Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 99

Characterization Related Abstracts

99 Industrial Rock Characterization using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): A Case Study of Ewekoro Quarry

Authors: Olawale Babatunde Olatinsu, Deborah Oluwaseun Olorode


Industrial rocks were collected from a quarry site at Ewekoro in south-western Nigeria and analysed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technique. NMR measurement was conducted on the samples in partial water-saturated and full brine-saturated conditions. Raw NMR data were analysed with the aid of T2 curves and T2 spectra generated by inversion of raw NMR data using conventional regularized least-squares inversion routine. Results show that NMR transverse relaxation (T2) signatures fairly adequately distinguish between the rock types. Similar T2 curve trend and rates at partial saturation suggests that the relaxation is mainly due to adsorption of water on micropores of similar sizes while T2 curves at full saturation depict relaxation decay rate as: 1/T2(shale)>1/ T2(glauconite)>1/ T2(limestone) and 1/T2(sandstone). NMR T2 distributions at full brine-saturation show: unimodal distribution in shale; bimodal distribution in sandstone and glauconite; and trimodal distribution in limestone. Full saturation T2 distributions revealed the presence of well-developed and more abundant micropores in all the samples with T2 in the range, 402-504 μs. Mesopores with amplitudes much lower than those of micropores are present in limestone, sandstone and glauconite with T2 range: 8.45-26.10 ms, 6.02-10.55 ms, and 9.45-13.26 ms respectively. Very low amplitude macropores of T2 values, 90.26-312.16 ms, are only recognizable in limestone samples. Samples with multiple peaks showed well-connected pore systems with sandstone having the highest degree of connectivity. The difference in T2 curves and distributions for the rocks at full saturation can be utilised as a potent diagnostic tool for discrimination of these rock types found at Ewekoro.

Keywords: Characterization, relaxation, Ewekoro, NMR techniques, industrial rocks

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98 Study of the Nonlinear Optic Properties of Thin Films of Europium Doped Zinc Oxide

Authors: Ali Ballouch, Nourelhouda Choukri, Zouhair Soufiani, Mohamed El Jouad, Mohamed Addou


For several years, significant research has been developed in the areas of applications of semiconductor wide bandgap such as ZnO in optoelectronics. This oxide has the advantage of having a large exciton energy (60 meV) three times higher than that of GaN (21 meV) or ZnS (20 meV). This energy makes zinc oxide resistant for laser irradiations and very interesting for the near UV-visible optic, as well as for studying physical microcavities. A high-energy direct gap at room temperature (Eg > 1 eV) which makes it a potential candidate for emitting devices in the near UV and visible. Our work is to study the nonlinear optical properties, mainly the nonlinear third-order susceptibility of europium doped Zinc oxide thin films. The samples were prepared by chemical vapor spray method (Spray), XRD, SEM technique, THG were used for characterization. In this context, the influence of europium doping on the nonlinear optical response of the Zinc oxide was investigated. The nonlinear third-order properties depend on the physico-chemical parameters (crystallinity, strain, and surface roughness), the nature and the level of doping, temperature.

Keywords: Characterization, Optoelectronics, ZnO, non-linear optical properties

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97 An Invertebrate-Type Lysozyme from Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir Sinensis: Cloning and Characterization

Authors: Li Xu, Fengmei Li, Guoliang Xia


Lysozyme is a catalytic enzyme that performs bacterial cell lysis by cleaving the β-1,4-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine of peptidoglycan in cell walls. In the present study, an invertebrate-type (i-type) lysozyme gene was cloned from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (designated as EsLysozyme) based on PCR-based rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology. The full-length cDNA of EsLysozyme was of 831 bp. SMART and SIGNALP 3.0 program analysis revealed that EsLysozyme contained a signal peptide and a destabilase domain. The five amino acid residues (Tyr63, Trp64, Tyr91, His110, Pro114) and the conserved motif GSLSCG(P/Y)FQI and CL(E/L/R/H)C(I/M)C in i-type lysozymes were also found in EsLysozyme. The high similarity of EsLysozyme with L. vannamei lysozymes and phylogenetic analysis suggested that EsLysozyme should be a new member of i-type lysozyme family.

