Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Chronic Pain Related Abstracts

13 Ultrasound Markers in Evaluation of Hernias

Authors: Aniruddha Kulkarni

Abstract:

In very few cases of external hernias we require imaging modalities as on most occasions clinical examination tests are good enough. Ultrasound will help in chronic abdominal or groin pain, equivocal clinical results & complicated hernias. Ultrasound is useful in assessment of cause of raised intrabdominal pressure. In certain cases will comment about etiology, complications and chronicicty of lesion. Screening of rest of abdominal organs too is important advantage being real time modality. Cost effectiveness, no radiation allows modality be used repeatedly in indicated cases. Sonography is better accepted by patients too as it is cost effective. Best advanced tissue harmonic equipment and increasing expertise making it popular. Ultrasound can define surgical anatomy, rent size, contents, etiological /recurrence factors in great detail and with authority hence accidental findings in a planned surgical procedure can be easily avoided. Clinical dynamic valselva and reducibility test can better documented by real time ultrasound study. In case of recurrence, Sonography will help in assessing the hernia details better as being dynamic real time investigation. Ultrasound signs in case of internal hernias are well comparable with CT findings.

Keywords: Hernia, Chronic Pain, laparoscopic repair, CT findings

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12 A Survey of Chronic Pain Patients’ Experiences in the Emergency Department

Authors: G. Fitzpatrick, S. O. Chonghaile, D. Harmon

Abstract:

Objective: Chronic pain patients represent a unique challenge in the Emergency Department. Very little literature has been published regarding this group of patients. Our aim was to determine the attitude of patients with chronic pain to the Emergency Department in order to improve and streamline their future visits. Methods: A two-year survey was carried out on Chronic Pain Patients regarding their Emergency Department Attendances. Patients attending the Pain Clinic in Croom Hospital, Co. Limerick were asked to complete a 20-part questionnaire regarding their experiences of visiting the Emergency Department in the preceding year. 46 questionnaires were completed. Results: Unbearable breakthrough pain was the main reason for visiting the Emergency Department. More than half (54%) of those surveyed were not satisfied with the treatment received. Problems indicated included under-treatment of pain (59%), a sense of being under undue suspicion of drug-seeking behaviour (33%) and a perception that the patient themselves understood their condition better than the treating doctor (76%). Paracetamol, NSAIDs, or time off work comprised 72% of the treatments offered – all of which could have been provided by their General Practitioner. Only 4% were offered a nerve block. 67% felt that the creation of personalised Patient Plans, consisting of an agreed plan between the patient, their pain specialist, and the Emergency Department, would expedite their trip through the Emergency Department. Conclusions: Chronic pain patients generally have a negative experience in the ED. Possible future solutions include increasing our empathy and levels of knowledge, provision of nerve blocks in the ED, and use of personalised “Patient Plans” to streamline the treatment pathway for this group of patients.

Keywords: Emergency Department, patients, Survey, Chronic Pain

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11 Observing the Effects of Mindfulness-Based Meditation on Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Pain Patients

Authors: Kim Rod

Abstract:

People whose chronic pain limits their independence are especially likely to become anxious and depressed. Mindfulness training has shown promise for stress-related disorders. Methods: Chronic pain patients who complained of anxiety and depression and who scored higher than moderate in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as well as moderate in Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) were observed for eight weeks, three days a week for an hour of Mindfulness Meditation training with an hour daily home Mindfulness Meditation practice. Pain was evaluated on study entry and completion, and patients were given the Patients’ Global Impression of Change (PGIC) to score at the end of the training program. Results: Forty-seven patients (47) completed the Mindfulness Meditation Training program. Over the year-long observation, patients demonstrated noticeable improvement in depression, anxiety, pain, and global impression of change. Conclusion: Chronic pain patients who suffer with anxiety and depression may benefit from incorporating Mindfulness Meditation into their treatment plans.

Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Meditation, Chronic Pain, Mindfulness

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10 Use of Alternative and Complementary Therapies in Patients with Chronic Pain in a Medical Institution in Medellin, Colombia, 2014

Authors: Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Daniel Gallego Gonzalez, Juliana Molina Valencia, Esteban Vallejo Agudelo, María Isabel Pérez Palacio, Juan Ricardo Gaviria García

Abstract:

Alternative and complementary therapies constitute a vast and complex combination of interventions, philosophies, approaches, and therapies that acquire a holistic healthcare point of view, becoming an alternative for the treatment of patients with chronic pain. Objective: determine the characteristics of the use of alternative and complementary therapies in patients with chronic pain who consulted in a medical institution. Methodology: cross-sectional and descriptive study, with a population of patients that assisted to the outpatient consultation and met the eligibility criteria. Sampling was not conducted. A form was used for the collection of demographic and clinical variables and the Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) was validated. The analysis and processing of information was carried out using the SPSS program vr.19. Results: 220 people with chronic pain were included. The average age was 54.7±16.2 years, 78.2% were women, and 75.5% belonged to the socioeconomic strata 1 to 3. Musculoskeletal pain (77.7%), migraine (15%) and neuralgia (9.1%) were the most frequently types of chronic pain. 33.6% of participants have used some kind of alternative and complementary therapy; the most frequent were: homeopathy (14.5%), phytotherapy (12.7%), and acupuncture (11.4%). The total average HCAMQ score for the study group was 30.2±7.0 points, which shows a moderate attitude toward the use of complementary and alternative medicine. The highest scores according to the type of pain were: neuralgia (32.4±5.8), musculoskeletal pain (30.5±6.7), fibromyalgia (29.6±7.3) and migraine (28.5±8.8). The reliability of the HCAMQ was acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.6). Conclusion: it was noted that the types of chronic pain and the clinical or therapeutic management of patients correspond to the data available in current literature. Despite the moderate attitude toward the use of these alternative and complementary therapies, one of every three patients uses them.

Keywords: Chronic Pain, homeopathy, complementary therapies, acupuncture analgesia

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9 An Examination of Low Engagement in a Group-Based ACT Intervention for Chronic Pain Management: Highlighting the Need for User-Attainment Focused Digitalised Interventions

Authors: Orestis Kasinopoulos, Maria Karekla, Vasilis Vasiliou, Evangelos Karademas

Abstract:

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an empirically supported intervention for treating Chronic Pain Patients, yet its effectiveness for some chronic conditions or when adapted to other languages, has not been explored. An ACT group intervention was designed to explore the effectiveness of treating a Greek speaking heterogeneous sample of Chronic Pain patients with the aim of increasing quality of life, acceptance of pain and functionality. Sixty-nine patients were assessed and randomly assigned to an ACT or control group (relaxation techniques) for eight, 90-minute, sessions. Results are currently being analysed and follow-ups (6 and 12 month) are being completed. Low adherence rates and high attrition rates observed in the study, however point to the direction of future modified interventions. Such modifications may include web-based and smartphone interventions and their benefits in being implemented in chronic pain patients.

Keywords: Adherence, attrition, Chronic Pain, ACT, internet-delivered, digitalised intervention

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8 Acupuncture Reduces Pain Disability, Stress, and Depression in United States Military Veterans with Chronic Pain

Authors: Christine Eickhoff, Alyssa Adams, Alaine Duncan

Abstract:

The Washington, DC Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DC VAMC) offers complementary and integrative health (CIH) services such as acupuncture, yoga, meditation, and nutrition education through a coordinated outpatient clinic. The primary population utilizing CIH services are veterans with chronic pain. Acupuncture is one of the most popular of the CIH services available at the DC VAMC. As interest and availability grows, it is important to measure health outcomes associated with CIH service utilization. The purpose of this study was to investigate pain and mental health outcomes for veterans with chronic pain enrolled in individual acupuncture services in the DC VAMC. Veterans at the DC VAMC with self-identified chronic pain and no prior acupuncture experience were recruited for the study (n=70). Veterans were referred for services by a medical provider and completed baseline assessments at the program orientation prior to participating in any CIH services. Veterans received four individual, full-body acupuncture appointments within four weeks of study enrollment. After the first month, participants were scheduled for six appointments that occurred every two weeks and then eight more sessions that were scheduled one month apart. Follow-up assessments were administered at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 months. The findings reported will include completed time points at two and four months. Measures include a demographics survey, the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile-2 (MYMOP-2), The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Defense Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS), and the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ). In this sample, 67% identified a pain condition as their primary health concern. Between baseline and two-month follow-up, there were significant improvements in participants’ primary health concern (MYMOP-2 p=0.010), general wellbeing (MYMOP-2 p=0.011), and a significant decrease in the use of medication (MYMOP-2 p<0.000). Between 2 and 4-month follow-up, pain disability (PDQ p=0.035), pain rating (DVPRS p=0.027), and depression (BDI-II p=0.003) significantly improved. Preliminary findings indicate that individual acupuncture therapy can be effective at improving health outcomes, well-being, and decreasing medication use in U.S. military veterans with chronic pain. Findings also suggest that individual acupuncture therapy can improve pain ratings, pain disability, and depression in veterans with chronic pain.

