Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 232

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Chemical and Materials Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

232 Macrocycles Enable Tuning of Uranyl Electrochemistry by Lewis Acids

Authors: Amit Kumar, Davide Lionetti, Victor Day, James Blakemore

Abstract:

Capture and activation of the water-soluble uranyl dication (UO22+) remains a challenging problem, as few rational approaches are available for modulating the reactivity of this species. Here, we report the divergent synthesis of heterobimetallic complexes in which UO22+ is held in close proximity to a range of redox-inactive metals by tailored macrocyclic ligands. Crystallographic and spectroscopic studies confirm assembly of homologous UVI(μ-OAr)2Mn+ cores with a range of mono-, di-, and trivalent Lewis acids (Mn+). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) data suggest preferential binding of K+ in an 18-crown-6-like cavity and Na+ in a 15-crown-5-like cavity, both appended to Schiff-base type sites that selectively bind UO22+. CV data demonstrate that the UVI/UV reduction potential in these complexes shifts positive and the rate of electron transfer decreases with increasing Lewis acidity of the incorporated redox-inactive metals. Moreover, spectroelectrochemical studies confirm the formation of [UV] species in the case of monometallic UO22+ complex, consistent with results from prior studies. However, unique features were observed during spectroelectrochemical studies in the presence of the K+ ion, suggesting new insights into electronic structure may be accessible with the heterobimetallic complexes. Overall, these findings suggest that interactions with Lewis acids could be effectively leveraged for rational tuning of the electronic and thermochemical properties of the 5f elements, reminiscent of strategies more commonly employed with 3d transition metals.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, Lewis acid, macrocycle, uranyl

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231 Polypyrrole as Bifunctional Materials for Advanced Li-S Batteries

Authors: Jiazhao Wang, Fang Li, Jianmin Ma

Abstract:

The practical application of Li-S batteries is hampered due to poor cycling stability caused by electrolyte-dissolved lithium polysulfides. Dual functionalities such as strong chemical adsorption stability and high conductivity are highly desired for an ideal host material for a sulfur-based cathode. Polypyrrole (PPy), as a conductive polymer, was widely studied as matrixes for sulfur cathode due to its high conductivity and strong chemical interaction with soluble polysulfides. Thus, a novel cathode structure consisting of a free-standing sulfur-polypyrrole cathode and a polypyrrole coated separator was designed for flexible Li-S batteries. The PPy materials show strong interaction with dissoluble polysulfides, which could suppress the shuttle effect and improve the cycling stability. In addition, the synthesized PPy film with a rough surface acts as a current collector, which improves the adhesion of sulfur materials and restrain the volume expansion, enhancing the structural stability during the cycling process. For further enhancing the cycling stability, a PPy coated separator was also applied, which could make polysulfides into the cathode side to alleviate the shuttle effect. Moreover, the PPy layer coated on commercial separator is much lighter than other reported interlayers. A soft-packaged flexible Li-S battery has been designed and fabricated for testing the practical application of the designed cathode and separator, which could power a device consisting of 24 light-emitting diode (LED) lights. Moreover, the soft-packaged flexible battery can still show relatively stable cycling performance after repeated bending, indicating the potential application in flexible batteries. A novel vapor phase deposition method was also applied to prepare uniform polypyrrole layer coated sulfur/graphene aerogel composite. The polypyrrole layer simultaneously acts as host and adsorbent for efficient suppression of polysulfides dissolution through strong chemical interaction. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the polypyrrole could trap lithium polysulfides through stronger bonding energy. In addition, the deflation of sulfur/graphene hydrogel during the vapor phase deposition process enhances the contact of sulfur with matrixes, resulting in high sulfur utilization and good rate capability. As a result, the synthesized polypyrrole coated sulfur/graphene aerogel composite delivers a specific discharge capacity of 1167 mAh g⁻¹ and 409.1 mAh g⁻¹ at 0.2 C and 5 C respectively. The capacity can maintain at 698 mAh g⁻¹ at 0.5 C after 500 cycles, showing an ultra-slow decay rate of 0.03% per cycle.

Keywords: polypyrrole, long-term stability, strong chemical interaction, Li-S batteries

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230 Elucidation of the Photoreactivity of 2-Hydroxychalcones and the Effect of Continuous Photoflow Method on the Photoreactivity

Authors: Sobiya George, Anna Dora Gudmundsdottir

Abstract:

The 2-hydroxychalcones form an important group of organic compounds not only because of their pharmacological properties but also because they are intermediates in the biosynthesis of flavanones. We studied the photoreactivity of 2-hydroxychalcone derivatives in aprotic solvent acetonitrile and found that their photochemistry is concentration-dependent. Irradiation of 2-hydroxychalcone derivatives with 365 nm light emitting diode (LED) in dilute concentration selectively forms flavanones, whereas, at higher concentrations, an additional photoproduct is observed. However, the application of the continuous photo-flow method resulted in the selective formation of flavanones even at higher concentrations. To understand the reaction mechanism and explain the concentration-dependent photoreactivity of 2-hydroxychalcones, we preformed trapping studies with tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, nanosecond laser flash photolysis, and time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations.

Keywords: flavanones, hydroxychalcones, laser flash photolysis, TD-DFT calculations

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229 Investigation of the Stability and Spintronic Properties of NbrhgeX (X= Cr, Co, Mn, Fe, Ni) Using Density Functional Theory

Authors: Shittu Akinpelu, Issac Popoola

Abstract:

The compound NbRhGe has been predicted to be a semiconductor with excellent mechanical properties. It is an indirect band gap material. The potential of NbRhGe for non-volatile data storage via element addition is being studied using the Density Functional Theory (DFT). Preliminary results on the electronic and magnetic properties are suggestive for their application in spintronic.