Keywords: Characterization, Cloning, i-type lysozyme, Eriocheir sinensis

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96 Agro Morphological Characterization of Vicia faba L. Accessions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Zia Amjad, Salem Safar Alghamdi


This experiment was carried out at student educational farm College of Food and Agriculture, KSU, kingdom of Saudi Arabia; in order to characterize 154 Vicia faba, characterization, PCA, ago-morphological diversity. Icia faba L. accessions were based on ipove and ibpgr descriptors. 24 agro-morphological characters including 11 quantitative and 13 qualitative were observed for genetic variation. All the results were analyzed using multivariate analysis i.e. principle component analysis. First 6 principle components with eigenvalue greater than one; accounted for 72% of available Vicia faba genetic diversity. However, first three components revealed more than 10% of genetic diversity each i.e. 22.36%, 15.86%, and 10.89% respectively. PCA distributed the V. faba accessions into different groups based on their performance for the characters under observation. PC-1 which represented 22.36% of the genetic diversity was positively associated with stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks, pod degree of curvature and to some extent with 100 seed weight. PC-2 covered 15.86 of the genetic diversity and showed positive association for average seed weight per plant, pod length, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, stipule spot pigmentation, intensity of streaks (same as in PC-1), and to some extent for pod degree of curvature and number of pods per plant. PC-3 revealed 10.89% of genetic diversity and expressed positive association for number of pods per plant and number of leaflets per plant.

Keywords: Characterization, PCA, Vicia faba, ago-morphological diversity

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95 The Effect of Increase in Aluminium Content on Fluidity of ZA Alloys Processed by Centrifugal Casting

Authors: P. N. Jyothi, A. Shailesh Rao, M. C. Jagath, K. Channakeshavalu


Uses of ZA alloys as bearing material have been increased due to their superior mechanical properties, wear characteristics and tribological properties. Among ZA alloys, ZA 27 alloy has higher strength, low density with excellent bearing and wear characteristics. From the past research work, it is observed that in continuous casting as Al content increases, the fluidity also increases. In present work, ZA 8, ZA 12 and ZA 27 alloys have been processed through centrifugal casting process at 600 rotational speed of the mould. Uniform full cylinder is casted with ZA 8 alloy. For ZA 12 and ZA 27 alloys where the Al content is higher, cast tubes were not complete and uniform. The reason is Al may be acting as a refiner and reduce the melt flow in the rotating mould. This is mainly due to macro-segregation of Al, which has occurred due to difference in densities of Al and Zn.

Keywords: Characterization, Systems Engineering, centrifugal casting, metal flow

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94 Synthesis and Characterization of New Polyesters Based on Diarylidene-1-Methyl-4-Piperidone

Authors: Tareg M. Elsunaki, Suleiman A. Arafa, Mohamed A. Abd-Alla


New interesting thermal stable polyesters containing 1-methyl-4-piperidone moiety in the main chain have been synthesized. These polyesters were synthesized by interfacial polycondensation technique of 3,5-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-1-methyl-4-piperidone (I) and 3,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzyli-dene)-1-methyl-4-piperidone (II) with terphthaloyl, isophthaloyl, 4,4'-diphenic, adipoyl and sebacoyl dichlorides. The yield and the values of the reduced viscosity of the produced polyesters were found to be affected by the type of an organic phase. In order to characterize these polymers, the necessary model compounds (A), (B) were prepared from (I), (II) respectively and benzoyl chloride. The structure of monomers (I), (II), model compounds and resulting polyesters were confirmed by IR, elemental analysis and 1HNMR spectroscopy. The various characteristic of the resulting polymers including solubility, thermal properties, viscosity and X-ray analysis were also studied.

Keywords: Chemistry, Characterization, Synthesis, new polyesters

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93 Investigation of Unconventional Fuels in Co-Axial Engines

Authors: Arya Pirooz


The effects of different fuels (DME, RME B100, and SME B100) on barrel engines were studied as a general, single dimensional investigation for characterization of these types of engines. A base computational model was created as reference point to be used as a point of comparison with different cases. The models were computed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics program, Diesel-RK. The base model was created using basic dimensions of the PAMAR-3 engine with inline unit injectors. Four fuel cases were considered. Optimized models were also considered for diesel and DME cases with respect to injection duration, fuel, injection timing, exhaust and intake port opening, CR, angular offset. These factors were optimized for highest BMEP, combined PM and NOx emissions, and highest SFC. Results included mechanical efficiency (eta_m), efficiency and power, emission characteristics, combustion characteristics. DME proved to have the highest performing characteristics in relation to diesel and RME fuels for this type of barrel engine.

Keywords: Characterization, DME, RME, Diesel-RK, inline unit injector

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92 Processing and Characterization of Glass-Epoxy Composites Filled with Linz-Donawitz (LD) Slag

Authors: Alok Satapathy, Pravat Ranjan Pati


Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag a major solid waste generated in huge quantities during steel making. It comes from slag formers such as burned lime/dolomite and from oxidizing of silica, iron etc. while refining the iron into steel in the LD furnace. Although a number of ways for its utilization have been suggested, its potential as a filler material in polymeric matrices has not yet been explored. The present work reports the possible use of this waste in glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites as a filler material. Hybrid composites consisting of bi-directional e-glass-fiber reinforced epoxy filled with different LD slag content (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 wt%) are prepared by simple hand lay-up technique. The composites are characterized in regard to their density, porosity, micro-hardness and strength properties. X-ray diffractography is carried out in order to ascertain the various phases present in LDS. This work shows that LD slag, in spite of being a waste, possesses fairly good filler characteristics as it modifies the strength properties and improves the composite micro-hardness of the polymeric resin.

