Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

ciprofloxacin Related Abstracts

12 Sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Subclinical Bovine Mastitis to Ciprofloxacin in Dairy Herd in Tabriz during 2013

Authors: Alireza Jafarzadeh, Samad Mosaferi, Mansour Khakpour


Mastitis is an inflammation of the parenchyma of mammary gland regardless of the causes. Mastitis is characterized by a range of physical and chemical changes in the glandular tissue. The most important change in milk includes discoloration, the presence of clots and large number of leucocytes. There is swelling, heat, pain and edema in mammary gland in many clinical cases. Positive coagulase S. aureus is a major pathogen of the bovine mammary gland and a common cause of contagious mastitis in cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outbreaks of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. This study is conducted in ten dairy herds about one thousand cows. After doing CMT and identifying infected cows, the milk samples obtained from infected teats and transported to microbiological laboratories. After microbial culture of milk samples and isolating S. aureus, antimicrobial, sensitivity test was performed with disk diffusion method by ciprofloxacin, co-amoxiclav, erythromycin, penicillin, oxytetracyclin, sulfonamides, lincomycin and cefquinome. The study defined that the outbreak of subclinical positive coagulase Staphylococcus mastitis in dairy herd was 13.11% (5.6% S. aureus and 7.51% S. intermedicus). The antimicrobial sensitivity test shown that 87.23% of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in dairy herd was susceptible to ciprofloxacin, 93.9% to cefquinome, 4.67% to co-amoxiclav, 12.16% to erythromycin 86.11% to sulfonamides (co-trimoxazole), 3.35% lincomycin, 12.7% to oxytetracyclin and 5.98% to penicillin. Results of present defined that ciprofloxacin has a great effect on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical bovine mastitis dairy herd. It seems that cefquinome sulfonamides has a great effect on isolated Staphylococcus aureus in vivo.

Keywords: Mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus, ciprofloxacin, dairy herd

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11 Risk Factors for High Resistance of Ciprofloxacin Against Escherichia coli in Complicated Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Nasir Orakzai, Khalid Farooq, Shafieullah Khan, Qudratullah


Objectives: To determine the risk factors for high resistance of ciprofloxacin in complicated urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: It is an analytical study that was conducted in the department of Urology (Team ‘C’) at Institute of Kidney Diseases Hayatabad Peshawar from 1st June 2012 till 31st December 2012. Total numbers of 100 patients with complicated UTI was selected in the study. Multivariate analysis and linear regression were performed for the detection of risk factors. All the data was recorded on structured Proforma and was analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: The mean age of the patient was 55.6 years (Range 3-82 years). 62 patients were male while 38 patients were female. 66 isolates of E-Coli were found sensitive to ciprofloxacin while 34 isolates were found Resistant for ciprofloxacin. Using multivariate analysis and linear regression, an increasing age above 50 (p=0.002) History of urinary catheterization especially for bladder outflow obstruction (p=0.001) and previous multiple use of ciprofloxacin (p=0.001) and poor brand of ciprofloxacin were found to be independent risk factors for high resistance of ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: UTI is common illness across the globe with increasing trend of antimicrobial resistance for ciprofloxacin against E Coli in complicated UTI. The risk factors for emerging resistance are increasing age, urinary catheterization and multiple use and poor brand of ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, Urinary tract infection, ciprofloxacin, urethral catheterization

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10 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony


Purpose: to evaluate the spectral specification(IR-XRD and SEM) of nano ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and it,s characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation: to enhance the antibacterial property of nano ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin.IR spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano ciprofloxacin was sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano ciprofloxacin showes the diameter of particles equal to 90.9 nm (on the basis of scherrer equation). SEM image showes the global shape for nano ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: Nano, Antibiotic, SEM, XRD, ciprofloxacin

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9 Preparation and Structural Analysis of Nano-Ciprofloxacin by Fourier Transform X-Ray Diffraction, Infra-Red Spectroscopy, and Semi Electron Microscope (SEM)