Keywords: Semiconductor, Spintronic, half-metals, Heusler compound

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228 Magnetic Solid-Phase Separation of Uranium from Aqueous Solution Using High Capacity Diethylenetriamine Tethered Magnetic Adsorbents

Authors: Amesh P, Suneesh A S, Venkatesan K A

Abstract:

The magnetic solid-phase extraction is a relatively new method among the other solid-phase extraction techniques for the separating of metal ions from aqueous solutions, such as mine water and groundwater, contaminated wastes, etc. However, the bare magnetic particles (Fe3O4) exhibit poor selectivity due to the absence of target-specific functional groups for sequestering the metal ions. The selectivity of these magnetic particles can be remarkably improved by covalently tethering the task-specific ligands on magnetic surfaces. The magnetic particles offer a number of advantages such as quick phase separation aided by the external magnetic field. As a result, the solid adsorbent can be prepared with the particle size ranging from a few micrometers to the nanometer, which again offers the advantages such as enhanced kinetics of extraction, higher extraction capacity, etc. Conventionally, the magnetite (Fe3O4) particles were prepared by the hydrolysis and co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric salts in aqueous ammonia solution. Since the covalent linking of task-specific functionalities on Fe3O4 was difficult, and it is also susceptible to redox reaction in the presence of acid or alkali, it is necessary to modify the surface of Fe3O4 by silica coating. This silica coating is usually carried out by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate over the surface of magnetite to yield a thin layer of silica-coated magnetite particles. Since the silica-coated magnetite particles amenable for further surface modification, it can be reacted with task-specific functional groups to obtain the functionalized magnetic particles. The surface area exhibited by such magnetic particles usually falls in the range of 50 to 150 m2.g-1, which offer advantage such as quick phase separation, as compared to the other solid-phase extraction systems. In addition, the magnetic (Fe3O4) particles covalently linked on mesoporous silica matrix (MCM-41) and task-specific ligands offer further advantages in terms of extraction kinetics, high stability, longer reusable cycles, and metal extraction capacity, due to the large surface area, ample porosity and enhanced number of functional groups per unit area on these adsorbents. In view of this, the present paper deals with the synthesis of uranium specific diethylenetriamine ligand (DETA) ligand anchored on silica-coated magnetite (Fe-DETA) as well as on magnetic mesoporous silica (MCM-Fe-DETA) and studies on the extraction of uranium from aqueous solution spiked with uranium to mimic the mine water or groundwater contaminated with uranium. The synthesized solid-phase adsorbents were characterized by FT-IR, Raman, TG-DTA, XRD, and SEM. The extraction behavior of uranium on the solid-phase was studied under several conditions like the effect of pH, initial concentration of uranium, rate of extraction and its variation with pH and initial concentration of uranium, effect of interference ions like CO32-, Na+, Fe+2, Ni+2, and Cr+3, etc. The maximum extraction capacity of 233 mg.g-1 was obtained for Fe-DETA, and a huge capacity of 1047 mg.g-1 was obtained for MCM-Fe-DETA. The mechanism of extraction, speciation of uranium, extraction studies, reusability, and the other results obtained in the present study suggests Fe-DETA and MCM-Fe-DETA are the potential candidates for the extraction of uranium from mine water, and groundwater.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction, diethylenetriamine, magnetic mesoporous silica, uranium extraction

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227 Degradation of Perfluorosurfactant in Aqueous Solution by Nano-Pulse Corona Discharge Reactor under O₂ Atmosphere

Authors: Kosar Hama Aziz, Ali Mahyar, Hans Miessner, Siegfried Mueller, Detlev Moeller

Abstract:

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a common perfluorosurfactant (PFS) and considered as anthropogenic global pollutant, which is resistant to conventional water and wastewater treatment methods. This work reports the application of non-thermal plasma generated by nano-pulse corona discharge reactor under oxygen atmosphere for removal of PFOS from wastewater. The results obtained showed that the type of gas atmosphere (O₂, Ar and He) have no effects on the decomposition kinetics. For an initial PFOS concentration of 1 mg L¯¹, the energy yields at 50% conversion (G50) were calculated as 22 and 27 mg PFOS/kWh for (Ar, O₂) and He, respectively. For more realistic initial concentration of 18.5 µg L¯¹ under oxygen and 7.5 µg L¯¹ under helium, the energy yield G50 were calculated as 0.33 and 0.20 mg/kWh, respectively. On the other hand, there is a significant difference in the formation of shorter perfluoroalkyl acids as by-products. The results demonstrate that in oxygen atmosphere much more of these by-products are formed. The presence of other surface active sulfobetaine in the polluted water was also investigated. The results have shown an improvement in the degradation efficiency from 80% to 90% under the same experimental conditions.

Keywords: non-thermal plasma, nano-pulse corona discharge, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, pulfobetain

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226 Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Galvanized Steel by Sintering Zinc Nanopowder

Authors: Francisco Javier Montes Ruiz-Cabello, Guillermo Guerrero-Vacas, Sara Bermudez-Romero, Miguel Cabrerizo Vilchez, Miguel Angel Rodriguez-Valverde

Abstract:

Galvanized steel is one of the widespread metallic materials used in industry. It consists on a iron-based alloy (steel) coated with a layer of zinc with variable thickness. The zinc is aimed to prevent the inner steel from corrosion and staining. Its production is cheaper than the stainless steel and this is the reason why it is employed in the construction of materials with large dimensions in aeronautics, urban/ industrial edification or ski-resorts. In all these applications, turning the natural hydrophilicity of the metal surface into superhydrophobicity is particularly interesting and would open a wide variety of additional functionalities. However, producing a superhydrophobic surface on galvanized steel may be a very difficult task. Superhydrophobic surfaces are characterized by a specific surface texture which is reached either by coating the surface with a material that incorporates such texture, or by conducting several roughening methods. Since galvanized steel is already a coated material, the incorporation of a second coating may be undesired. On the other hand, the methods that are recurrently used to incorporate the surface texture leading to superhydrophobicity in metals are aggressive and may damage their surface. In this work, we used a novel strategy which goal is to produce superhydrophobic galvanized steel by a two-step non-aggressive process. The first process is aimed to create a hierarchical structure by incorporating zinc nanoparticles sintered on the surface at a temperature slightly lower than the zinc’s melting point. The second one is a hydrophobization by a thick fluoropolymer layer deposition. The wettability of the samples is characterized in terms of tilting plate and bouncing drop experiments, while the roughness is analyzed by confocal microscopy. The durability of the produced surfaces was also explored.