Keywords: Characterization, Waste Utilization, glass-epoxy composites, LD slag

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91 Characterization of Retinal Pigmented Cell Epithelium Cell Sheet Cultivated on Synthetic Scaffold

Authors: Tan Yong Sheng Edgar, Yeong Wai Yee


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading cause of blindness. It can cause severe visual loss due to damaged retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). RPE is an important component of the retinal tissue. It functions as a transducing boundary for visual perception making it an essential factor for sight. The RPE also functions as a metabolically complex and functional cell layer that is responsible for the local homeostasis and maintenance of the extra photoreceptor environment. Thus one of the suggested method of treating such diseases would be regenerating these RPE cells. As such, we intend to grow these cells using a synthetic scaffold to provide a stable environment that reduces the batch effects found in natural scaffolds. Stiffness of the scaffold will also be investigated to determine the optimal Young’s modulus for cultivating these cells. The cells will be generated into a monolayer cell sheet and their functions such as formation of tight junctions and gene expression patterns will be assessed to evaluate the cell sheet quality compared to a native RPE tissue.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Characterization, Scaffold, RPE, colloids and nanomedicine

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90 Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium and Strontium Doped Sulphate-Hydroxyapatite

Authors: Ammar Z. Alshemary, Yi-Fan Goh, Rafaqat Hussain


Magnesium (Mg2+), strontium (Sr2+) and sulphate ions (SO42-) were successfully substituted into hydroxyapatite (Ca10-x-y MgxSry(PO4)6-z(SO4)zOH2-z) structure through ion exchange process at cationic and anionic sites. Mg2+and Sr2+ ions concentrations were varied between (0.00-0.10), keeping concentration of SO42- ions at z=0.05. [Mg (NO3)2], [Sr (NO3)2] and (Na2SO4) were used as Mg2+, Sr2+, and SO42- sources respectively. The synthesized white precipitate were subjected to heat treatment at 500ºC and finally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the substitution of Mg2+, Sr2+ and SO42- ions into the HA lattice resulted in an increase in the broadness and reduction of XRD peaks. This confirmed that the crystallinity was reduced due to the substitution of ions. Similarly, FTIR result showed the effect of substitution on phosphate bands as well as exchange of hydroxyl group by SO42- ions to balance the charges on HA surface.

Keywords: Characterization, hydroxyapatite, FTIR, XRD, substitution

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89 Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Metronidazole by Planetary Ball-Milling

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Maryam Gholipoor


Metronidazole nano -powders with the average mean particle size around 90 nm were synthesized by high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill is provided. The Scattering factors, milling of time,the ball size and ball to powder ratio on the material properties powder by the Ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR. It has been observed that the density of nano-sized grinding balls as ball to powder ratio depends. Using the dispersion factor, the density Can be reduced below the initial particle size was achieved.

Keywords: Characterization, Nanoparticles, metronidazole, ball-milling, XRD diffraction

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88 A Combination of Filtration and Coagulation Processes for Tannery Effluent Treatment

Authors: M. G. Mostafa, Manjushree Chowdhury, Tapan Kumar Biswas, and Ananda Kumar Saha


This study focused on effluents characterization and treatment process to reduce of toxicity from tannery effluents. Tanning industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. It is typically characterized as pollutants generated industries which produce wide varieties of high strength toxic chemicals. The study was conducted during the year 2008 to 2009 and the tannery effluents were collected three times in a year from the outlet of some selected leather industries located in Hagaribagh industrial zone Dhaka, Bangladesh. The analysis results of the raw effluents reveal that the effluents were yellowish-brown color, having basic pH, very high value of BOD5¬¬, COD, TDS, TSS, TS, and high concentrations of Cr, Na, SO42-, Cl- and other organic and inorganic constituents. The tannery effluents were treated with various doses of FeCl3 after settling and a subsequent filtration through sand-stone. The study observed that coagulant (FeCl3) 150 mg/L dose around neutral pH showed the best removal efficiency for major physico-chemical parameters. The analysis results of illustrate that the most of the physical and chemical parameters were found well below the prescribed permissible limits for effluent discharged. The study suggests that tannery effluents could be treated by a combined process consisting of settling, filtering and coagulating with FeCl3.