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Mehrnoosh Saboony


Purpose: To evaluate the spectral specification (IR-XRD and SEM) of nano-ciprofloxacin that prepared by up-down method (satellite mill). Methods: the ciprofloxacin was minimized to nano-scale with satellite mill and its characterization evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy, XRD diffraction and semi electron microscope (SEM). Expectation enhances the antibacterial property of nano-ciprofloxacin in comparison to ciprofloxacin. IR spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin compared with spectrum of ciprofloxacin, and both of them were almost agreement with a difference: the peaks in spectrum of nano-ciprofloxacin were sharper than peaks in spectrum of ciprofloxacin. X-Ray powder diffraction analysis of nano-ciprofloxacin shows the diameter of particles equal to 90.9nm. (on the basis of Scherer Equation). SEM image shows the global shape for nano-ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: Nano, Antibiotic, SEM, XRD, ciprofloxacin

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8 The Protective Effect of Grape Seed Oil with Use of Ciprofloxacin Induced Germ Cell Toxicity in Male Albino Mice

Authors: Galawezh Obaid Othman


The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the germ cell toxicity induced by ciprofloxacin antibiotic and the Protective effect of grape seed oil, Ciproflaxin uses include treatment of genitor-urinary and some reproductive tract bacterial infections. One of the most attractive approaches to disease prevention involves the use of natural antioxidants to protect tissue against toxic injury, the possible protective effect of grape seed oil, against ciprofloxacin induced reproductive toxicity on mouse .the animals were randomly divided into four groups consisting of five mice. Group (1) was orally given distilled water (solvent of the used drugs) and kept as a control. Group (2) was administered 6ml/kg. b.w of grape seed oil orally 15 days .Group (3) was administered 206mg/kg. b.w of ciprofloxacin orally for 15 days.. Last group was treated orally with Grape seed oil (6mg/kg b.w. /day) prior to an orally administered ciprofloxacin (CPX) at a dose of 206 mg⁄kg. b.w. by three hours for fifteen days. Ciproflaxin have ability to induce various types of sperm abnormalities such as (Sperm without head, sperm without tail, defective head spearm,swollen head sperm ), The results explored that Grape seed oil possesses statistically significant (p<0.05) protective potential against Ciproflaxin by decreasing sperm abnormalities frequency in mouse.

Keywords: ciprofloxacin, antimutagen, grape seed oil, germ cell

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7 Emergence of Ciprofloxacin Intermediate Susceptible Salmonella Typhi in India

Authors: Meenakshi Chaudhary, V .S. Randhawa, M. Jais, R. Dutta


Introduction: An outbreak of Multi drug resistant S. Typhi (i.e. resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) occurred in 1990's in India which peaked in 1992-93 and resulted in the change of drug of choice from chloramphenicol to ciprofloxacin for enteric fever. Currently an emergence of Ciprofloxacin susceptible S. Typhi isolates in the region is being reported which appears to be chromosomally mediated. Methodology: Six hundred sixty four strains were randomly selected from the time period between January 2008-December 2011 at the National Salmonella Phage Typing Centre, LHMC, New Delhi. The strains were representative of the north, central and south zones of India. All isolates were subjected to serotyping, biotyping, phage typing and then to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by CLSI disk diffusion (CLSI) technique to Ciprofloxacin, Cefotaxime, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Trimethoprim-Sulfomethoxazole and Tetracycline. Subsequently MIC of the isolates was determined by E-test (AB-Biodisc). Results: More than 80% of the tested strains had intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. The E test revealed the MIC (Ciprofloxacin) of these strains to be in the range of 0.12 to 0.5 µg/ml. Sixty nine percent of ciprofloxacin intermediate susceptible strains belonged to Phage type E1 and fourteen percent of these were Vi- Negative i.e these could not be typed by the phage typing scheme of Craigie and Yen. All the strains remained susceptible to cefotaxime. Conclusion: Predominant isolation of intermediate susceptible S. Typhi strains from India would alter the recommendations of empiric treatment of enteric fever in the region. Alternative to the low cost ciprofloxacin will have to be sought or increased dosage and/or duration of ciprofloxacin will have to be recommended. The reasons for the trend of increase in percentage of intermediate susceptible S. Typhi strains are not clear but may be attributed partly to the revision of CLSI guidelines in 2013.

