Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1404

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Cognitive and Language Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1404 Against Language Disorder: A Way of Reading Dialects in Yan Lianke’s Novels

Authors: Thuy Hanh Nguyen Thi

Abstract:

By the method of deep reading and text analysis, this article will analyze the use and creation of dialects as a way of demonstrating Yan Lianke's creative stance. This article indicates that this is the writer’s narrative strategy in a fight against aphasia, a language disorder of Chinese people and culture, demonstrating a sense of return to folklore and marks his own linguistic style. In terms of verbal text, the dialect in the Yan Lianke’s novels manifested through the use of words, sentences and dialects. There are two types of dialects that exist in Yan Lianke’s novels: the current dialect system and the particular dialect system of Pa Lau world created by the writer himself in order to enrich the vocabulary of Han Chinese.

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1403 Myers-Briggs Type Index Personality Type Classification Based on an Individual’s Spotify Playlists

Authors: Ibrahim Demir, Sefik Can Karakaya

Abstract:

In this study, the relationship between musical preferences and personality traits has been investigated in terms of Spotify audio analysis features. The aim of this paper is to build such a classifier capable of segmenting people into their Myers-Briggs Type Index (MBTI) personality type based on their Spotify playlists. Music takes an important place in the lives of people all over the world and online music streaming platforms make it easier to reach musical contents. In this context, the motivation to build such a classifier is allowing people to gain access to their MBTI personality type and perhaps for more reliably and more quickly. For this purpose, logistic regression and deep neural networks have been selected for classifier and their performances are compared. In conclusion, it has been found that musical preferences differ statistically between personality traits, and evaluated models are able to distinguish personality types based on given musical data structure with over %60 accuracy rate.

Keywords: music Psychology, Logistic Regression, Deep Neural Networks, Myers-Briggs Type indicator, Spotify, behavioural user profiling

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1402 Altasreef: Automated System of Quran Verbs for Urdu Language

Authors: Muhammad Amjad Iqbal, Haq Nawaz, Kamran Malik

Abstract:

"Altasreef" is an automated system available for Web and Android users which provide facility to the users to learn the Quran verbs. It provides the facility to the users to practice the learned material and also provide facility of exams of Arabic verbs variation focusing on Quran text. Arabic is a highly inflectional language. Almost all of its words connect to roots of three, four or five letters which approach the meaning of all their inflectional forms. In Arabic, a verb is formed by inserting the consonants into one of a set of verb patterns. Suffixes and prefixes are then added to generate the meaning of number, person, and gender. The active/passive voice and perfective aspect and other patterns are than generated. This application is designed for learners of Quranic Arabic who already have learn basics of Arabic conjugation. Application also provides the facility of translation of generated patterns. These translations are generated with the help of rule-based approach to give 100% results to the learners.

Keywords: Quran, computational linguistics, NLP, e learning

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1401 The Effect of Brand Recovery Communications on Embarrassed Consumers’ Cognitive Appraisal and Post-purchase Behavior

Authors: Kin Yan Ho

Abstract:

Negative brand news (such as Volkswagen’s faulty carbon emission reports, China’s Luckin Coffee scandal, and bribery in reputable US universities) influence how people perceive a company. Germany’s citizens claimed Volkswagen’s scandal as a national embarrassment and cannot recover their psychological damages through monetary and non-monetary compensation. The main research question is to examine how consumers evaluate and respond to embarrassing brand publicity. The cognitive appraisal theory is used as a theoretical foundation. This study describes the use of scenario-based experiment. The findings suggest that consumers with different levels of embarrassment evaluate brand remedial offers from emotion-focused and task-focused restorative justice perspectives (newly derived from the well-established scales of perceived justice). When consumers face both negative and positive brand information (i.e., negative publicity news and a remedial offer), they change their appraisal criterion. The social situation in the cognitive reappraisal process influences the quality of the customer-brand relationship and the customer’s recovery from brand embarrassment. The results also depict that the components of recovery compensation cause differences in emotion recovery, relationship quality, and repurchase intentions. This study extends embarrassment literature in an embarrassing brand publicity context. The emotional components of brand remedial tactics provide insights to brand managers on how to handle different consumers’ emotions, consumer satisfaction, and foster positive future behavior.

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1400 Mondoc: Informal Lightweight Ontology for Faceted Semantic Classification of Hypernymy