Keywords: Characterization, treatment, effluent, tannery

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87 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Mono Chloro-S-Triazine Vinyl Sulphone Reactive Dyes

Authors: Nuradeen Abdullahi Nadabo, Kasali Adewale Bello, Chindo Istifanus


A series of ten bi functional mono-chloro-s-triazine vinyl sulphone reactive dyes were synthesized based on H-acid with varied substituents coded as (BRD). These dyes were characterized by IR spectroscopy. The results revealed an incorporation of various substituents. The visible absorption spectra of these dyes were examined in various solvents and results shows positive and negative salvatochromism as the solvent polarity; changes, melting point, percentage yield and molar extinction co-efficient of these dyes were also evaluated and the results obtained are within a reasonable range acceptable for commercial dyeing.

Keywords: Characterization, Synthesis, bifunctional, reactive dyes

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86 Green Synthesis and Characterisation of Gold Nanoparticles from the Stem Bark and Leaves of Khaya Senegalensis and Its Cytotoxicity on MCF7 Cell Lines

Authors: Stephen Daniel Iduh, Evans Chidi Egwin, Oluwatosin Kudirat Shittu


The process for the development of reliable and eco-friendly metallic Nanoparticles is an important step in the field of Nanotechnology for biomedical application. To achieve this, use of natural sources like biological systems becomes essential. In the present work, extracellular biosynthesis of gold Nanoparticles using aqueous leave and stembark extracts of K. senegalensis has been attempted. The gold Nanoparticles produced were characterized using High Resolution scanning electron microscopy, Ultra Violet–Visible spectroscopy, zeta-sizer Nano, Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) Spectroscopy and Fourier Transmission Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized gold nanoparticles on MCF-7 cell line was evaluated using MTT assay. The result showed a rapid development of Nano size and shaped particles within 5 minutes of reaction with Surface Plasmon Resonance at 520 and 525nm respectively. An average particle size of 20-90nm was confirmed. The amount of the extracts determines the core size of the AuNPs. The core size of the AuNPs decreases as the amount of extract increases and it causes the shift of Surface Plasmon Resonance band. The FTIR confirms the presence of biomolecules serving as reducing and capping agents on the synthesised gold nanoparticles. The MTT assay shows a significant effect of gold nanoparticles which is concentration dependent. This environment-friendly method of biological gold Nanoparticle synthesis has the potential and can be directly applied in cancer therapy.

Keywords: Characterization, Biosynthesis, Cytotoxicity, gold nanoparticles, calotropis procera

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85 Synthesis and Characterization of Model Amines for Corrosion Applications

Authors: John Vergara, Giuseppe Palmese


Fundamental studies aimed at elucidating the key contributions to corrosion performance are needed to make progress toward effective and environmentally compliant corrosion control. Epoxy/amine systems are typically employed as barrier coatings for corrosion control. However, the hardening agents used for coating applications can be very complex, making fundamental studies of water and oxygen permeability challenging to carry out. Creating model building blocks for epoxy/amine coatings is the first step in carrying out these studies. We will demonstrate the synthesis and characterization of model amine building blocks from saturated fatty acids and simple amines such as diethylenetriamine (DETA) and Bis(3-aminopropyl)amine. The structure-property relationship of thermosets made from these model amines and Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGBEA) will be discussed.

Keywords: Characterization, Synthesis, building block, amine

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84 Characterization Microstructural Dual Phase Steel for Application In Civil Engineering

Authors: L. Aminallah, A. S. Bouchikhi, A. Megueni, S. Habibi, T. E. Guarcia, A. Ziadi


The characterization of the microstructure of Dual Phase steel in various low-carbon, with a yield stress between 400 and 900 MPa were conducted .In order to assess the mechanical properties of steel, we examined the influence of their chemical compositions interictal and heat treatments (austenite + ferrite area) on their micro structures. In this work, we have taken a number of commercial DP steels, micro structurally characterized and used the conventional tensile testing of these steels for mechanical characterization.

Keywords: Characterization, micro structure, construction in civil engineering, tensile DP steel

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83 Rapid Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Eclipta prostrata Leaf Extract

Authors: Siva Prasad Peddi


Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from silver nitrate through a rapid green synthesis method using Eclipta prostrata leaf extract as a reducing cum stabilizing agent. The experimental procedure was readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and could be easily scaled up. The silver nanoparticles thus obtained were characterized using UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-VIS) which yielded an absorption peak at 416 nm. The biomolecules responsible for capping of the bio-reduced silver nanoparticles synthesized using plant extract were successfully identified through FTIR analysis. It was evinced through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that the silver nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and spherical in shape. The average size of the particles obtained using Scherrer’s formula was 27.4 nm. The adopted technique for silver nanoparticle synthesis is suitable for large-scale production.