Keywords: Superhydrophobic Surfaces, galvanaized steel, sintering nanoparticles, zinc nanopowder

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225 Competing Interactions, and Magnetization Dynamics in Doped Rare-Earth Manganites Nanostructural System

Authors: Wiqar Hussain Shah

Abstract:

The Structural, magnetic and transport behavior of La1-xCaxMnO3+ (x=0.48, 0.50, 0.52 and 0.55 and =0.015) compositions close to charge ordering, was studied through XRD, resistivity, DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements. With time and thermal cycling (T<300 K) there is an irreversible transformation of the low-temperature phase from a partially ferromagnetic and metallic to one that is less ferromagnetic and highly resistive. For instance, an increase of resistivity can be observed by thermal cycling, where no effect is obtained for lower Ca concentration. The time changes in the magnetization are logarithmic in general and activation energies are consistent with those expected for electron transfer between Mn ions. The data suggest that oxygen non-stoichiometry results in mechanical strains in this two-phase system, leading to the development of irreversible metastable states, which relax towards the more stable charge-ordered and antiferromagnetic microdomains at the nano-meter size. This behavior is interpreted in terms of strains induced charge localization at the interface between FM/AFM domains in the antiferromagnetic matrix. Charge, orbital ordering and phase separation play a prominent role in the appearance of such properties, since they can be modified in a spectacular manner by external factor, making the different physical properties metastable. Here we describe two factors that deeply modify those properties, viz. the doping concentration and the thermal cycling. The metastable state is recovered by the high temperature annealing. We also measure the magnetic relaxation in the metastable state and also the revival of the metastable state (in a relaxed sample) due to high temperature (800 ) thermal treatment.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Rare-earth maganites, nano-structural materials, doping effects on electrical, competing interactions

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224 Highly Transparent, Hydrophobic and Self-Cleaning ZnO-Durazane Based Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings

Authors: Philippe Champagne, Abderrahmane Hamdi, Julie Chalon, Benoit Dodin

Abstract:

In this report, we present a simple route to realize robust, hydrophobic, and highly transparent coatings using organic polysilazane (durazane) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO). These coatings were deposited by spraying the mixture solution on glass slides. Thus, the properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis-NIR spectrophotometer, and water contact angle method. This sprayable polymer mixed with ZnO nanoparticles shows high transparency for visible light > 90%, a hydrophobic character (CA > 90°), and good mechanical and chemical stability. The coating also demonstrates excellent self-cleaning properties, which makes it a promising candidate for commercial use.

Keywords: Coatings, Durability, zinc oxide nanoparticles, hydrophobicity, self-cleaning, transparence, organic polysilazane

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223 Effect of Different Carbon Fabric Orientations on the Fracture Properties of Carbon Fabric Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: S. F. Halim, H. F. Naguib, S. N. Lawandy, R. S. Hegazy, M. N. Baheg

Abstract:

The main drawbacks of the traditional carbon fabric reinforced epoxy resin (CFRP) are low strain failure, delamination between composites layers, and low impact resistance due to the brittleness of epoxy resin. The aim of this study is to enhance the fracture properties of the CFRP composites laminates via the variation of composite's designs. A series of composites were fabricated in which bidirectional (00/900) carbon fabric (CF) layers were laid inside the resin matrix with orientation codes as F1 [(00, 900)/ (00, 900)], F2 [(900, 00)/ (00, 900)] and F3 [(00,900)/ (900, 00). The mechanical and dynamic properties of the composites were estimated. In addition, the morphology of samples surface was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after impact fracture. The results revealed that the CFRP properties could be tailored fitting specific applications by controlling the fabric orientation inside the CFRP composite design. F2 orientation [(900, 00)/ (00.900)] showed the highest tensile and flexural strength values. On the other hand, the impact strength values of composites were in the order F1 > F2 > F3. The storage modulus, loss modulus, and glass transition temperature Tg values obtained from the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) examination was in the order F1 > F2 > F3. The variation in the properties of the composite was clearly explained by the SEM micrographs as the failure of F3 orientation properties was referred to as the complete breakage of the CF layers upon fracture.

Keywords: Composites, Carbon Fiber, flexural strength, CFRP, epoxy resins

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222 Meticulous Doxorubicin Release from pH-Responsive Nanoparticles Entrapped within an Injectable Thermoresponsive Depot

Authors: Huayang Yu, Nicola Ingram, David C. Green, Paul D. Thornton

Abstract:

The dual stimuli-controlled release of doxorubicin from gel-embedded nanoparticles is reported. Non-cytotoxic polymer nanoparticles are formed from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(benzyl glutamate) that, uniquely, contain a central ester link. This connection renders the nanoparticles pH-responsive, enabling extensive doxorubicin release in acidic solutions (pH 6.5), but not in solutions of physiological pH (pH 7.4). Doxorubicin loaded nanoparticles were found to be stable for at least 31 days and lethal against the three breast cancer cell lines tested. Furthermore, doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles could be incorporated within a thermoresponsive poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) gel depot, which forms immediately upon injection of poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) into aqueous solution. The combination of the poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) gel and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(benzyl glutamate) nanoparticles yields an injectable doxorubicin delivery system that facilities near-complete drug release when maintained at elevated temperatures (37 °C) in acidic solution (pH 6.5). In contrast, negligible payload release occurs when the material is stored at room temperature in a non-acidic solution (pH 7.4). The system has great potential as a vehicle for the prolonged, site-specific release of chemotherapeutics.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Polymer, Thermoresponsive, biodegradable