Authors: M. Regina Carreira-Lopez

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Lightweight ontologies seek to concrete union relationships between a parent node, and a secondary node, also called "child node". This logic relation (L) can be formally defined as a triple ontological relation (LO) equivalent to LO in ⟨LN, LE, LC⟩, and where LN represents a finite set of nodes (N); LE is a set of entities (E), each of which represents a relationship between nodes to form a rooted tree of ⟨LN, LE⟩; and LC is a finite set of concepts (C), encoded in a formal language (FL). Mondoc enables more refined searches on semantic and classified facets for retrieving specialized knowledge about Atlantic migrations, from the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America (1776) and to the end of the Spanish Civil War (1939). The model looks forward to increasing documentary relevance by applying an inverse frequency of co-ocurrent hypernymy phenomena for a concrete dataset of textual corpora, with RMySQL package. Mondoc profiles archival utilities implementing SQL programming code, and allows data export to XML schemas, for achieving semantic and faceted analysis of speech by analyzing keywords in context (KWIC). The methodology applies random and unrestricted sampling techniques with RMySQL to verify the resonance phenomena of inverse documentary relevance between the number of co-occurrences of the same term (t) in more than two documents of a set of texts (D). Secondly, the research also evidences co-associations between (t) and their corresponding synonyms and antonyms (synsets) are also inverse. The results from grouping facets or polysemic words with synsets in more than two textual corpora within their syntagmatic context (nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.) state how to proceed with semantic indexing of hypernymy phenomena for subject-heading lists and for authority lists for documentary and archival purposes. Mondoc contributes to the development of web directories and seems to achieve a proper and more selective search of e-documents (classification ontology). It can also foster on-line catalogs production for semantic authorities, or concepts, through XML schemas, because its applications could be used for implementing data models, by a prior adaptation of the based-ontology to structured meta-languages, such as OWL, RDF (descriptive ontology). Mondoc serves to the classification of concepts and applies a semantic indexing approach of facets. It enables information retrieval, as well as quantitative and qualitative data interpretation. The model reproduces a triple tuple ⟨LN, LE, LT, LCF L, BKF⟩ where LN is a set of entities that connect with other nodes to concrete a rooted tree in ⟨LN, LE⟩. LT specifies a set of terms, and LCF acts as a finite set of concepts, encoded in a formal language, L. Mondoc only resolves partial problems of linguistic ambiguity (in case of synonymy and antonymy), but neither the pragmatic dimension of natural language nor the cognitive perspective is addressed. To achieve this goal, forthcoming programming developments should target at oriented meta-languages with structured documents in XML.

Keywords: Information Retrieval, Resonance, hypernymy, lightweight ontology

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1399 Chinese Sentence Level Lip Recognition

Authors: Peng Wang, Tigang Jiang

Abstract:

The computer based lip reading method of different languages cannot be universal. At present, for the research of Chinese lip reading, whether the work on data sets or recognition algorithms, is far from mature. In this paper, we study the Chinese lipreading method based on machine learning, and propose a Chinese Sentence-level lip-reading network (CNLipNet) model which consists of spatio-temporal convolutional neural network(CNN), recurrent neural network(RNN) and Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) loss function. This model can map variable-length sequence of video frames to Chinese Pinyin sequence and is trained end-to-end. More over, We create CNLRS, a Chinese Lipreading Dataset, which contains 5948 samples and can be shared through github. The evaluation of CNLipNet on this dataset yielded a 41% word correct rate and a 70.6% character correct rate. This evaluation result is far superior to the professional human lip readers, indicating that CNLipNet performs well in lipreading.

Keywords: Machine Learning, recurrent neural network, convolutional neural network, spatio-temporal, LipReading

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1398 Intercultural Education through Literature Reception: An in-Depth Study of the Cultural and Literary Relations of Romania and China during 1948-2018

Authors: Iulia Elena Gîță

Abstract:

According to the sociological theory of literature, constraints on the creation and share of cultural works can be placed between two extremes: one with a high level of politicization and the other with a high level of commercialization. The overall objective of the present research is to follow the principles of Sociology of Translation to closely map and analyse the publishing activity of Romania concerning China and Chinese literature during four stages of Romanian history between 1948-2018. This paper proposes, thus, an extended approach to literature, to its cultural, political and economic reception. In achieving the proposed objectives, the research expands far beyond the literary text itself, to its macro context, analysing, through quantitative research methods, a statistical database created based on two phases - the first part containing literary and non-fictional works that address and discuss issues related to China; the second part includes literary translations of Chinese literature into Romanian, either by direct translation or by an intermediate language. Throughout this paper we will map not only the number of works, but also the topics approached by writers along the two periods of the political life of Romania.

Keywords: International Relations, Publishing, Chinese Literature, intercultural understanding, bilateral relations, socio-cultural reception, socio-political constraints

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1397 Teaching Attentive Literature Reading in Higher Education French as a Foreign Language: A Pilot Study of a Flipped Classroom Teaching Model

Authors: Malin Isaksson

Abstract:

Teaching French as a foreign language usually implies teaching French literature, especially in higher education. Training university students in literary reading in a foreign language requires addressing several aspects at the same time: the (foreign) language, the poetic language, the aesthetic aspects of the studied works, the various interpretations of them. How teach students to do competent readings and short analyses of French literary works, in a rather independent manner? This paper describes the use of a flipped classroom method in two French literature courses, a campus course and an online course, and suggests that the teaching model is an efficient way of teaching literature reading and analysis in a foreign language. The teaching model builds on a high level of student activity and focuses attentive reading, meta-perspectives such as theoretical concepts, individual analyses by students where said concepts are applied, and group discussions of the studied texts and of possible interpretations. The pilot study suggests that the teaching model holds the potential to train students in skills such as complex text literacy, critical and creative thinking, communication, and inter-cultural understanding.