Keywords: ciprofloxacin, salmonella typhi, decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration

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6 Green Synthesis (Using Environment Friendly Bacteria) of Silver-Nanoparticles and Their Application as Drug Delivery Agents

Authors: Suban K. Sahoo, Sutapa Mondal Roy


The primary aim of this work is to synthesis silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through environmentally benign routes to avoid any chemical toxicity related undesired side effects. The nanoparticles were stabilized with drug ciprofloxacin (Cp) and were studied for their effectiveness as drug delivery agent. Targeted drug delivery improves the therapeutic potential of drugs at the diseased site as well as lowers the overall dose and undesired side effects. The small size of nanoparticles greatly facilitates the transport of active agents (drugs) across biological membranes and allows them to pass through the smallest capillaries in the body that are 5-6 μm in diameter, and can minimize possible undesired side effects. AgNPs are non-toxic, inert, stable, and has a high binding capacity and thus can be considered as biomaterials. AgNPs were synthesized from the nutrient broth supernatant after the culture of environment-friendly bacteria Bacillus subtilis. The AgNPs were found to show the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 425 nm. The Cp capped Ag nanoparticles formation was complete within 30 minutes, which was confirmed from absorbance spectroscopy. Physico-chemical nature of the AgNPs-Cp system was confirmed by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) etc. The AgNPs-Cp system size was found to be in the range of 30-40 nm. To monitor the kinetics of drug release from the surface of nanoparticles, the release of Cp was carried out by careful dialysis keeping AgNPs-Cp system inside the dialysis bag at pH 7.4 over time. The drug release was almost complete after 30 hrs. During the drug delivery process, to understand the AgNPs-Cp system in a better way, the sincere theoretical investigation is been performed employing Density Functional Theory. Electronic charge transfer, electron density, binding energy as well as thermodynamic properties like enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy etc. has been predicted. The electronic and thermodynamic properties, governed by the AgNPs-Cp interactions, indicate that the formation of AgNPs-Cp system is exothermic i.e. thermodynamically favorable process. The binding energy and charge transfer analysis implies the optimum stability of the AgNPs-Cp system. Thus, the synthesized Cp-Ag nanoparticles can be effectively used for biological purposes due to its environmentally benign routes of synthesis procedures, which is clean, biocompatible, non-toxic, safe, cost-effective, sustainable and eco-friendly. The Cp-AgNPs as biomaterials can be successfully used for drug delivery procedures due to slow release of drug from nanoparticles over a considerable period of time. The kinetics of the drug release show that this drug-nanoparticle assembly can be effectively used as potential tools for therapeutic applications. The ease of synthetic procedure, lack of possible chemical toxicity and their biological activity along with excellent application as drug delivery agent will open up vista of using nanoparticles as effective and successful drug delivery agent to be used in modern days.

Keywords: drug delivery, Density Functional Theory, Silver Nanoparticles, ciprofloxacin

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5 Disposition Kinetics of Ciprofloxacin after Intramuscular Administration in Lohi Sheep