Keywords: Characterization, Green Synthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, Eclipta prostrata

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82 Characterization of Biodiesel Produced from Cow-Tallow

Authors: Nwadike Emmanuel Chinagoron, Achebe Chukwunonso, Ezeliora Chukwuemeka Daniel, Azaka Onyemazuwa Andrew


In this research work, the process of biodiesel production in a pilot plant was studied using cow tallow as raw material, methanol as the solvent and potassium hydroxide as catalysts. The biodiesel quality was determined by characterization. The tallow used in the production had a molecular weight of 860g. Its oil had a density value of 0.8g/ml, iodine value of 63.45, viscosity at 300C was 9.83pas, acid value was 1.96, free fatty acid (FFA) of 0.98%, saponification value of 82.75mleq/kg, specific gravity of 0.898, flash point of 1100C, cloud point of 950C and Calorific value also called Higher Heating Value (HHV) of 38.365MJ/Kg. The produced biodiesel had a density of 0.82g/ml, iodine value of 126.9, viscosity of 4.32pas at 300C, acid value of 0.561, FFA of 0.2805%, saponification value of 137.45 mleq/kg.Flash point, cloud point and centane number of the biodiesel produced are 1390C, 980C and 57.5 respectively, with fat content, protein content, ash content, moisture content, fiber content and carbohydrate content values of 10%, 2.8%, 5%, 5%, 20%, and 37.2% respectively. The biodiesel higher heating values (calorific values) when estimated from viscosity, density and flash points were 41.4MJ/Kg, 63.8MJ/Kg, and 34.6MJ/Kg respectively. The biodiesel was blended with conventional diesel. The blend B-10 had values of 1320C and 960C for flash and cloud points, with Calorific value (or HHV) of 34.6 MJ/Kg (when estimated from its Flash point) and fat content, protein content, ash content, moisture content, fiber content and carbohydrate content values of 5%, 2.1%,10%, 5%, 15%, and 62.9% respectively.

Keywords: Characterization, Biodiesel, cow-tallow, cetane rating

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81 Amelioration of Earth Bricks by Introduction of Traditional Lime for Arid Regions

Authors: R. Abdeldjebar, B. Labbaci, L. Lahmar, L. Missoum, B. Moudden


Today to build durably means to build in such a way to create, to preserve in the world an acceptable environment where ecology, social and economic implications are in the center of future generations interest. To achieve this goal, we tried to employ local, durable, powerful ground materials which lead to limit pollution, to have long lifetime, and possibility of recycling or recovery. Using them in the most rational way makes construction technically perfect and put an end to cement invasion, since ground bricks are simple to implement and create a useful decoration, original and pleasant which enables to preserve the historical architectural heritage. This work concerns the study of environmental effects on stabilized bricks of compressed ground, traditionally manufactured containing traditional quicklime after extinction in water as a basic component which offers to brick mechanical resistance in conformity with the standards. Experimental results of compression and bending are exposed and are in conformity with the used standards.

Keywords: Characterization, Environment, BTS, quicklime, dune sand, durable

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80 Experimental Modal Analysis of a Suspended Composite Beam

Authors: First A. Lahmar Lahbib, Second B. Abdeldjebar Rabiâ, Third C. Moudden B, forth D. Missoum L


Vibration tests are used to identify the elasticity modulus in two directions. This strategy is applied to composite materials glass / polyester. Experimental results made on a specimen in free vibration showed the efficiency of this method. Obtained results were validated by a comparison to results stemming from static tests.

Keywords: Characterization, Vibration, Composite, elasticity modulus, beam

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79 Synthesis, Characterization and Rheological Properties of Boronoxide, Polymer Nanocomposites

Authors: Mehmet Doğan, Mahir Alkan, Yasemin Turhan, Zürriye Gündüz, Pinar Beyli, Serap Doğan