Keywords: Military, Depression, Wellbeing, Pain, Integrative Health, Acupuncture, Chronic Pain, medication use, veterans

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7 Fibromyalgia and Personality: A Review of the Different Personality Types Identified

Authors: Lize Tibiriçá, Ronnie Lee, Samantha Behbahani

Abstract:

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a musculoskeletal disorder affecting men and women of different ages and cultures. The cause of this disorder is unknown; however, studies suggest an etiology that involves biological and psychosocial factors. Few studies have shown that a personality type such as neuroticism is associated with chronic pain conditions. Past research has explored whether patients with FM present with a specific personality trait. However, studies have used different methods (i.e. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale (SAS) and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire or Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Karolinska scale of personality, Big Five Inventory or NEO Personality Inventory) to explore the connection between FM and a personality type. They have identified personality types that present similar characteristics but vary in the name (i.e. high harm avoidance and low novelty seeking, psychasthenia/muscular tension/somatic anxiety, neuroticism). Although Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire and the Big Five Inventory differ in terms of content and structure, both of them identify neuroticism as the personality type of FM patients, and the former also identifies these patients as having a low sociability personality trait. Previous research also shows a trend of sociotropic personality style with FM patients that also suffer from Major Depressive Disorder. Participants in these studies were, for the most part, adult female and researchers have recognized that as a limitation and whether their findings can be generalized to men and younger patients with FM. Furthermore, most studies reviewed were conducted in Europe (i.e. Spain) and had a cross-sectional design. Future research should replicate past studies in different countries and consider conducting a longitudinal study. Although it is suspected that FM course is modulated by FM patients’ personality, it is not known whether individuals with similar personalities will develop FM. This review sought to explain the differences and similarities between the personality types identified. Limitations in the studies reviewed were addressed, and considerations for future research and treatment were discussed.

Keywords: Fibromyalgia, Chronic Pain, personality type, neuroticism

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6 Evaluation of the Effect of Auriculotherapy on Pain Control and Sleep Quality in Chronic Patients

Authors: Fagner Luiz P. Salles, Janaina C. Oliveira, Ivair P. Cesar

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Auriculotherapy (AT) is a TCM technique, which uses seeds instead of needles, based physiologically on the mechanical stimulation of the cranial nerves. In the context of understanding the new concept of health of the WHO, the AT is an integrative approach for achieving Global Health Care so as to achieve the global health care concerns. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of auriculotherapy on pain and sleep quality in patients with chronic pain. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: This study was performed between February and March 2017 at the Faculdade Estácio de Sá de Vitória, Brazil. The pain evaluation was through VAS in 4 periods: maximum, minimum, average and at the time of evaluation; the evaluation of sleep quality was used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Socio-demographic data included: gender, age, use of medication and BMI. All data are presented as mean (standard deviation), Teste Mann-Whitney and T-student with P-values < 0.05 were regarded as significant. Findings: Participated in this study thirty-two individuals with age (M = 43.18, SD = 17.86), the time with pain in years (M = 3.67, SD = 3.68), 81.7% were female, 75% of the individuals used medication and BMI (M = 26.67; SD = 6.20). The pain presented improvement in the maximum level and the average of the pain and sleep quality before did not have statistically significant results. Conclusion and Significance: This study showed that TA is efficacy for reduction levels of pain. However, AT was not effective in improving sleep quality.