Keywords: Flipped Classroom, attentive reading, literature in foreign language studies, teaching literature analysis

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1396 NANCY: Combining Adversarial Networks with Cycle-Consistency for Robust Multi-Modal Image Registration

Authors: Mirjana Ruppel, Rajendra Persad, Amit Bahl, Sanja Dogramadzi, Chris Melhuish, Lyndon Smith

Abstract:

Multimodal image registration is a profoundly complex task which is why deep learning has been used widely to address it in recent years. However, two main challenges remain: Firstly, the lack of ground truth data calls for an unsupervised learning approach, which leads to the second challenge of defining a feasible loss function that can compare two images of different modalities to judge their level of alignment. To avoid this issue altogether we implement a generative adversarial network (GAN) consisting of two registration networks and two discrimination networks connected by spatial transformation layers. The generators learns to create a deformation field which registers an image of one modality to an image of the other. To do that, it uses the feedback of the discriminators which are learning to judge the quality of alignment of the registered images. Additionally, a cycle-consistency loss is implemented. For this, both registration networks are employed twice. Thus the resulting and initial images are similar if the registration process was successful. The resulting and initial images of the same modality can be compared easily. A combination of a GAN with a cycle-consistency loss has not been applied to multimodal deformable image registration before. A dataset of liver CT and MRI was used to evaluate the quality of our approach and to compare it against learning and non-learning based registration algorithms. Our approach leads to dice scores of up to 0.80 +- 0.01 and is therefore comparable to and slightly more successful than algorithms like SimpleElastix and VoxelMorph.

Keywords: Deep learning, gan, cycle consistency, deformable multimodal image registration

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1395 Discursive Psychology of Emotions in Mediation

Authors: Katarzyna Oberda

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to conceptual emotions in the process of mediation. Although human emotions have been approached from various disciplines and perspectives, e.g. philosophy, linguistics, psychology and neurology, this complex phenomenon still needs further investigation into its discursive character with the an open mind and heart. To attain this aim, the theoretical and practical considerations are taken into account both to contextualize the discursive psychology of emotions in mediation and show how cognitive and linguistic activity expressed in language may lead to the emotional turn in the process of mediation. The double directions of this research into the discursive psychology of emotions have been partially inspired by the evaluative components of mediation forms. In the conducted research, we apply the methodology of discursive psychology with the discourse analysis as a tool. The practical data come from the recorded mediations online. The major findings of the conducted research result in the reconstruction of the emotional transformation model in mediation.

Keywords: Mediation, Discourse Analysis, Emotions, Discursive Psychology

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1394 Formation of an Artificial Cultural and Language Environment When Teaching a Foreign Language in the Material of Original Films

Authors: Konysbek Aksaule

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to explore new and effective ways of teaching English to students who are studying a foreign language since the timeliness of the problem disclosed in this article is due to the high level of English proficiency that potential specialists must have due to high competition in the context of global globalization. The article presents an analysis of the feasibility and effectiveness of using an authentic feature film in teaching English to students. The methodological basis of the study includes an assessment of the level of students' proficiency in a foreign language, the stage of evaluating the film, and the method of selecting the film for certain categories of students. The study also contains a list of practical tasks that can be applied in the process of viewing and perception of an original feature film in a foreign language, and which are aimed at developing language skills such as speaking and listening. The results of this study proved that teaching English to students through watching an original film is one of the most effective methods because it improves speech perception, speech reproduction ability, and also expands the vocabulary of students and makes their speech fluent. In addition, learning English through watching foreign films has a huge impact on the cultural views and knowledge of students about the country of the language being studied and the world in general. Thus, this study demonstrates the high potential of using authentic feature film in English lessons for pedagogical science and methods of teaching English in general.

Keywords: Education, Foreign Language, students, University, feature film

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1393 Implementing a Plurilingual Approach to ELF in Primary School: An International Comparative Study

Authors: A. Chabert

Abstract:

The present paper is motivated by the current influence of communicative approaches in language policies around the globe (especially through the Common European Framework of Reference), along with the exponential spread of English as a Lingua Franca worldwide. This study focuses on English language learning and teaching in the last year of primary education in Spain (in the bilingual Valencian region), Norway (in the Trondelag region), and China (in the Hunan region) and proposes a plurilingual communicative approach to ELT in line with ELF awareness and the current retheorisation of ELF within multilingualism (Jenkins, 2018). This study, interdisciplinary in nature, attempts to find a convergence point among English Language Teaching, English as a Lingua Franca, Language Ecology and Multilingualism, breaking with the boundaries that separate languages in language teaching and acknowledging English as international communication, while protecting the mother tongue and language diversity within multilingualism. Our experiment included over 400 students across Spain, Norway, and China, and the outcomes obtained demonstrate that despite the different factors involved in different cultures and contexts, a plurilingual approach to English learning improved English scores by 20% in each of the contexts. Through our study, we reflect on the underestimated value of the mother tongue in ELT, as well as the need for a sustainable ELF perspective in education worldwide.

Keywords: Multilingualism, English Language Teaching, English as a lingua franca, language ecology

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1392 The Effects of Watching Text-Relevant Video Segments with/without Subtitles on Vocabulary Development of Arabic as a Foreign Language Learners

Authors: Amirreza Karami, Hawraa Nafea Hameed Alzouwain, Freddie A. Bowles

Abstract:

This study investigates the effects of watching text-relevant video segments with/without subtitles on vocabulary development of Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL) learners. The participants of the study were assigned to two groups: one control group and one experimental group. The control group received no video-based instruction while the experimental group watched a text-relevant video segment in three stages: pre, while, and post-instruction. The preliminary results of the pre-test and post-test show that watching text-relevant video segments through following a pre-while-post procedure can help the vocabulary development of AFL learners more than non-video-based instruction.