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221 Synthesis and Characterization of CNPs Coated Carbon Nanorods for Cd2+ Ion Adsorption from Industrial Waste Water and Reusable for Latent Fingerprint Detection

Authors: Bienvenu Gael Fouda Mbanga

Abstract:

This study reports a new approach of preparation of carbon nanoparticles coated cerium oxide nanorods (CNPs/CeONRs) nanocomposite and reusing the spent adsorbent of Cd2+- CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite for latent fingerprint detection (LFP) after removing Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution. CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite was prepared by using CNPs and CeONRs with adsorption processes. The prepared nanocomposite was then characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-visible), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Zeta potential, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The average size of the CNPs was 7.84nm. The synthesized CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite has proven to be a good adsorbent for Cd2+ removal from water with optimum pH 8, dosage 0. 5 g / L. The results were best described by the Langmuir model, which indicated a linear fit (R2 = 0.8539-0.9969). The adsorption capacity of CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite showed the best removal of Cd2+ ions with qm = (32.28-59.92 mg/g), when compared to previous reports. This adsorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics and intra particle diffusion processes. ∆G and ∆H values indicated spontaneity at high temperature (40oC) and the endothermic nature of the adsorption process. CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite therefore showed potential as an effective adsorbent. Furthermore, the metal loaded on the adsorbent Cd2+- CNPs/CeONRs has proven to be sensitive and selective for LFP detection on various porous substrates. Hence Cd2+-CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite can be reused as a good fingerprint labelling agent in LFP detection so as to avoid secondary environmental pollution by disposal of the spent adsorbent.

Keywords: Thermodynamics, Kinetics, isotherm, Cd2+-CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite, cadmium adsorption, reusable for latent fingerprint detection

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220 Engineering a Tumor Extracellular Matrix Towards an in vivo Mimicking 3D Tumor Microenvironment

Authors: Yun Liu, Anna Cameron, Chunxia Zhao, Haofei Wang, Guang Ze Yang

Abstract:

Since the first publication in 1775, cancer research has built a comprehensive understanding of how cellular components of the tumor niche promote disease development. However, only within the last decade has research begun to establish the impact of non-cellular components of the niche, particularly the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM, a three-dimensional scaffold that sustains the tumor microenvironment, plays a crucial role in disease progression. Cancer cells actively deregulate and remodel the ECM to establish a tumor-promoting environment. Recent work has highlighted the need to further our understanding of the complexity of this cancer-ECM relationship. In vitro models use hydrogels to mimic the ECM, as hydrogel matrices offer biological compatibility and stability needed for long term cell culture. However, natural hydrogels are being used in these models verbatim, without tuning their biophysical characteristics to achieve pathophysiological relevance, thus limiting their broad use within cancer research. The biophysical attributes of these gels dictate cancer cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and therapeutic response. Evaluating the three most widely used natural hydrogels, Matrigel, collagen, and agarose gel, the permeability, stiffness, and pore-size of each gel were measured and compared to the in vivo environment. The pore size of all three gels fell between 0.5-6 µm, which coincides with the 0.1-5 µm in vivo pore size found in the literature. However, the stiffness for hydrogels able to support cell culture ranged between 0.05 and 0.3 kPa, which falls outside the range of 0.3-20,000 kPa reported in the literature for an in vivo ECM. Permeability was ~100x greater than in vivo measurements, due in large part to the lack of cellular components which impede permeation. Though, these measurements prove important when assessing therapeutic particle delivery, as the ECM permeability decreased with increasing particle size, with 100 nm particles exhibiting a fifth of the permeability of 10 nm particles. This work explores ways of adjusting the biophysical characteristics of hydrogels by changing protein concentration and the trade-off, which occurs due to the interdependence of these factors. The global aim of this work is to produce a more pathophysiologically relevant model for each tumor type.

Keywords: Cancer, Microfluidic, Hydrogel, extracellular matrix

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219 Synthesis and Characterization of Fluorine-Free, Hydrophobic and Highly Transparent Coatings

Authors: Philippe Champagne, Abderrahmane Hamdi, Julie Chalon, Benoit Dodin

Abstract:

This research work concerns the synthesis of hydrophobic and self-cleaning coatings as an alternative to fluorine-based coatings used on glass. The developed, highly transparent coatings are produced by a chemical route (sol-gel method) using two silica-based precursors, hexamethyldisilazane and tetraethoxysilane (HMDS/TEOS). The addition of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) within the gel provides a photocatalytic property to the final coating. The prepared gels were deposited on glass slides using different methods. The properties of the coatings were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, and water contact angle method. The results show that the obtained coatings are homogeneous and have a hydrophobic character. In particular, after thermal treatment, the HMDS/[email protected] charged gel deposited on glass constitutes a coating capable of degrading methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. Optical transmission reaches more than 90% in most of the visible light spectrum. Synthetized coatings have also demonstrated their mechanical durability and self-cleaning ability.

Keywords: Durability, Coating, sol-gel, hydrophobicity, self-cleaning, transparence

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218 Functionalized Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Extraction of Protein and Metal Nanoparticles from Complex Fluids

Authors: Meenakshi Verma, Mandeep Singh Bakshi, Kultar Singh

Abstract:

Magnetic nanoparticles have received incredible importance in view of their diverse applications, which arise primarily due to their response to the external magnetic field. The magnetic behaviour of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) helps them in numerous different ways. The most important amongst them is the ease with which they can be purified and also can be separated from the media in which they are present merely by applying an external magnetic field. This exceptional ease of separation of the magnetic NPs from an aqueous media enables them to use for extracting/removing metal pollutants from complex aqueous medium. Functionalized magnetic NPs can be subjected for the metallic impurities extraction if are favourably adsorbed on the NPs surfaces. We have successfully used the magnetic NPs as vehicles for gold and silver NPs removal from the complex fluids. The NPs loaded with gold and silver NPs pollutant fractions has been easily removed from the aqueous media by using external magnetic field. Similarly, we have used the magnetic NPs for extraction of protein from complex media and then constantly washed with pure water to eliminate the unwanted surface adsorbed components for quantitative estimation. The purified and protein loaded magnetic NPs are best analyzed with SDS Page to not only for characterization but also for separating the protein fractions. A collective review of the results indicates that we have synthesized surfactant coated iron oxide NPs and then functionalized these with selected materials. These surface active magnetic NPs work very well for the extraction of metallic NPs from the aqueous bulk and make the whole process environmentally sustainable. Also, magnetic NPs-Au/Ag/Pd hybrids have excellent protein extracting properties. They are much easier to use in order to extract the magnetic impurities as well as protein fractions under the effect of external magnetic field without any complex conventional purification methods.