Advances and new discoveries in the field of the material science on the basis of technological developments have played an important role. Today, material science is branched the lower branches such as metals, nonmetals, chemicals, polymers. The polymeric nano composites have found a wide application field as one of the most important among these groups. Many polymers used in the different fields of the industry have been desired to improve the thermal stability. One of the ways to improve this property of the polymers is to form the nano composite products of them using different fillers. There are many using area of boron compounds and is increasing day by day. In order to the further increasing of the variety of using area of boron compounds and industrial importance, it is necessary to synthesis of nano-products and to find yourself new application areas of these products. In this study, PMMA/boronoxide nano composites were synthesized using solution intercalation, polymerization and melting methods; and PAA/boronoxide nano composites using solution intercalation method. Furthermore, rheological properties of nano composites synthesed according to melting method were also studied. Nano composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR-ATR, DTA/TG, BET, SEM, and TEM instruments. The effects of filler material amount, solvent types and mediating reagent on the thermal stability of polymers were investigated. In addition, the rheological properties of PMMA/boronoxide nano composites synthesized by melting method were investigated using High Pressure Capillary Rheometer. XRD analysis showed that boronoxide was dispersed in polymer matrix; FTIR-ATR that there were interactions with boronoxide between PAA and PMMA; and TEM that boronoxide particles had spherical structure, and dispersed in nano sized dimension in polymer matrix; the thermal stability of polymers was increased with the adding of boronoxide in polymer matrix; the decomposition mechanism of PAA was changed. From rheological measurements, it was found that PMMA and PMMA/boronoxide nano composites exhibited non-Newtonian, pseudo-plastic, shear thinning behavior under all experimental conditions.

Keywords: Characterization, Rheology, Polymer, nanocomposite, boronoxide

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78 Characterization of Probability Distributions through Conditional Expectation of Pair of Generalized Order Statistics

Authors: Zubdahe Noor, Haseeb Athar


In this article, first a relation for conditional expectation is developed and then is used to characterize a general class of distributions F(x) = 1-e^(-ah(x)) through conditional expectation of difference of pair of generalized order statistics. Some results are reduced for particular cases. In the end, a list of distributions is presented in the form of table that are compatible with the given general class.

Keywords: Characterization, generalized order statistics, order statistics, record values, conditional expectation

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77 Extraction and Characterization of Kernel Oil of Acrocomia Totai

Authors: Gredson Keif Souza, Nehemias Curvelo Pereira


Kernel oil from Macaúba is an important source of essential fatty acids. Thus, a new knowledge of the oil of this species could be used in new applications, such as pharmaceutical drugs based in the manufacture of cosmetics, and in various industrial processes. The aim of this study was to characterize the kernel oil of macaúba (Acrocomia Totai) at different times of their maturation. The physico-chemical characteristics were determined in accordance with the official analytical methods of oils and fats. It was determined the content of water and lipids in kernel, saponification value, acid value, water content in the oil, viscosity, density, composition in fatty acids by gas chromatography and molar mass. The results submitted to Tukey test for significant value to 5%. Found for the unripe fruits values superior to unsaturated fatty acids.

Keywords: Characterization, Extraction, kernel oil, acrocomia totai

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76 Study of the Biochemical Properties of the Protease Coagulant Milk Extracted from Sunflower Cake: Manufacturing Test of Cheeses Uncooked Dough Press and Analysis of Sensory Properties

Authors: Kahlouche Amal, Touzene F. Zohra, Betatache Fatihaet Nouani Abdelouahab


The development of the world production of the cheese these last decades, as well as agents' greater request cheap coagulants, accentuated the search for new surrogates of the rennet. What about the interest to explore the vegetable biodiversity, the source well cheap of many naturals metabolites that the scientists today praise it (thistle, latex of fig tree, Cardoon, seeds of melon). Indeed, a big interest is concerned the search for surrogates of vegetable origin. The objective of the study is to show the possibility of extracting a protease coagulant the milk from the cake of Sunflower, available raw material and the potential source of surrogates of rennet. so, the determination of the proteolytic activity of raw extracts, the purification, the elimination of the pigments of tint of the enzymatic preparations, a better knowledge of the coagulative properties through study of the effect of certain factors (temperature, pH, concentration in CaCl2) are so many factors which contribute to value milk particularly those produced by the small ruminants of the Algerian dairy exploitations. Otherwise, extracts coagulants of vegetable origin allowed today to value traditional, in addition, although the extract coagulants of vegetable origin made it possible today to develop traditional cheeses whose Iberian peninsula is the promoter, but the test of 'pressed paste not cooked' cheese manufacturing led to the semi-scale pilot; and that, by using the enzymatic extract of sunflower (Helianthus annus) which gave satisfactory results as well to the level of outputs as on the sensory level,which, statistically,did not give any significant difference between studied cheeses. These results confirm the possibility of use of this coagulase as a substitute of rennet commercial on an industrial scale.