Keywords: vocabulary development, text-relevant video segments, Arabic as a Foreign Language, AFL, pre-while-post instruction

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1391 Songs from the Cradle: An Analysis of Some Selected Nupe Songs

Authors: Zainab Zendana Shafii

Abstract:

Lullabies have been broadly defined as songs that are sung to calm and soothe children. While this is true, this paper intends to show that lullabies exceed these functions. The paper, in exploring Nupe lullabies, examines the various functions that lullabies perform in terms of language development, cultural enrichment and also the retelling of history as it relates to the culture of the Nupe people of northern Nigeria. The theoretical framework used is the functionalist theory. This theory postulates that all cultural or social phenomena have a positive function and that all are indispensable. The functionalist theory is based on the premise that all aspects of a society—institutions, roles, norms, etc.—serve a purpose and that all are indispensable for the long-term survival of the society. To this end, this paper dissects the various lullabies in Nupeland with a view to exploring the meaning that these songs generate and why they are even sung at all. The qualitative research methodology has been used to gather materials.

Keywords: Nigeria, Nupe, lullabies, northern

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1390 On the Semantics and Pragmatics of 'Be Able To': Modality and Actualisation

Authors: Benoît Leclercq, Ilse Depraetere

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The goal of this presentation is to shed new light on the semantics and pragmatics of be able to. It presents the results of a corpus analysis based on data from the BNC (British National Corpus), and discusses these results in light of a specific stance on the semantics-pragmatics interface taking into account recent developments. Be able to is often discussed in relation to can and could, all of which can be used to express ability. Such an onomasiological approach often results in the identification of usage constraints for each expression. In the case of be able to, it is the formal properties of the modal expression (unlike can and could, be able to has non-finite forms) that are in the foreground, and the modal expression is described as the verb that conveys future ability. Be able to is also argued to expressed actualised ability in the past (I was able/could to open the door). This presentation aims to provide a more accurate pragmatic-semantic profile of be able to, based on extensive data analysis and one that is embedded in a very explicit view on the semantics-pragmatics interface. A random sample of 3000 examples (1000 for each modal verb) extracted from the BNC was analysed to account for the following issues. First, the challenge is to identify the exact semantic range of be able to. The results show that, contrary to general assumption, be able to does not only express ability but it shares most of the root meanings usually associated with the possibility modals can and could. The data reveal that what is called opportunity is, in fact, the most frequent meaning of be able to. Second, attention will be given to the notion of actualisation. It is commonly argued that be able to is the preferred form when the residue actualises: (1) The only reason he was able to do that was because of the restriction (BNC, spoken) (2) It is only through my imaginative shuffling of the aces that we are able to stay ahead of the pack. (BNC, written) Although this notion has been studied in detail within formal semantic approaches, empirical data is crucially lacking and it is unclear whether actualisation constitutes a conventional (and distinguishing) property of be able to. The empirical analysis provides solid evidence that actualisation is indeed a conventional feature of the modal. Furthermore, the dataset reveals that be able to expresses actualised 'opportunities' and not actualised 'abilities'. In the final part of this paper, attention will be given to the theoretical implications of the empirical findings, and in particular to the following paradox: how can the same expression encode both modal meaning (non-factual) and actualisation (factual)? It will be argued that this largely depends on one's conception of the semantics-pragmatics interface, and that this need not be an issue when actualisation (unlike modality) is analysed as a generalised conversational implicature and thus is considered part of the conventional pragmatic layer of be able to.

Keywords: Pragmatics, Semantics, modality, Actualisation

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1389 Interpreter Scholarship Program That Improves Language Services in New South Wales: A Participatory Action Research Approach

Authors: Carly Copolov, Rema Nazha, Sahba C. Delshad, George Bisas

Abstract:

In New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we speak more than 275 languages and dialects. Interpreters play an indispensable role in our multicultural society by ensuring the people of NSW all enjoy the same opportunities. The NSW Government offers scholarships to enable people who speak in-demand and high priority languages to become eligible to be practicing interpreters. The NSW Interpreter Scholarship Program was launched in January 2019, targeting priority languages from new and emerging, as well as existing language communities. The program offers fully-funded scholarships to study at Technical and Further Education (TAFE), receive National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) certification, and be mentored and gain employment with the interpreter panel of Multicultural NSW. A Participatory Action Research approach was engaged to challenge the current system for people to become practicing interpreters in NSW. There were over 800 metro Sydney applications and close to 200 regional applications. Three courses were run through TAFE NSW (2 in metro Sydney and 1 in regional NSW). Thirty-nine students graduated from the program in 2019. The first metro Sydney location had 18 graduates complete the course in Assyrian, Burmese, Chaldean, Kurdish-Kurmanji, Nepali, and Tibetan. The second metro Sydney location had 9 graduates complete the course in Tongan, Kirundi, Mongolian and Italian. The regional location had 12 graduates who complete the course from new emerging language communities such as Kurdish-Kurmanji, Burmese, Zomi Chin, Hakha Chin, and Tigrinya. The findings showed that students were very positive about the program as the large majority said they were satisfied with the course content, they felt prepared for the NAATI test at the conclusion of the course, and they would definitely recommend the program to their friends. Also, 18 students from the 2019 cohort signed up to receive further mentoring by experienced interpreters. In 2020 it is anticipated that 3 courses will be run through TAFE NSW (2 in regional NSW and 1 in metro Sydney) to reflect the needs of new emerging language communities settling in regional areas. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that the NSW Interpreter Scholarship Program improves the supply, quality, and use of language services in NSW, Australia, so that people who speak in-demand and high priority languages are ensured better access to crucial government services