Keywords: Chronic Pain, Sleep Quality, auriculotherapy, integrative approach

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5 Effects of Swimming Exercise Training on Persistent Pain in Rats after Thoracotomy

Authors: Shao-Cyuan Yewang, Yu-Wen Chen

Abstract:

Background: Exercise training is well known to alleviate chronic pain syndromes improve of chronic pain. This study investigated the effect of swimming exercise training on thoracotomy and rib retraction-induced allodynia. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats that received animal model of persistent postthoracotomy pain. All rats were divided into three groups: sham operations group (Sham), thoracotomy and rib retraction group (TRR), and TRR with swimming exercise training for 90min/day, 7 days a week for 4 weeks (TRR-SEW). The sham group did not receive retraction of the ribs. Thus, they received a pleural incision. The levels of mechanical and cold allodynia were measured by von Frey and acetone test. Results: In von Frey test, the level of mechanical allodynia in the TRR group was significantly higher than the sham group. The level of mechanical allodynia in the TRR-SEW group was significantly lower than the TRR group. In acetone test, the level of cold allodynia in the TRR group was significantly higher than the sham group. The level of cold allodynia in the TRR-SEW group was significantly lower than the TRR group. Conclusions: These results suggest that swimming exercise training decreases persistent postthoracotomy pain caused by TRR surgery. It may provide one of the new therapeutic effects of swimming exercise training could alleviate persistent postthoracotomy pain.

Keywords: Swimming, Chronic Pain, thoracotomy pain, von Frey test, acetone test

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4 Cognitive Fusion and Obstacles to Valued Living: Beyond Pain-Specific Events in Chronic Pain

Authors: José Pinto-Gouveia, Sergio A. Carvalho, David Gillanders, Paula Castilho

Abstract:

The role of psychological processes has long been recognized as crucial factors in depressive symptoms in chronic pain (CP). Although some studies have explored the negative impact of being entangled with internal experiences (e.g., thoughts, emotions, physical sensations) – cognitive fusion, it is not extensively explored 1) whether these are pain-related or rather general difficult experiences, and 2) how they relate to experiencing obstacles in committing to valued actions. The current study followed a cross-sectional design in a sample of 231 participants with CP, in which a mediational model was tested through path analyses in AMOS software. The model presented a very good model fit (Χ²/DF = 1.161; CFI = .999; TLI = .996; RMSEA = .026, PCLOSE = .550.), and results showed that pain intensity was not directly related to depressive symptoms (β = .055; p = .239) but was mediated by cognitive fusion with both general and pain-related internal experiences (β = .181, 95%CI [.097; .271]; p = .015). Additionally, results showed that only general cognitive fusion (but not pain-specific fusion) was associated with experiencing obstacles to living a meaningful life, which mediated its impact on depressive symptoms (β = .197, 95%CI [.102; .307]; p = .001). Overall, this study adds on current literature by suggesting that psychological interventions to pain management should not be focused only on management of pain-related experiences, but also on developing more effective ways of relating to overall internal experiences.

Keywords: Chronic Pain, depressive symptoms, cognitive fusion, valued living

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3 Effects of Additional Pelvic Floor Exercise on Sexual Function, Quality of Life and Pain Intensity in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Emel Sonmezer, Hayri Baran Yosmaoglu

Abstract:

The negative impact of chronic pain syndromes on sexual function has been reported in several studies; however, the influences of treatment strategies on sexual dysfunction have not been evaluated widely. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pelvic floor exercise on sexual dysfunction in female patients with chronic low back pain. Forty-two patient with chronic low back pain were enrolled this study. Subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 received conventional physiotherapy consist of heat therapy, ergonomic education, William flexion exercise during 6 weeks. Group 2 received pelvic floor exercises in addition to conventional physiotherapy. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used for the assessment of sexual function. Pain intensity was assessed with Visual Analogue Scale. Quality of life was assessed with World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale. All measurements were taken before and after treatment. In conventional physiotherapy group; there were significant improvement in pain intensity (p= 0,003), physical health (p=0,011), psychological health (p=0,042) subscales of quality of life scale, arousal (p=0,042), lubrication (p=0,028) and pain (p= 0,034) subscales of FSFI. In additional pelvic floor exercise group; there were significant improvement in pain intensity (p= 0,005), physical health (p=0,012) psychological health (p=0,039) subscales of quality of life scale, arousal (p=0,024), lubrication (p=0,011), orgasm (p=0,035) and pain (p= 0,015) subscales and total score (p=0,016) of FSFI. Total FSFI score (p=0,025) and orgasm (p=0,017) subscale of FSFI were significantly higher for the additional pelvic floor exercise group than the conventional physiotherapy group.The outcome of this study suggested that conventional physiotherapy may contribute to improve pain, quality of life and some parameters of the sexual function in patients with low back pain. Although additional pelvic floor exercise did not reveal more treatment effect in terms of quality of life and pain intensity, it caused significant improvement in sexual function. It is recommended that pelvic floor exercise should be added to treatment programs in order to manage sexual dysfunction more effectively in patients with chronic low back pain.

