. Finally, there were created the characteristics of torque coefficients and power as a function of time for each blade separately and for the entire rotor. Accordingly, the correlation between the turbine rotor power as a function of wind speed for varied values of rotor rotational speed. By processing this data, the correlation between the power of the turbine rotor and its rotational speed for each of the angular aperture of the working surfaces was specified. Finally, the optimal values, i.e. of the highest output power for given wind speeds were read. The research results in receiving the basic characteristics of turbine rotor power as a function of wind speed for the three angular apertures of the blades. Given the nature of rotor operation, the growth in the output turbine can be estimated if angular aperture of the blades increases. The controlled adjustment of angle α enables a smooth adjustment of power generated by a turbine rotor. If wind speed is significant, this type of adjustment enables this output power to remain at the same level (by reducing angle α) with no risk of damaging a construction. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Numerical Analysis, Wind turbine

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72 Simulation of Elastic Bodies through Discrete Element Method, Coupled with a Nested Overlapping Grid Fluid Flow Solver

Authors: Paolo Sassi, Jorge Freiria, Gabriel Usera


In this work, a finite volume fluid flow solver is coupled with a discrete element method module for the simulation of the dynamics of free and elastic bodies in interaction with the fluid and between themselves. The open source fluid flow solver, caffa3d.MBRi, includes the capability to work with nested overlapping grids in order to easily refine the grid in the region where the bodies are moving. To do so, it is necessary to implement a recognition function able to identify the specific mesh block in which the device is moving in. The set of overlapping finer grids might be displaced along with the set of bodies being simulated. The interaction between the bodies and the fluid is computed through a two-way coupling. The velocity field of the fluid is first interpolated to determine the drag force on each object. After solving the objects displacements, subject to the elastic bonding among them, the force is applied back onto the fluid through a Gaussian smoothing considering the cells near the position of each object. The fishnet is represented as lumped masses connected by elastic lines. The internal forces are derived from the elasticity of these lines, and the external forces are due to drag, gravity, buoyancy and the load acting on each element of the system. When solving the ordinary differential equations system, that represents the motion of the elastic and flexible bodies, it was found that the Runge Kutta solver of fourth order is the best tool in terms of performance, but requires a finer grid than the fluid solver to make the system converge, which demands greater computing power. The coupled solver is demonstrated by simulating the interaction between the fluid, an elastic fishnet and a set of free bodies being captured by the net as they are dragged by the fluid. The deformation of the net, as well as the wake produced in the fluid stream are well captured by the method, without requiring the fluid solver mesh to adapt for the evolving geometry. Application of the same strategy to the simulation of elastic structures subject to the action of wind is also possible with the method presented, and one such application is currently under development.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, discrete element method, fishnets, nested overlapping grids

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71 Interaction between Unsteady Supersonic Jet and Vortex Rings

Authors: Kazumasa Kitazono, Hiroshi Fukuoka, Nao Kuniyoshi, Minoru Yaga, Eri Ueno, Naoaki Fukuda, Toshio Takiya


The unsteady supersonic jet formed by a shock tube with a small high-pressure chamber was used as a simple alternative model for pulsed laser ablation. Understanding the vortex ring formed by the shock wave is crucial in clarifying the behavior of unsteady supersonic jet discharged from an elliptical cell. Therefore, this study investigated the behavior of vortex rings and a jet. The experiment and numerical calculation were conducted using the schlieren method and by solving the axisymmetric two-dimensional compressible Navier–Stokes equations, respectively. In both, the calculation and the experiment, laser ablation is conducted for a certain duration, followed by discharge through the exit. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to demonstrate the effect of pressure ratio on the interaction among vortex rings and the supersonic jet. The interaction between the supersonic jet and the vortex rings increased the velocity of the supersonic jet up to the magnitude of the velocity at the center of the vortex rings. The interaction between the vortex rings increased the velocity at the center of the vortex ring.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, shock-wave, unsteady jet, vortex ring

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70 Optimization of Urea Water Solution Injector for NH3 Uniformity Improvement in Urea-SCR System

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Gil Dong Kim, Seong Joon Moon, Ho Kil Lee


The Urea-SCR is one of the most efficient technologies to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines. In the present work, the computational prediction of internal flow and spray characteristics in the Urea-SCR system was carried out by using 3D-CFD simulation to evaluate NH3 uniformity index (NH3 UI) and its activation time according to the official New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The number of nozzle and its diameter, two types of injection directions, and penetration length were chosen as the design variables. The optimal solutions were obtained by coupling the CFD analysis with Taguchi method. The L16 orthogonal array and small-the-better characteristics of the Taguchi method were used, and the optimal values were confirmed to be valid with 95% confidence and 5% significance level through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that the optimal solutions for the NH3 UI and activation time (NH3 UI 0.22) are obtained by 0.41 and 0,125 second, respectively, and their values are improved by 85.0% and 10.7%, respectively, compared with those of the base model.

Keywords: Optimization, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Taguchi method, NH3 uniformity index, Urea-SCR system, UWS injector

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69 Study on the Effects of Geometrical Parameters of Helical Fins on Heat Transfer Enhancement of Finned Tube Heat Exchangers

Authors: H. Asadi, H. Naderan Tahan


The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of geometrical properties of helical fins in double pipe heat exchangers. On the other hand, the purpose of this project is to derive the hydraulic and thermal design tables and equations of double heat exchangers with helical fins. The numerical modeling is implemented to calculate the considered parameters. Design tables and correlated equations are generated by repeating the parametric numerical procedure for different fin geometries. Friction factor coefficient and Nusselt number are calculated for different amounts of Reynolds, fluid Prantle and fin twist angles for the range of laminar fluid flow in annular tube with helical fins. Results showed that friction factor coefficient and Nusselt number will be increased for higher Reynolds numbers and fins’ twist angles in general. These two parameters follow different patterns in response to Reynolds number increment. Thermal performance factor is defined to analyze these different patterns. Temperature and velocity contours are plotted against twist angle and number of fins to describe the changes in flow patterns in different geometries of twisted finned annulus. Finally twisted finned annulus friction factor coefficient, Nusselt Number and thermal performance factor are correlated by simulating the model in different design points.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, double pipe heat exchangers, heat exchanger performance, twisted fins

Procedia PDF Downloads 164