Keywords: Interpreting, sydney, emerging communities, scholarship program

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1388 Image Ranking to Assist Object Labeling for Training Detection Models

Authors: Tonislav Ivanov, Oleksii Nedashkivskyi, Denis Babeshko, Vadim Pinskiy, Matthew Putman

Abstract:

Training a machine learning model for object detection that generalizes well is known to benefit from a training dataset with diverse examples. However, training datasets usually contain many repeats of common examples of a class and lack is rarely seen examples. This is due to the process commonly used during human annotation, where a person would proceed sequentially through a list of images labeling a sufficiently high total number of examples. Instead, the method presented involves an active process where, after the initial labeling of several images is completed, the next subset of images for labeling is selected by an algorithm. This process of algorithmic image selection and manual labeling continues in an iterative fashion. The algorithm used for the image selection is a deep learning algorithm, based on the U-shaped architecture, which quantifies the presence of unseen data in each image in order to find images that contain the most novel examples. Moreover, the location of the unseen data in each image is highlighted, aiding the labeler in spotting these examples. Experiments performed using semiconductor wafer data show that labeling a subset of the data, curated by this algorithm, resulted in a model with a better performance than a model produced from sequentially labeling the same amount of data. Also, similar performance is achieved compared to a model trained on exhaustive labeling of the whole dataset. Overall, the proposed approach results in a dataset that has a diverse set of examples per class as well as more balanced classes, which proves beneficial when training a deep learning model.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Semiconductor, Deep learning, Object Detection

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1387 Language Teachers as Materials Developers in China: A Multimethod Approach

Authors: Jiao Li

Abstract:

Language teachers have been expected to play diversified new roles in times of educational changes. Considering the critical role that materials play in teaching and learning, language teachers have been increasingly involved in developing materials. Using identity as an analytic lens, this study aims to explore language teachers’ experiences as materials developers in China, focusing on the challenges they face and responses to them. It will adopt a multimethod approach. At the first stage, about 12 language teachers who have developed or are developing materials will be interviewed to have a broad view of their experiences. At the second stage, three language teachers who are developing materials will be studied by collecting interview data, policy documents, and data obtained from online observation of their group meetings so as to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences in materials development. It is expected that this study would have implications for teacher development, materials development, and curriculum development as well.

Keywords: Materials Development, educational changes, teacher development, teacher learning, teacher identity

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1386 An Automatic Control System with Human-in-the-Loop for Training Skydiving Maneuvers: Proof-of-Concept Experiment

Authors: Anna Clarke, Per-Olof Gutman

Abstract:

A real-time motion training system for skydiving is proposed. Aerial maneuvers are performed by changing the body posture and thus deflecting the surrounding airflow. The natural learning process is extremely slow due to unfamiliar free-fall dynamics, stress induced blocking of the kinesthetic feedback, and complexity of the required movements. The key idea is to augment the learner with an automatic control system that would be able to perform the trained activity if it had direct access to the learner's body as an actuator. The aiding system will supply the following visual cues to the learner: 1. feedback of the current body posture; 2. the body posture that would bring the body to perform the desired maneuver; 3. prediction of the future inertial position and orientation if the body retains its present posture. The system will enable novices to maintain stability in free-fall and perceive the unfamiliar environmental dynamics, thus accelerating the initial stages of skill acquisition. This paper presents results of a Proof-of-Concept experiment, whereby humans controlled a virtual skydiver free-falling in a computer simulation, by means of their bodies. This task was impossible without the aiding system, which enabled all the participants to complete the task from the first attempt.

Keywords:

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1385 Examining the Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in L2 Learners' Writing after L2 Instruction

Authors: Khaled Barkaoui

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Research on second-language (L2) learning tends to focus on comparing students with different levels of proficiency at one point in time. However, to understand L2 development, we need more longitudinal research. In this study, we adopt a longitudinal approach to examine changes in three indicators of L2 ability, complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF), as reflected in the writing of L2 learners when writing on different tasks before and after a period L2 instruction. Each of 85 Chinese learners of English at three levels of English language proficiency responded to two writing tasks (independent and integrated) before and after nine months of English-language study in China. Each essay (N= 276) was analyzed in terms of numerous CAF indices using both computer coding and human rating: number of words written, number of errors per 100 words, ratings of error severity, global syntactic complexity (MLS), complexity by coordination (T/S), complexity by subordination (C/T), clausal complexity (MLC), phrasal complexity (NP density), syntactic variety, lexical density, lexical variation, lexical sophistication, and lexical bundles. Results were then compared statistically across tasks, L2 proficiency levels, and time. Overall, task type had significant effects on fluency and some syntactic complexity indices (complexity by coordination, structural variety, clausal complexity, phrase complexity) and lexical density, sophistication, and bundles, but not accuracy. L2 proficiency had significant effects on fluency, accuracy, and lexical variation, but not syntactic complexity. Finally, fluency, frequency of errors, but not accuracy ratings, syntactic complexity indices (clausal complexity, global complexity, complexity by subordination, phrase complexity, structural variety) and lexical complexity (lexical density, variation, and sophistication) exhibited significant changes after instruction, particularly for the independent task. We discuss the findings and their implications for assessment, instruction, and research on CAF in the context of L2 writing.