Authors: Zahid Iqbal, Riaz Hussain, Ijaz Javed, Ibadullah Jan, Amir Ali Khan


This study was conducted to investigate the disposition kinetics of ciprofloxacin and calculate its optimal dosage in Pakistani sheep of Lohi breed. Injectable preparation of ciprofloxacin was given intramuscularly to eight sheep at a dose of 5 mg/Kg. Before administration of drug blood sample was drawn from each animal. Post drug administration, blood samples were also drawn at various predetermined time periods. Drug concentration in the blood samples was assessed through high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Data were best described by two compartment open model and different pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated. Cmax of 1.97 ± 0.15 µg/ml was reached at Tmax of 0.88 ± 0.09 hours. Half life of absorption (t1/2 abs) was observed to be 0.63 ± 0.16 hours while t1/2 α (distribution half life) and t1/2 ß (elimination half life) were found to be 0.46 ± 0.05 and 2.93 ± 0.45 hours, respectively. Vd (apparent volume of distribution) was calculated as 2.89 ± 0.30 L/kg while AUC (area under the curve) was 7.19 ± 0.38 µ and CL (total body clearance) was 0.75 ± 0.04 L/hr/kg. Using these parameters, an optimal intramuscular dosage of ciprofloxacin in adult Lohi sheep was calculated as 21.43 mg/kg, advised to be repeated after 24 hours. From this, we came to the conclusion that calculated dose was much higher than the dose advised by the foreign manufacturer and to avoid antimicrobial resistance, it is advised that this locally investigated dosage regimen should be strictly followed in local sheep.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, HPLC, Sheep, ciprofloxacin, dosage regimen

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4 A Validated High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV Method for Determination of Malondialdehyde-Application to Study in Chronic Ciprofloxacin Treated Rats

Authors: Anil V. Chandewar, Anil P. Dewani, Ravindra L. Bakal


Present work demonstrates the applicability of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection for the determination of malondialdehyde as malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid complex (MDA-TBA) in-vivo in rats. The HPLC-UV method for MDA-TBA was achieved by isocratic mode on a reverse-phase C18 column (250mm×4.6mm) at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin−1 followed by UV detection at 278 nm. The chromatographic conditions were optimized by varying the concentration and pH followed by changes in percentage of organic phase optimal mobile phase consisted of mixture of water (0.2% Triethylamine pH adjusted to 2.3 by ortho-phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile in ratio (80:20 % v/v). The retention time of MDA-TBA complex was 3.7 min. The developed method was sensitive as limit of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) for MDA-TBA complex were (standard deviation and slope of calibration curve) 110 ng/ml and 363 ng/ml respectively. The method was linear for MDA spiked in plasma and subjected to derivatization at concentrations ranging from 100 to 1000 ng/ml. The precision of developed method measured in terms of relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day studies was 1.6–5.0% and 1.9–3.6% respectively. The HPLC method was applied for monitoring MDA levels in rats subjected to chronic treatment of ciprofloxacin (CFL) (5mg/kg/day) for 21 days. Results were compared by findings in control group rats. Mean peak areas of both study groups was subjected for statistical treatment to unpaired student t-test to find p-values. The p value was < 0.001 indicating significant results and suggesting increased MDA levels in rats subjected to chronic treatment of CFL of 21 days.

Keywords: ciprofloxacin, MDA, TBA, HPLC-UV

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3 Antimicrobial Evaluation of Polyphenon 60 and Ciprofloxacin Loaded Nano Emulsion against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Bacteria and Its in vivo Analysis

Authors: Shweta Dang, Atinderpal Kaur


Our aim is to develop a nanoemulsion-based delivery system containing polyphenon 60 (P60) and ciprofloxacin (Cipro) for intravaginal delivery to treat urinary tract infection. In the present study Polyphenon 60 (P60) and ciprofloxacin (Cipro) were loaded in a single nano emulsion (NE) system via ultra-sonication technique and characterized for particle size, in vitro release and antibacterial efficacy against Bcl-2 level Escherichia coli bacteria. To determine in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters and intravaginal transportation of NE, gamma scintigraphy and biodistribution study was conducted by radiolabelling NE with technetium pertechnetate (99mTc). The preliminary antibacterial investigation showed synergy between these compounds with FICindex of 0.42. The developed formulation showed zeta potential +55.3 and particle size of 151.7 nm, with PDI of 0.196. The in vitro release percentage of P60 at the end of 7th hours was 94.8 ± 0.9 % whereas the release for Cipro was 75.1± 0.15 % in simulated vaginal media. MBC was identified and the findings demonstrated that in both ESBL (Extended Spectrum β- lactamase) and MBL (Metallo β- lactamase) cultures the P60+Cipro NE showed inhibition of growth of all the isolates at 2 mg/ml dilutions. The percentage per gram of radiolabelled drug was found (3.50±0.26) and (3.81±0.30) in kidney and urinary bladder, respectively at 3 h. From the findings, it was concluded that the developed P60+Cipro NE was transported efficiently throughout the target organs, had long duration of action and high biocompatibility via intravaginal administration as compared to oral administration.

