Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

carcinoma Related Abstracts

2 Synergistic Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin and Taxol in Overcoming Taxol Resistance through the Inhibition of LDHA in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Lin Feng, Ling-Ling E., Hong-Chen Liu

Abstract:

The development of chemoresistance in patients represents a major challenge in cancer treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase‑A (LDHA) is one of the principle isoforms of LDH that is expressed in breast tissue, controlling the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and also playing a significant role in the metabolism of glucose. The aim of this study was to identify whether LDHA was involved in oral cancer cell resistance to Taxol and whether the downregulation of LDHA, as a result of cisplatin treatment, may overcome Taxol resistance in human oral squamous cells. The OECM‑1 oral epidermal carcinoma cell line was used, which has been widely used as a model of oral cancer in previous studies. The role of LDHA in Taxol and cisplatin resistance was investigated and the synergistic cytotoxicity of cisplatin and/or Taxol in oral squamous cells was analyzed. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay, LDHA expression was analyzed by western blot analysis and siRNA transfection was performed to knock down LDHA expression. The present study results showed that decreased levels of LDHA were responsible for the resistance of oral cancer cells to cisplatin (CDDP). CDDP treatments downregulated LDHA expression and lower levels of LDHA were detected in the CDDP‑resistant oral cancer cells compared with the CDDP‑sensitive cells. By contrast, the Taxol‑resistant cancer cells showed elevated LDHA expression levels. In addition, small interfering RNA‑knockdown of LDHA sensitized the cells to Taxol but desensitized them to CDDP treatment while exogenous expression of LDHA sensitized the cells to CDDP, but desensitized them to Taxol. The present study also revealed the synergistic cytotoxicity of CDDP and Taxol for killing oral cancer cells through the inhibition of LDHA. This study highlights LDHA as a novel therapeutic target for overcoming Taxol resistance in oral cancer patients using the combined treatments of Taxol and CDDP.

Keywords: carcinoma, cisplatin, Taxol, oral squamous cells

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1 Principle Component Analysis on Colon Cancer Detection

Authors: N. K. Caecar Pratiwi, Yunendah Nur Fuadah, Rita Magdalena, R. D. Atmaja, Sofia Saidah, Ocky Tiaramukti

Abstract:

Colon cancer or colorectal cancer is a type of cancer that attacks the last part of the human digestive system. Lymphoma and carcinoma are types of cancer that attack human’s colon. Colon cancer causes deaths about half a million people every year. In Indonesia, colon cancer is the third largest cancer case for women and second in men. Unhealthy lifestyles such as minimum consumption of fiber, rarely exercising and lack of awareness for early detection are factors that cause high cases of colon cancer. The aim of this project is to produce a system that can detect and classify images into type of colon cancer lymphoma, carcinoma, or normal. The designed system used 198 data colon cancer tissue pathology, consist of 66 images for Lymphoma cancer, 66 images for carcinoma cancer and 66 for normal / healthy colon condition. This system will classify colon cancer starting from image preprocessing, feature extraction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and classification using K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) method. Several stages in preprocessing are resize, convert RGB image to grayscale, edge detection and last, histogram equalization. Tests will be done by trying some K-NN input parameter setting. The result of this project is an image processing system that can detect and classify the type of colon cancer with high accuracy and low computation time.

Keywords: Lymphoma, colorectal cancer, carcinoma, Principle Component Analysis, k-nearest neighbor

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