Keywords: Complexity, Accuracy, longitudinal, fluency, second language writing

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1384 Polite Request Strategies in Commuter Discourse in Xhosa

Authors: Mawande Dlali

Abstract:

This paper examines the request strategies in commuter discourse involving taxi drivers and passengers in Khayelitsha as well as the responses to these requests. The present study considers requests in commuter transport as face threatening acts (FTAs), hence the need for the commuter crew to strategically shape their communicative actions to achieve their overall discourse goal of getting passengers to perform actions that are in their own interest with minimum resistance or confrontation. The crew presents itself by using communicative devices that prompt the passengers to evaluate it positively as warm, friendly, and respectful. However, the passengers' responses to requests range from compliance to resistance depending on their interpretation of the speaker’s motive and the probable social consequences. Participant observation by the researcher was the main method of collecting examples of requests and responses to the requests. Unstructured interviews and informal discussions were made with randomly selected taxi drivers and commuters. The findings and explanations presented in this article revealed the predominance of polite requests as speech acts in taxi discourse in Khayelitsha. This research makes a contribution to the contemporary pragmatics study of African languages in urban context.

Keywords: discourse, Speech Acts, request strategies, face threatening acts

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1383 Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Apology Strategies by Libyans

Authors: Ahmed Elgadri

Abstract:

In the last thirty years, studies on cross-cultural pragmatics in general and apology strategies in specific have focused on western and East-Asian societies. A small volume of research has been conducted in investigating speech acts production by Arabic dialect speakers. Therefore, this study investigated the apology strategies used by Libyan Arabic speakers using an online Discourse Completion Task (DCT) questionnaire. The DCT consisted of six situations covering different social contexts. The survey was written in Libyan Arabic dialect to help generate vernacular speech as much as possible. The participants were 25 Libyan nationals, 12 females, and 13 males. Also, to get a deeper understanding of the motivation behind the use of certain strategies, the researcher interviewed four participants using the Libyan Arabic dialect as well. The results revealed a high use of IFID, offer of repair, and explanation. Although this might support the universality claim of speech acts strategies, it was clear that cultural norms and religion determined the choice of apology strategies significantly. This led to the discovery of new culture-specific strategies, as outlined later in this paper. This study gives an insight into politeness strategies in Libyan society, and it is hoped to contribute to the field of cross-cultural pragmatics.

Keywords: Pragmatics, Language and Culture, Speech Acts, politeness, apologies, cross-cultural pragmatics, Libyan Arabic, socio-pragmatics

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1382 A Bibliometric Analysis of Research on Metaphor and Business Translation at Spanish Centers

Authors: Daniel Gallego-Hernández

Abstract:

Business translation in the broad sense (including translation in economics, finance, trade, etc.) is a professional activity with a great demand throughout the world. This demand has generated researchers’ interest on this type of translation in the first decades of the 21st century. Translator training centers have also begun to include business translation in their curricula. Against this backdrop, a detailed bibliometric analysis on business translation is being conducted in Spain in order to strengthen and boost research related to this type of translation, which is very frequently practiced in the professional market. The aim of this paper is to analyze research in business translation made by scholars by focusing on a specific topic: translation of metaphors. This paper describes different steps: the compilation of a bibliographic corpus, an initial bibliometric-based study, and some results. Firstly, the compilation of the bibliographic references on metaphor is described. Various bibliographic databases (BITRA, TSB, TESEO, etc.), as well as instructors and researchers have been consulted. The bibliographic corpus analyzed in this paper contains a total of 46 publications on business translation and metaphor (42 book chapters, 20 articles, and 2 Ph.D. theses) written in different languages (mainly Spanish and English). Secondly, a bibliometric-based study is carried out. Various indicators are analyzed: formal indicators (type, language or year of publication), personal indicators (authorships, institutional affiliations), production indicators (number of publications, researchers’ characteristics), collaboration indicators (social networks among authors and institutions), and impact indicators (citations, influences), and content indicators (topics and methodologies). Graphical representations and ranking lists are generated by using different methodologies according to the indicator analyzed. For example, Bibexcel and Pajek are used to generate social network representations in the case of collaboration indicators. Corpus linguistics tools such as word and collocation frequencies are used to identify specific topics. The results show, among other things, that this subject matter is prolific in research on business translation. Metaphors are studied especially from descriptive and cognitive points of view. Corpus linguistics is frequently used when analyzing metaphors, especially in press articles. Conceptual metaphors which are most studied concern upward and downward movements, but also medicine, war, and natural phenomena. Comparative studies reveal a high degree of parallelism between languages, which seems to lead translators to translate literally when dealing with metaphors. The field being in its infancy, the analysis also suggests that further research can be carried out. For example, several economic areas have not yet been analyzed. Also, some metaphorical concepts having low degrees of parallelism between languages and consequently being not prone to be literally translated may also be studied so that the identification of the kinds of strategies employed by translators can be applied to translator training.