Keywords: ciprofloxacin, gamma scintigraphy, intravaginal drug delivery, Polyphenon 60

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2 Hybrid Graphene Based Nanomaterial as Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Electrochemical Determination of Ciprofloxacin

Authors: Aimin Yu, Peter J. Mahon, Tien S. H. Pham


The detection of drug molecules by voltammetry has attracted great interest over the past years. However, many drug molecules exhibit poor electrochemical signals at common electrodes which result in low sensitivity in detection. An efficient way to overcome this problem is to modify electrodes with functional materials. Since discovered in 2004, graphene (or reduced graphene oxide) has emerged as one of the most studied two-dimensional carbon materials in condensed matter physics, electrochemistry, and so on due to its exceptional physicochemical properties. Additionally, the continuous development of technology has opened the new window for the successful fabrications of many novel graphene-based nanomaterials to serve in electrochemical analysis. This research aims to synthesize and characterize gold nanoparticle coated beta-cyclodextrin functionalized reduced graphene oxide (Au NP–β-CD–RGO) nanocomposites with highly conductive and strongly electro-catalytic properties as well as excellent supramolecular recognition abilities for the modification of electrodes. The electrochemical responses of ciprofloxacin at the as-prepared nanocomposite modified electrode was effectively amplified was much higher in comparison with that at the bare electrode. The linear concentration range was from 0.01 to 120 µM, with a detection limit of 2.7 nM using differential pulse voltammetry. Thus, Au NP–β-CD–RGO nanocomposite has great potential as an ideal material to construct sensitive sensors for the electrochemical determination of ciprofloxacin or similar antibacterial drugs in the future based on its excellent stability, selectivity, and reproducibility.

Keywords: ciprofloxacin, Au nanoparticles, β-CD, electrochemical determination, graphene based nanomaterials

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1 Spectrofluorimetric Investigation of Copper (II), Cobalt (II), Calcium (II), and Ferric (III) Influence on the Ciprofloxacin Binding to Bovine Serum Albumin

Authors: Ahmed K. Youssef, Shawkat M. B. Aly


The interaction between ciprofloxacin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by UV-Visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The influence of Cu²⁺ Ca²⁺, Co²⁺, and Fe³⁺ on the Cip-BSA interaction was investigated. The quenching of the BSA fluorescence emission in presence of ciprofloxacin as well as the influence of metal ions on the interaction was analyzed using the Stern-Volmer equation. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant, Kₛᵥ was calculated in presence and absence of the metal ions at the physiological pH of 7.4 using phosphate buffer. The experimental results showed that interaction mainly static in nature and quenching rate constant is decreased in presence of the studied metal ions with exception of Cu²⁺ ions. The decrease observed in the Kₛᵥ values in presence of Co²⁺, Ca²⁺, and Fe³⁺ can be understood on basis of competition between these metal and Cip when both of them existed in the BSA solution. Cu²⁺ induces interaction between Cip and BSA at faster quenching rates as inferred from the observed increase in the Kₛᵥ value. This allowed us to propose that copper (II) ions are directly involved in the process of Cip binding to BSA. The binding constant for Cip on BSA was determined and the metal ions effect on it was examined as well and their values were in line with the Kₛᵥ values.

Keywords: Fluorescence, ciprofloxacin, bovine serum albumin, metal ions effect

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