Keywords: Characterization, Sunflower, cheese, rennet

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75 Characterization and Evaluation of the Dissolution Increase of Molecular Solid Dispersions of Efavirenz

Authors: Pedro J. Rolim-Neto, Larissa A. Rolim, Leslie Raphael de M. Ferraz, Salvana Priscylla M. Costa, Tarcyla de A. Gomes, Giovanna Christinne R. M. Schver, Cristóvão R. da Silva, Magaly Andreza M. de Lyra, Danilo Augusto F. Fontes, Amanda Carla Q. M. Vieira, Miracy M. de Albuquerque


Efavirenz (EFV) is a drug used as first-line treatment of AIDS. However, it has poor aqueous solubility and wettability, presenting problems in the gastrointestinal tract absorption and bioavailability. One of the most promising strategies to improve the solubility is the use of solid dispersions (SD). Therefore, this study aimed to characterize SD EFZ with the polymers: PVP-K30, PVPVA 64 and SOLUPLUS in order to find an optimal formulation to compose a future pharmaceutical product for AIDS therapy. Initially, Physical Mixtures (PM) and SD with the polymers were obtained containing 10, 20, 50 and 80% of drug (w/w) by the solvent method. The best formulation obtained between the SD was selected by in vitro dissolution test. Finally, the drug-carrier system chosen, in all ratios obtained, were analyzed by the following techniques: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), polarization microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and spectrophotometry of absorption in the region of infrared (IR). From the dissolution profiles of EFV, PM and SD, the values of area Under The Curve (AUC) were calculated. The data showed that the AUC of all PM is greater than the isolated EFV, this result is derived from the hydrophilic properties of the polymers thus favoring a decrease in surface tension between the drug and the dissolution medium. In adittion, this ensures an increasing of wettability of the drug. In parallel, it was found that SD whom had higher AUC values, were those who have the greatest amount of polymer (with only 10% drug). As the amount of drug increases, it was noticed that these results either decrease or are statistically similar. The AUC values of the SD using the three different polymers, followed this decreasing order: SD PVPVA 64-EFV 10% > SD PVP-K30-EFV 10% > SD Soluplus®-EFV 10%. The DSC curves of SD’s did not show the characteristic endothermic event of drug melt process, suggesting that the EFV was converted to its amorphous state. The analysis of polarized light microscopy showed significant birefringence of the PM’s, but this was not observed in films of SD’s, thus suggesting the conversion of the drug from the crystalline to the amorphous state. In electron micrographs of all PM, independently of the percentage of the drug, the crystal structure of EFV was clearly detectable. Moreover, electron micrographs of the SD with the two polymers in different ratios investigated, we observed the presence of particles with irregular size and morphology, also occurring an extensive change in the appearance of the polymer, not being possible to differentiate the two components. IR spectra of PM corresponds to the overlapping of polymer and EFV bands indicating thereby that there is no interaction between them, unlike the spectra of all SD that showed complete disappearance of the band related to the axial deformation of the NH group of EFV. Therefore, this study was able to obtain a suitable formulation to overcome the solubility limitations of the EFV, since SD PVPVA 64-EFZ 10% was chosen as the best system in delay crystallization of the prototype, reaching higher levels of super saturation.

Keywords: Characterization, Dissolution, Efavirenz, solid dispersions

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74 Preparation and Characterization of Polyaniline (PANI) – Platinum Nanocomposite

Authors: Kumar Neeraj, Ranjan Haldar, Ashok Srivastava


Polyaniline used as light-emitting devices (LEDs), televisions, cellular telephones, automotive, Corrosion-resistant coatings, actuators and ability to have micro- and nano-devices. the electrical conductivity properties can be increased by introduction of metal nano particles. In the present study, platinum nano particles have been utilized to achieve the improved properties. Polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite are synthesized by chemical routes. The samples characterized by X-ray diffractometer show the amorphous nature of polyaniline and Pt-polyaniline composite. The Bragg’s diffraction peaks correspond to platinum nano particles and thermogravimetric analyzer predicts its decomposition at certain temperature. The current-potential characteristics of the samples are also studied which indicate a significant increasing the value of conductivity after introduction of pt nanoparticles in the matrix of polyaniline (PANI).

Keywords: Characterization, Pharmaceutical Sciences, polyaniline, XRD and platinum nanoparticles

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73 Purification and Characterization of a Novel Extracellular Chitinase from Bacillus licheniformis LHH100

Authors: Laribi-Habchi Hasiba, Bouanane-Darenfed Amel, Drouiche Nadjib, Pausse André, Mameri Nabil