Keywords: Protein, Extraction, magnetic nanoparticles, functionalized

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217 Unveiling the Self-Assembly Behavior and Salt-Induced Morphological Transition of Double PEG-Tailed Unconventional Amphiphiles

Authors: Rita Ghosh, Joykrishna Dey

Abstract:

PEG-based amphiphiles are of tremendous importance for its widespread applications in pharmaceutics, household purposes, and drug delivery. Previously, a number of single PEG-tailed amphiphiles having significant applications have been reported from our group. Therefore, it was of immense interest to explore the properties and application potential of PEG-based double tailed amphiphiles. Herein, for the first time, two novel double PEG-tailed amphiphiles having different PEG chain lengths have been developed. The self-assembly behavior of the newly developed amphiphiles in aqueous buffer (pH 7.0) was thoroughly investigated at 25 oC by a number of techniques including, 1H-NMR, and steady-state and time-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Despite having two polar PEG chains both molecules were found to have strong tendency to self-assemble in aqueous buffered solution above a very low concentration. Surprisingly, the amphiphiles were shown to form stable vesicles spontaneously at room temperature without any external stimuli. The results of calorimetric measurements showed that the vesicle formation is driven by the hydrophobic effect (positive entropy change) of the system, which is associated with the helix-to-random coil transition of the PEG chain. The spectroscopic data confirmed that the bilayer membrane of the vesicles is constituted by the PEG chains of the amphiphilic molecule. Interestingly, the vesicles were also found to exhibit structural transitions upon addition of salts in solution. These properties of the vesicles enable them as potential candidate for drug delivery.

Keywords: Microscopy, Fluorescence, PEG, vesicles, Double-tailed amphiphiles

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216 Preparation and Characterization of Bioplastic from Sorghum Husks

Authors: Hannatu Abubakar Sani, Abubakar Umar Birnin Yauri, Aliyu Muhammad, Mujahid Salau, Aminu Musa, Hadiza Adamu Kwazo

Abstract:

The increase in the global population and advances in technology have made plastic materials to have wide applications in every aspect of life. However, the non-biodegradability of these petrochemical-based materials and their increasing accumulation in the environment has been a threat to the planet and has been a source of environmental concerns and hence, the driving force in the search for ‘green’ alternatives for which agricultural waste remains the front liner. Sorghum husk, an agricultural waste with potentials as a raw material in the production of bioplastic, was used in this research to prepare bioplastic using sulphuric acid-catalyzed acetylation process. The prepared bioplastic was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the structure of the prepared bioplastic was confirmed. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of the product displayed the presence of OH, C-H, C=O, and C-O absorption peaks. The bioplastic obtained is biodegradable and is affected by acid, salt, and alkali to a lesser extent. Other tests like solubility and swelling studies were carried out to ensure the commercial properties of these bioplastic materials. Therefore, this revealed that new bioplastics with better environmental and sustainable properties could be produced from agricultural waste, which may have applications in many industries.

Keywords: Characterization, Agricultural waste, bioplastic, Sorghum Husk

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215 The High Efficiency of Cationic Azo Dye Removal Using Raw, Purified and Pillared Clay from Algerian Clay

Authors: Amina Ramdani, Abdelkader Kadeche, Zoubida Taleb, Safia Taleb

Abstract:

The aim of this present study is to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a dye, Malachite green, on a local Algerian montmorillonite clay mineral (raw, purified and Cr-pillared). Various parameters influencing the dye adsorption process ie contact time, adsorbent dose, initial concentration of dye, pH of the solution and temperature. Cr pillared clay has been obtained with a better surface character than purified and natural clay. An increase in basal spacing from 12.45 Å (Mont-Na) to 22.88 Å (Mont-PLCr), surface area from 67 m2 /g (Mont-Na) to 102 m2 /g (Mont-PLCr). The experimental results show that the dye adsorption kinetic were fast: 5 min for Cr-pillared clay mineral, and 30 min for raw and purified clay mineral (RC and Mont-Na). The removal efficiency on Mont-PLCr (98.64%) is greater than that of Mont-Na (86.20%) and RC (82.09%). The acidity and basicity of the medium considerably affect the adsorption of the dye. It attained its maximum at pH 4.8. The equilibrium and kinetic data were found to fit well the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order model.

Keywords: kinetic, isotherm, dye removal, pillared clay

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214 Inherent Relation Between Atomic-Level Stresses and Nanoscale Spatial Heterogeneity in a Rejuvenated Bulk Metallic Glass

Authors: Majid Samavatian, Reza Gholamipour, Vahid Samavatian

Abstract:

This study addresses the role of rejuvenation on the fluctuation of atomic-level stresses and nanoscale topological heterogeneity in ZrCuNiAl bulk metallic glass (BMG). Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) results, the rejuvenation process leads to an increase in nanoscale spatial heterogeneity manifested by the intensification of the local viscoelastic response of the BMG nanostructure. It means that the rejuvenation process induces more loose-packing structures which behave towards an external load in a viscoelastic way. Hence, it is suggested that the alteration of such heterogeneity may be attributed to the variation of positional atomic rearrangement during the evolution of structural rejuvenation. On the other side, the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the rejuvenation intensifies the variation of internal stresses at the atomic level. This conclusion unfolds that the increase of atomic-level stresses during rejuvenation induces structural disordering and nanoscale heterogeneity in the amorphous material.