Keywords: Physiotherapy, Sexual dysfunction, Chronic Pain, pelvic floor

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2 Reduction of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 for Chronic Pain and Depression Co-Morbidity through Electroacupuncture and Gene Deletion in Mice Brain

Authors: Yi-Wen Lin, Bernice Lottering

Abstract:

Chronic pain and depression have an estimated 80% rate of comorbidity with unsatisfactory treatment interventions signifying the importance of developing effective therapeutic interventions for a serious chronic condition affecting a large majority of the global population. Chronic pain is defined as persistent pain presenting for over 3 months. This disease state increases the risk of developing depression in comparison to healthy individuals. In the current study, complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) was used to induce cell-mediated chronic inflammatory pain in a murine model. Significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was induced, alongside observable depression-like behaviors. These conditions were attenuated through the use of electroacupuncture (EA). Similarly, these effects were also investigated with respect to the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), by analyzing the effects of TRPV1 gene deletion on the comorbidity of chronic pain and depression. The expression of the TRPV1 inflammatory response, and related downstream molecules, including protein kinases (PKs), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), and transcriptional factors, were significantly reduced in the thalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of CFA-treated mice. In addition, phosphorylated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 1 was also found to be reduced in the aforementioned areas, suggesting potential application and validity in a clinical setting. Our study determined the prospective therapeutic effects of EA in the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain and depression comorbidity and provides a novel and detailed mechanism underlying EA-mediated analgesia. These findings may be relevant in the utilization of clinical intervention approaches related to chronic pain and depression comorbidity.

Keywords: Depression, Chronic Pain, prefrontal cortex, TRPV1, NMDA

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1 Identification of a Lead Compound for Selective Inhibition of Nav1.7 to Treat Chronic Pain

Authors: Sharat Chandra, Zilong Wang, Ru-Rong Ji, Andrey Bortsov

Abstract:

Chronic pain (CP) therapeutic approaches have limited efficacy. As a result, doctors are prescribing opioids for chronic pain, leading to opioid overuse, abuse, and addiction epidemic. Therefore, the development of effective and safe CP drugs remains an unmet medical need. Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels act as cardiovascular and neurological disorder’s molecular targets. Nav channels selective inhibitors are hard to design because there are nine closely-related isoforms (Nav1.1-1.9) that share the protein sequence segments. We are targeting the Nav1.7 found in the peripheral nervous system and engaged in the perception of pain. The objective of this project was to screen a 1.5 million compound library for identification of inhibitors for Nav1.7 with analgesic effect. In this study, we designed a protocol for identification of isoform-selective inhibitors of Nav1.7, by utilizing the prior information on isoform-selective antagonists. First, a similarity search was performed; then the identified hits were docked into a binding site on the fourth voltage-sensor domain (VSD4) of Nav1.7. We used the FTrees tool for similarity searching and library generation; the generated library was docked in the VSD4 domain binding site using FlexX and compounds were shortlisted using a FlexX score and SeeSAR hyde scoring. Finally, the top 25 compounds were tested with molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). We reduced our list to 9 compounds based on the MDS root mean square deviation plot and obtained them from a vendor for in vitro and in vivo validation. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in HEK-293 cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons were conducted. We used patch pipettes to record transient Na⁺ currents. One of the compounds reduced the peak sodium currents in Nav1.7-HEK-293 stable cell line in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values at 0.74 µM. In summary, our computer-aided analgesic discovery approach allowed us to develop pre-clinical analgesic candidate with significant reduction of time and cost.

Keywords: Similarity Search, Chronic Pain, virtual screening, voltage-gated sodium channel, isoform-selective antagonist, analgesics development

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