Keywords: Translation Studies, Bibliometrics, Metaphors, business translation

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1381 Digitalising the Instruction: Between Technology Integration and Instrumental Use

Authors: H. Zouar, I. Kassous, F. Benzert

Abstract:

The relentless pace of technology development in the last two decades has pervaded much of the recent educational discourse on a nation-wide scale. The rippling echoes of the buzz that account for the myriad of advantages the new technologies bring to the pedagogical activity has inevitably transcended from the western world to the Algerian educational contexts. Attempts have been made by Algerian practitioners to heed this digital advancement and push their instructional practices forward. However, due to the still largely existing first-order barriers as exemplified in the forms of deficient institutional infrastructure and unavailability of sufficient digital materials, the results of those attempts have polarised the views of Algerian academics regarding technology integration within higher education context. Hence, this study aims at measuring the possibility of integrating technology in our classrooms in a way that conforms to the philosophy of hybrid education. It also attempts to re-consider teachers’ understanding of technology integration in our context. Furthermore, the purpose of this research is also to reveal the level of teachers’ awareness regarding the distinction between technology integration and instrumental use. In view of the nature of these aims, a mixed-methods mode of investigation has been adopted to collect both qualitative and quantitative data from different perspectives. The data collection tools comprise of an observation as well as students’ and teachers’ questionnaires. The findings show that despite the fact that the examined context is not without its technological limitations, technology integration can be successfully incorporated contingent on teachers' level of knowledge and agency. Technology integration in Algerian universities does not proceed as the bedrock theory of it entails due to issues within teachers' general understanding of utilizing technology in class. It seems that technology is a means to an end, depending on the teachers who make use of it in order to deliver lessons (PowerPoint presentation) and issue commands (Facebook posting). Teachers' ability to clearly discern between integrating technology in their practices versus employing it as an instrument of instruction needs further consideration in order to establish a solid understanding of technology integration within higher education context.

Keywords: Technology Integration, hybrid education, teachers' understanding, teachers' awareness, instrumental use

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1380 Multi-Level Attentional Network for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Yuan He, Xinyuan Liu, Xiaojun Jing, Junsheng Mu

Abstract:

Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) has attracted much attention due to its capacity to determine the sentiment polarity of the certain aspect in a sentence. In previous works, great significance of the interaction between aspect and sentence has been exhibited in ABSA. In consequence, a Multi-Level Attentional Networks (MLAN) is proposed. MLAN consists of four parts: Embedding Layer, Encoding Layer, Multi-Level Attentional (MLA) Layers and Final Prediction Layer. Among these parts, MLA Layers including Aspect Level Attentional (ALA) Layer and Interactive Attentional (ILA) Layer is the innovation of MLAN, whose function is to focus on the important information and obtain multiple levels’ attentional weighted representation of aspect and sentence. In the experiments, MLAN is compared with classical TD-LSTM, MemNet, RAM, ATAE-LSTM, IAN, AOA, LCR-Rot and AEN-GloVe on SemEval 2014 Dataset. The experimental results show that MLAN outperforms those state-of-the-art models greatly. And in case study, the works of ALA Layer and ILA Layer have been proven to be effective and interpretable.

Keywords: Attention, natural language processing, Deep learning, aspect-based sentiment analysis

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1379 Juxtaposition of the Past and the Present: A Stylistic Analysis of the Short Story Too Much Happiness by Alice Munro

Authors: I. Hussein

Abstract:

Alice Munro is a Canadian short-story writer who has been regarded as one of the greatest writers of fiction. Owing to her great contribution to fiction, she was the first Canadian woman and the only short-story writer ever to be rewarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2013. Her books consist of collections of short stories and one book published as a novel. Her stories concentrate on the human condition and the human relationships, as seen through the lens of daily life. The setting in most of her stories is her native Canada- small towns like the one where she grew up. Her writing style is not only realistic but characterized by autobiographical, historical, and regional features. The aim of this research is to analyze one of the key stylistic devices often adopted by Munro in her fictions: the juxtaposition of the past and the present, with reference to the title story of Munro's short story collection Too Much Happiness. The story under exploration is a brief biography of the Russian mathematician and novelist Sophia Kovalevsky (1850-1891), the first woman to be appointed as a professor of mathematics at a European university in Stockholm. Thus it has a historical protagonist and is set on the European continent. Munro dramatizes the severe historical and cultural constraints that hindered the career of the protagonist. A qualitative approach is being adopted, and the analysis is supported by textual reference. The stylistic analysis reveals that the juxtaposition of the past and the present is one of the distinctive features that characterize the author; in a typical Munrovian manner, the protagonist often moves between the units of time: the past, the present and, sometimes, the future. Munro's style is simple and direct but cleverly constructed and densely complicated by the presence of deeper layers and stories within the story. Findings of the research reveal that the story under investigation merits reading and analyzing. It is recommended that other stories are analyzed to further explore the features of Munro's art and style.