Keywords: Heterogeneity, nanostructure, rejuvenation, bulk metallic glass

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213 Capillary Wave Motion and Atomization Induced by Surface Acoustic Waves under the Navier-Slip Condition at the Wall

Authors: Jaime E. Munoz, Jose C. Arcos, Oscar E. Bautista, Ivan E. Campos

Abstract:

The influence of slippage phenomenon over the destabilization and atomization mechanisms induced via surface acoustic waves on a Newtonian, millimeter-sized, drop deposited on a hydrophilic substrate is studied theoretically. By implementing the Navier-slip model and a lubrication-type approach into the equations which govern the dynamic response of a drop exposed to acoustic stress, a highly nonlinear evolution equation for the air-liquid interface is derived in terms of the acoustic capillary number and the slip coefficient. By numerically solving such an evolution equation, the Spatio-temporal deformation of the drop's free surface is obtained; in this context, atomization of the initial drop into micron-sized droplets is predicted at our numerical model once the acoustically-driven capillary waves reach a critical value: the instability length. Our results show slippage phenomenon at systems with partial and complete wetting favors the formation of capillary waves at the free surface, which traduces in a major volume of liquid being atomized in comparison to the no-slip case for a given time interval. In consequence, slippage at the wall possesses the capability to affect and improve the atomization rate for a drop exposed to a high-frequency acoustic field.

Keywords: Navier-slip condition, Capillary instability, lubrication theory, SAW atomization

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212 Encapsulated Bacteria In Polymer Composites For Bioremediation Applications

Authors: Mahsa Mafi

Abstract:

Encapsulation of Micrococcus Luteus (M. Luteus) in polymeric composites has been employed for the bioremediation, sequestration of metals and for the biodegradation of chemical pollutants and toxic components in waste water. Polymer composites in the form of nonwovens of nanofibers, or core/shell particles can provide a bacterial friendly environment for transfer of nutrients and metabolisms, with the least leakage of bacteria. M. Luteus is encapsulated in a hydrophilic core of poly (vinyl alcohol), following by synthesis or coating of a proper shell as a support to maintain the chemical and mechanical strength. The biological activity of bacteria is confirmed by Live/Dead analysis and agar plate tests. SEM and TEM analysis were utilized for morphological studies of polymer composites. As a result of the successful encapsulation of the alive bacteria in polymers, longer storage time in their functional state were achieved.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Waste Water Treatment, Polymer composites, Bacteria encapsulation

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211 Laboratory Investigation of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Stabilized Recycled Asphalt Pavement as a Base Material

Authors: Arul Arulrajah, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Menglim Hoy

Abstract:

The results of laboratory investigation of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) – fly ash (FA) based geopolymer as a base material is presented in this paper. An alkaline activator, the mixture of NaOH and Na₂SiO₃, is used to synthesis RAP-FA based geopolymer. RAP-FA with water (RAP-FA blend) prepared as a control material. The strength develops and the strength against wet-dry was determined by the unconfined compression strength (UCS) test, then the microstructural properties were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test is conducted to measure its leachability of heavy metal. The results show both the RAP-FA blend and geopolymer can be used as a base course as its UCS values meet the minimum strength requirement specified by the Department of Highway, Thailand. The durability test results show the UCS of these materials increases with increasing the number of wet-dry cycles, reaching its peak at six wet-dry cycles. The XRD and SEM analyses indicate strength development of the RAP-FA blend occurs due to chemical reaction between a high Calcium in RAP with a high Silica and Alumina in FA led to producing calcium aluminate hydrate formation. The strength development of the RAP-FA geopolymer occurred resulted from the polymerization reaction. The TCLP results demonstrate there is no environmental risk of these stabilized materials. Furthermore, FA based geopolymer can reduce the leachability of heavy metal in the RAP-FA blend.

Keywords: Microstructure, Geopolymer, heavy metal, recycled asphalt pavement

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210 An Enzyme Technology - Metnin™ - Enables the Full Replacement of Fossil-Based Polymers by Lignin in Polymeric Composites

Authors: Joana Antunes, Thomas Levée, Barbara Radovani, Anu Suonpää, Paulina Saloranta, Liji Sobhana, Petri Ihalainen

Abstract:

Lignin is an important component in the exploitation of lignocellulosic biomass. It has been shown that within the next years, the yield of added-value lignin-based chemicals and materials will generate renewable alternatives to oil-based products (e.g. polymeric composites, resins and adhesives) and enhance the economic feasibility of biorefineries. In this paper, a novel technology for lignin valorisation (METNIN™) is presented. METNIN™ is based on the oxidative action of an alkaliphilic enzyme in aqueous alkaline conditions (pH 10-11) at mild temperature (40-50 °C) combined with a cascading membrane operation, yielding a collection of lignin fractions (from oligomeric down to mixture of tri-, di- and monomeric units) with distinct molecular weight distribution, low polydispersity and favourable physicochemical properties. The alkaline process conditions ensure the high processibility of crude lignin in an aqueous environment and the efficiency of the enzyme, yielding better compatibility of lignin towards targeted applications. The application of a selected lignin fraction produced by METNIN™ as a suitable lignopolyol to completely replace a commercial polyol in polyurethane rigid foam formulations is presented as a prototype. Liquid lignopolyols with a high lignin content were prepared by oxypropylation and their full utilization in the polyurethane rigid foam formulation was successfully demonstrated. Moreover, selected technical specifications of different foam demonstrators were determined, including closed cell count, water uptake and compression characteristics. These specifications are within industrial standards for rigid foam applications. The lignin loading in the lignopolyol was a major factor determining the properties of the foam. In addition to polyurethane foam demonstrators, other examples of lignin-based products related to resins and sizing applications will be presented.