Chitin, a linear 1, 4-linked N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) polysaccharide is the major structural component of fungal cell walls, insect exoskeletons and shells of crustaceans. It is one of the most abundant naturally occurring polysaccharides and has attracted tremendous attention in the fields of agriculture, pharmacology and biotechnology. Each year, a vast amount of chitin waste is released from the aquatic food industry, where crustaceans (prawn, crab, Shrimp and lobster) constitute one of the main agricultural products. This creates a serious environmental problem. This linear polymer can be hydrolyzed by bases, acids or enzymes such as chitinase. In this context an extracellular chitinase (ChiA-65) was produced and purified from a newly isolated LHH100. Pure protein was obtained after heat treatment and ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by Sephacryl S-200 chromatography. Based on matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, the purified enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 65,195.13 Da. The sequence of the 27 N-terminal residues of the mature ChiA-65 showed high homology with family-18 chitinases. Optimal activity was achieved at pH 4 and 75◦C. Among the inhibitors and metals tested p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, Hg2+ and Hg + completelyinhibited enzyme activity. Chitinase activity was high on colloidal chitin, glycol chitin, glycol chitosane, chitotriose and chitooligosaccharide. Chitinase activity towards synthetic substrates in the order of p-NP-(GlcNAc) n (n = 2–4) was p-NP-(GlcNAc)2> p-NP-(GlcNAc)4> p-NP-(GlcNAc)3. Our results suggest that ChiA-65 preferentially hydrolyzed the second glycosidic link from the non-reducing end of (GlcNAc) n. ChiA-65 obeyed Michaelis Menten kinetics the Km and kcat values being 0.385 mg, colloidal chitin/ml and5000 s−1, respectively. ChiA-65 exhibited remarkable biochemical properties suggesting that this enzyme is suitable for bioconversion of chitin waste.

Keywords: Characterization, Purification, Bacillus licheniformis LHH100, extracellular chitinase

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72 Chemical and Mechanical Characterization of Composites Reinforced with Coconut Fiber in the Polymeric Matrix of Recycled PVC

Authors: Luiz C. G. Pennafort Jr., Alexandre de S. Rios, Enio P. de Deus


In the search for materials that replace conventional polymers in order to preserve natural resources, combined with the need to minimize the problems arising from environmental pollution generated by plastic waste, comes the recycled materials biodegradable, especially the composites reinforced with natural fibers. However, such materials exhibit properties little known, requiring studies of manufacturing methods and characterization of these composites. This article shows informations about preparation and characterization of a composite produced by extrusion, which consists of recycled PVC derived from the recycling of materials discarded, added of the micronized coconut fiber. The recycled PVC with 5% of micronized fiber were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical analysis and optical microscopy. The use of fiber in the composite caused a decrease in its specific weight, due to the lower specific weight of fibers and the appearance of porosity, in addition to the decrease of mechanical properties.

Keywords: Characterization, Composites, coconut fiber, recycled PVC

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71 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sonali Patil, Sachinkumar Patil, Shitalkumar Patil


Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: Characterization, Synthesis, Application, magnetic nanoparticles, Cancer Therapy, hyperthermia

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70 In-Vitro Dextran Synthesis and Characterization of an Intracellular Glucosyltransferase from Leuconostoc Mesenteroides AA1

Authors: Shah Ali Ul Qader, Afsheen Aman


Dextransucrase [EC] is a glucosyltransferase that catalysis the biosynthesis of a natural biopolymer called dextran. It can catalyze the transfer of D-glucopyranosyl residues from sucrose to the main chain of dextran. This unique biopolymer has multiple applications in several industries and the key utilization of dextran lies on its molecular weight and the type of branching. Extracellular dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides is most extensively studied and characterized. Limited data is available regarding cell-bound or intracellular dextransucrase and on the characterization of dextran produced by in-vitro reaction of intracellular dextransucrase. L. mesenteroides AA1 is reported to produce extracellular dextransucrase that catalyzes biosynthesis of a high molecular weight dextran with only α-(1→6) linkage. Current study deals with the characterization of an intracellular dextransucrase and in vitro biosynthesis of low molecular weight dextran from L. mesenteroides AA1. Intracellular dextransucrase was extracted from cytoplasm and purified to homogeneity for characterization. Kinetic constants, molecular weight and N-terminal sequence analysis of intracellular dextransucrase reveal unique variation with previously reported extracellular dextransucrase from the same strain. In vitro synthesized biopolymer was characterized using NMR spectroscopic techniques. Intracellular dextransucrase exhibited Vmax and Km values of 130.8 DSU ml-1 hr-1 and 221.3 mM, respectively. Optimum catalytic activity was detected at 35°C in 0.15 M citrate phosphate buffer (pH-5.5) in 05 minutes. Molecular mass of purified intracellular dextransucrase is approximately 220.0 kDa on SDS-PAGE. N-terminal sequence of the intracellular enzyme is: GLPGYFGVN that showed no homology with previously reported sequence for the extracellular dextransucrase. This intracellular dextransucrase is capable of in vitro synthesis of dextran under specific conditions. This intracellular dextransucrase is capable of in vitro synthesis of dextran under specific conditions and this biopolymer can be hydrolyzed into different molecular weight fractions for various applications.

Keywords: Characterization, dextran, dextransucrase, leuconostoc mesenteroides

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