Keywords: Style, Alice Munro, Too Much Happiness, stylistic analysis

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1378 Enhancing Learners' Metacognitive, Cultural and Linguistic Proficiency through Egyptian Series

Authors: Hanan Eltayeb, Reem Al Refaie

Abstract:

To be able to connect and relate to shows spoken in a foreign language, advanced learners must understand not only linguistics inferences but also cultural, metacognitive, and pragmatic connotations in colloquial Egyptian TV series. These connotations are needed to both understand the different facets of the dramas put before them, and they’re also consistently grown and formulated through watching these shows. The inferences have become a staple in the Egyptian colloquial culture over the years, making their way into day-to-day conversations as Egyptians use them to speak, relate, joke, and connect with each other, without having known one another from previous times. As for advanced learners, they need to understand these inferences not only to watch these shows, but also to be able to converse with Egyptians on a level that surpasses the formal, or standard. When faced with some of the somewhat recent shows on the Egyptian screens, learners faced challenges in understanding pragmatics, cultural, and religious background of the target language and consequently not able to interact effectively with a native speaker in real-life situations. This study aims to enhance the linguistic and cultural proficiency of learners through studying two genres of TV Colloquial Egyptian series. Study samples derived from two recent comedian and social Egyptian series ('The Seventh Neighbor' سابع جار, and 'Nelly and Sherihan' نيللي و شريهان). When learners watch such series, they are usually faced with a problem understanding inferences that have to do with social, religious, and political events that are addressed in the series. Using discourse analysis of the sematic, semantic, pragmatic, cultural, and linguistic characteristics of the target language, some major deductions were highlighted and repeated, showing a pattern in both. The research paper concludes that there are many sets of lingual and para-lingual phrases, idioms, and proverbs to be acquired and used effectively by teaching these series. The strategies adopted in the study can be applied to different types of media, like movies, TV shows, and even cartoons, to enhance student proficiency.

Keywords: Pragmatics, Semantics, Culture, Social, linguistic competence, Egyptian series

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1377 GRCNN: Graph Recognition Convolutional Neural Network for Synthesizing Programs from Flow Charts

Authors: Lin Cheng, Zijiang Yang

Abstract:

Program synthesis is the task to automatically generate programs based on user specification. In this paper, we present a framework that synthesizes programs from flow charts that serve as accurate and intuitive specification. In order doing so, we propose a deep neural network called GRCNN that recognizes graph structure from its image. GRCNN is trained end-to-end, which can predict edge and node information of the flow chart simultaneously. Experiments show that the accuracy rate to synthesize a program is 66.4%, and the accuracy rates to recognize edge and node are 94.1% and 67.9%, respectively. On average, it takes about 60 milliseconds to synthesize a program.

Keywords: specification, Program Synthesis, CNN, flow chart, graph recognition

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1376 Investigating the Role of Algerian Middle School Teachers in Enhancing Academic Self-Regulation: A Key towards Teaching How to Learn

Authors: Hanane Sarnou, Houda Zouar

Abstract:

In the 21st, century the concept of learners' autonomy is crucial. The concept of self-regulated learning has come forward as a result of enabling learners to direct their learning with autonomy towards academic goals achievement. Academic self-regulation is defined as the process by which learners systematically plan, monitor and asses their learning to achieve their academic established goals. In the field of English as a foreign language, teachers emphasise the role of learners’ autonomy to foster the process of English language learning. Consequently, academic self-regulation is considered as a vehicle to enhance autonomy among English language learners. However, not all learners can be equally self-regulators if not well assisted, mainly those novice pupils of basic education. For this matter, understanding the role of teachers in fostering academic self- regulation must be among the preliminary objectives in searching and developing this area. The present research work targets the role of the Algerian middle school teachers in enhancing academic self-regulation and teaching pupils how to learn, besides their role as models in the trajectory of teaching their pupils to become self-regulators. Despite the considerable endeavours in the field of educational setting on Self-Regulated Learning, the literature of the Algerian context indicates confined endeavours to undertake and divulge this notion. To go deeper into this study, a mixed method approach was employed to confirm our hypothesis. For data collection, teachers were observed and addressed by a questionnaire on their role in enhancing academic self- regulation among their pupils. The result of the research indicates that the attempts of middle school Algerian teachers are implicit and limited. This study emphasises the need to prepare English language teachers with the necessary skills to promote autonomous and self-regulator English learners.

Keywords: English as a Foreign Language, Self-regulation, Algeria, middle school, Teachers' role

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1375 Translation of Culture Specific References in the Turkish Translation of Shakespeare's Macbeth

Authors: Feride Sümbül

Abstract:

Drama is a literary genre that mirrors the people and society and transfers the human nature and life to the reader or the audience within its own social-cultural structure. Each play takes on a new reality in the time and culture of the staging, and each performance actually brings a new interpretation to the play. Similarly, each translation adds a new meaning to the source text. In other words, the translated theatrical text transcends the boundaries of its language and culture and finds a new interpretation. Thus the translation of drama takes place as a transfer from one culture to another as a cross cultural communication. In this context, translating culture specific references play a key role in terms of reflecting cultural aspects of a target society. This study aims to explore the use of Venuti's translation principles of domestication and foreignization in the transfer of culture specific references in the Turkish translation of Shakespeare's Macbeth. Macbeth is to be compared with its Turkish version in terms of the transference of culture specific references such as religious, witchcraft, and mythological, which have no equivalent in the target language and culture. To evaluate these principles of Venuti, Davies’s translation strategies are also conducted. As a method, for the most part, he predominantly uses Davies’ method of ‘addition’ through adding extra information in the notes. For instance, rather than finding the Turkish renderings of them, the translator mostly chooses to transfer witchcraft references through retaining them in the target text, but he mainly adds extra information about the references in the notes. Therefore, the translator Nutku mostly uses Venuti’s translation principle of foreignization so that he preserves the foreignness of the theatrical text.

Keywords: Interpretation, Culture specific references, Drama translation, Macbeth

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