Keywords: enzyme, polyol, polyurethane foam, lignin valorisation

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209 Structural Alteration of MoS₂ by Incorporating Fe, Co Composite for an Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Krishnamoorthy Sathiyan, Shanti Gopal Patra, Ronen Bar-Ziv, Tomer Zidki

Abstract:

Developing efficient non-noble metal catalysts that are cheap and durable for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a great challenge. Moreover, altering the electronic structure of the catalyst and structural engineering of the materials provide a new direction for enhancing the OER. Herein, we have successfully synthesized Fe and Co incorporated MoS₂ catalysts, which show improved catalytic activity for OER when compared with MoS₂, Fe-MoS₂, and Co-MoS₂. It was found that at an optimal ratio of Fe and Co, the electronic and structural modification of MoS₂ occurs, which leads to change in orientation and thereby enhances the active catalytic sites on the edges, which are more exposed for OER. The nanocomposites have been well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Elemental Mapping, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) analysis. Among all, a particular ratio of FeCo-MoS₂ exhibits a much smaller onset with better catalytic current density. The remarkable catalytic activity is mainly attributed to the synergistic effect from the Fe and Co. Most importantly, our work provides an essential insight in altering the electronic structure of MoS₂ based materials by incorporating promoters such as Co and Fe in an optimal amount, which enhances OER activity.

Keywords: Transition Metals, Electrocatalysts, oxygen evolution reaction, molybdenum disulfide

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208 Development of Water-Based Thermal Insulation Paints Using Silica Aerogel

Authors: Lu Yanru, Handojo Djati Utomo, Yin Xi Jiang, Li Xiaodong

Abstract:

Insulation plays a key role in the sustainable building due to the contribution of energy consumption reduction. Without sufficient insulation, a great amount of the energy used to heat or cool a building will be lost to the outdoors. In this study, we developed a highly efficient thermal insulation paint with the incorporation of silica aerogel. Silica aerogel, with a low thermal conductivity of 0.01 W/mK, has been successfully prepared from the solid waste from the incineration plants. It has been added into water-based paints to increase its thermal insulation properties. To investigate the thermal insulation performance of silica aerogel additive, the paint samples were mixed with silica aerogel at different sizes and with various portions. The thermal conductivity, water resistance, thermal stability and adhesion strength of the samples were tested and evaluated. The thermal diffusivity measurements proved that adding silica aerogel additive could improve the thermal insulation properties of the paint significantly. Up to 5 ˚C reductions were observed after applying paints with silica aerogel additive compare to the one without it. The results showed that the developed thermal insulation paints have great potential for an application in green and sustainable building.

Keywords: Thermal Insulation, silica aerogel, water-based paints, water resistant

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207 Recovery of Chromium(III) from Tannery Wastewater by Nanoparticles and Whiskers of Chitosan

Authors: El Montassir Dahmane, Nadia Eladlani, Aziz Ouahrouch, Mohammed Rhazi, Moha Taourirte

Abstract:

The present study was aimed to approximate the optimal conditions to chromium recovery from wastewater by nanoparticles and whiskers of chitosan. Chitosan with an average molecular weight of 63 kDa and a 96% deacetylation degree was prepared according to our previous study. Chromium recovery is influenced by different parameters. In our search, we determined the appropriate range of pH to form chitosan–Cr(III), nanoparticles Cr(III), and whiskers– Cr(III) complex. We studied also the influence of chromium concentration and the nature of chitosan-based materials on the complexation process. Our main aim is to approximate the optimal conditions to remove chromium(III) from the tanning bath, recuperated from tannery wastewater of Marrakech in Morocco. A Perkin Elmer optima 2000 Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), was used to determine the quantity of chromium persistent in tannery wastewater after complexation phenomenon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report interested in the optimal conditions for chromium recovery from wastewater by nanoparticles and whiskers of chitosan. From our research, we found that in chromium solution, the appropriate range of pH to form complex is between 5.6 and 6.7. Also, the complexation of Cr(III) is depending on the nature of complexing ligand and chromium concentration. The obtained results reveal that nanoparticles present an excellent adsorption capacity regardless of chromium concentration. In addition, after a critical chromium concentration (250 mg/l), our ligand becomes saturated, that requires an increase of ligand mass for increasing chromium concentration in order to have a better adsorption capacity. Hence, in the same conditions, we used chitosan, its nanoparticles, whiskers, and chitosan based films to remove Cr(III) from tannery wastewater. The pH of this effluent was around 6, and its chromium concentration was 300 mg/l. The results expose that the sequence of complexing ligand in the effluent is the same in chromium solution, determined via our previous study. However, the adsorbed quantity is less due to the presence of other metallic ions in tannery wastewater. We conclude that the best complexing ligand-based chitosan is chitosan nanoaprticles whether it’s in chromium solution or in tannery wastewater. Nanoparticles are the best complexing ligand after 24 h of contact nanoparticles can remove 70% of chromium from this tannery wastewater.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Chromium, chitosan, whiskers

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206 Fabrication of All-Cellulose Composites from End-of-Life Textiles

Authors: Mikael Skrifvars, Behnaz Baghaei

Abstract:

Sustainability is today a trend that is seen everywhere, with no exception for the textiles 31 industry. However, there is a rather significant downside regarding how the textile industry currently operates, namely the huge amount of end-of-life textiles coming along with it. Approximately 73% of the 53 million tonnes of fibres used annually for textile production is landfilled or incinerated, while only 12% is recycled as secondary products. Mechanical recycling of end-of-life textile fabrics into yarns and fabrics was before very common, but due to the low costs for virgin man-made fibres, the current textile material composition diversity, the fibre material quality variations and the high recycling costs this route is not feasible. Another way to decrease the ever-growing pile of textile waste is to repurpose the textile. If a feasible methodology can be found to reuse end-of life textiles as secondary market products including a manufacturing process that requires rather low investment costs, then this can be highly beneficial to counteract the increasing textile waste volumes. In structural composites, glass fibre textiles are used as reinforcements, but today there is a growing interest in biocomposites where the reinforcement and/or the resin are from a biomass resource. All-cellulose composites (ACCs) are monocomponent or single polymer composites, and they are entirely made from cellulose, ideally leading to a homogeneous biocomposite. Since the matrix and the reinforcement are both made from cellulose, and therefore chemically identical, they are fully compatible with each other which allow efficient stress transfer and adhesion at their interface. Apart from improving the mechanical performance of the final products, the recycling of the composites will be facilitated. This paper reports the recycling of end-of-life cellulose containing textiles by fabrication of all-cellulose composites (ACCs). Composite laminates were prepared by using an ionic liquid (IL) in a hot process, involving a partial dissolving of the cellulose fibres. Discharged denim fabrics were used as the reinforcement while dissolved cellulose from two different cellulose resources was used as the matrix phase. Virgin cotton staple fibres and recovered cotton from polyester/cotton (polycotton) waste fabrics were used to form the matrix phase. The process comprises the dissolving 6 wt.% cellulose solution in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate ([BMIM][Ac]), this solution acted as a precursor for the matrix component. The denim fabrics were embedded in the cellulose/IL solution after which laminates were formed, which also involved removal of the IL by washing. The effect of reuse of the recovered IL was also investigated. The mechanical properties of the obtained ACCs were determined regarding tensile, impact and flexural properties. Mechanical testing revealed that there are no clear differences between the values measured for mechanical strength and modulus of the manufactured ACCs from denim/cotton-fresh IL, denim/recovered cotton-fresh IL and denim/cotton-recycled IL. This could be due to the low weight fraction of the cellulose matrix in the final ACC laminates and presumably the denim as cellulose reinforcement strongly influences and dominates the mechanical properties. Fabricated ACC composite laminates were further characterized regarding scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Denim Fabrics, ionic liquid, all-cellulose composites

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205 Synthesis and Characterization of Partially Oxidized Graphite Oxide for Solar Energy Storage Applications

Authors: Ghada Ben Hamad, Zohir Younsi, Hassane Naji, Noureddine Lebaz, Fabien Salaun

Abstract:

The graphene oxide (GO) material has attracted much attention for solar energy applications. This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of partially oxidized graphite oxide (GTO). GTO was obtained by modified Hummers method, which is based on the chemical oxidation of natural graphite. Several samples were prepared with different oxidation degree by an adjustment of the oxidizing agent’s amount. The effect of the oxidation degree on the chemical structure and on the morphology of GTO was determined by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The thermal stability of GTO was evaluated by using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in Nitrogen atmosphere. The results indicate high degree oxidation of graphite oxide for each sample, proving that the process is efficient. The GTO synthesized by modified Hummers method shows promising characteristics. Graphene oxide (GO) obtained by exfoliation of GTO are recognized as a good candidate for thermal energy storage, and it will be used as solid shell material in the encapsulation of phase change materials (PCM).

Keywords: Solar Energy Storage, modified hummers method, graphite oxide, oxidation degree

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204 Simple Fabrication of Au (111)-Like Electrode and Its Applications to Electrochemical Determination of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Zahrah Thamer Althagafi, Mohamed I. Awad

Abstract:

A simple method for the fabrication of Au (111)-like electrode via controlled reductive desorption of a pre-adsorbed cysteine monolayer onto polycrystalline gold (poly-Au) electrode is introduced. Then, the voltammetric behaviour of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the thus modified electrode is investigated. Electrochemical characterization of the modified electrode is achieved using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. For the binary mixture of DA and AA, the results showed that Au (111)-like electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and AA. This allows highly selective and simultaneous determination of DA and AA. The effect of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric responses of DA and AA was investigated. The enrichment of the Au (111) facet of the poly-Au electrode is thought to be behind the electrocatalytic activity.

Keywords: Self-Assembly, Electrocatalysis, Dopamine, Electroanalysis, ascorbic acid, gold electrode, monolayers, cysteine

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203 Solvent-Aided Dispersion of Tannic Acid to Enhance Flame Retardancy of Epoxy

Authors: Matthew Korey, Jeffrey Youngblood, John Howarter

Abstract:

Background and Significance: Tannic acid (TA) is a bio-based high molecular weight organic, aromatic molecule that has been found to increase thermal stability and flame retardancy of many polymer matrices when used as an additive. Although it is biologically sourced, TA is a pollutant in industrial wastewater streams, and there is a desire to find applications in which to downcycle this molecule after extraction from these streams. Additionally, epoxy thermosets have revolutionized many industries, but are too flammable to be used in many applications without additives which augment their flame retardancy (FR). Many flame retardants used in epoxy thermosets are synthesized from petroleum-based monomers leading to significant environmental impacts on the industrial scale. Many of these compounds also have significant impacts on human health. Various bio-based modifiers have been developed to improve the FR of the epoxy resin; however, increasing FR of the system without tradeoffs with other properties has proven challenging, especially for TA. Methodologies: In this work, TA was incorporated into the thermoset by use of solvent-exchange using methyl ethyl ketone, a co-solvent for TA, and epoxy resin. Samples were then characterized optically (UV-vis spectroscopy and optical microscopy), thermally (thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry), and for their flame retardancy (mass loss calorimetry). Major Findings: Compared to control samples, all samples were found to have increased thermal stability. Further, the addition of tannic acid to the polymer matrix by the use of solvent greatly increased the compatibility of the additive in epoxy thermosets. By using solvent-exchange, the highest loading level of TA found in literature was achieved in this work (40 wt%). Conclusions: The use of solvent-exchange shows promises for circumventing the limitations of TA in epoxy.

Keywords: Sustainable, epoxy, flame retardant, tannic acid

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