Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 105

Cancer Related Abstracts

105 Pattern of Adverse Drug Reactions with Platinum Compounds in Cancer Chemotherapy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

Authors: Meena Kumari, Ajitha Sharma, Mohan Babu Amberkar, Hasitha Manohar, Joseph Thomas, K. L. Bairy

Abstract:

Aim: To evaluate the pattern of occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with platinum compounds in cancer chemotherapy at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: It was a retrospective, descriptive case record study done on patients admitted to the medical oncology ward of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal from July to November 2012. Inclusion criteria comprised of patients of both sexes and all ages diagnosed with cancer and were on platinum compounds, who developed at least one adverse drug reaction during or after the treatment period. CDSCO proforma was used for reporting ADRs. Causality was assessed using Naranjo Algorithm. Results: A total of 65 patients was included in the study. Females comprised of 67.69% and rest males. Around 49.23% of the ADRs were seen in the age group of 41-60 years, followed by 20 % in 21-40 years, 18.46% in patients over 60 years and 12.31% in 1-20 years age group. The anticancer agents which caused adverse drug reactions in our study were carboplatin (41.54%), cisplatin (36.92%) and oxaliplatin (21.54%). Most common adverse drug reactions observed were oral candidiasis (21.53%), vomiting (16.92%), anaemia (12.3%), diarrhoea (12.3%) and febrile neutropenia (0.08%). The results of the causality assessment of most of the cases were probable. Conclusion: The adverse effect of chemotherapeutic agents is a matter of concern in the pharmacological management of cancer as it affects the quality of life of patients. This information would be useful in identifying and minimizing preventable adverse drug reactions while generally enhancing the knowledge of the prescribers to deal with these adverse drug reactions more efficiently.

Keywords: Cancer, Chemotherapy, Adverse Drug Reactions, platinum compounds

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104 Genome-Wide Isoform Specific KDM5A/JARID1A/RBP2 Location Analysis Reveals Contribution of Chromatin-Interacting PHD Domain in Protein Recruitment to Binding Sites

Authors: Abul B. M. M. K. Islam, Nuria Lopez-Bigas, Elizaveta V. Benevolenskaya

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RBP2 has shown to be important for cell differentiation control through epigenetic mechanism. The main aim of the present study is genome-wide location analysis of human RBP2 isoforms that differ in a histone-binding domain by ChIPseq. It is conceivable that the larger isoform (LI) of RBP2, which contains a specific H3K4me3 interacting domain, differs from the smaller isoform (SI) in genomic location, may account for the observed diversity in RBP2 function. To distinguish the two RBP2 isoforms, we used the fact that the SI lacks the C-terminal PHD domain and hence used the antibodies detecting both RBP2 isoforms (AI) through a common central domain, and the antibodies detecting only LI but not SI, through a C-terminal PHD domain. Overall our analysis suggests that RBP2 occupies about 77 nucleotides and binds GC rich motifs of active genes, does not bind to centromere, telomere, or enhancer regions, and binding sites are conserved compare to random. A striking difference between the only-SI and only-LI is that a large number of only-SI peaks are located in CpG islands and close to TSS compared to only-LI peaks. Enrichment analysis of the related genes indicates that several oncogenic pathways and metabolic pathways/processes are significantly enriched among only-SI/AI targets, but not LI/only-LI peak’s targets.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Cancer, ChIP-seq, KDM5A

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103 The Effects of Fearing Cancer in Women

Authors: E. Kotrotsiou, A. S. Topsioti, S. Mantzoukas, E. Dragioti, M. Gouva

Abstract:

Introduction: The literature has demonstrated that individual and psychological factors have a direct effect on the perceptions and attitudes of women with cancer. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the fear of cancer and anxiety. Aim: To examine the impact of the fear of cancer in women with state and trait anxiety of women. Methods: A community sample of 286 women (mean age 39.6 years, SD = 9.5 ranged 20-60) participated in the current study. The women completed a) State - Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and b) questionnaire concerning socio-demographic information and questions for fear of cancer. Results: The perception of fear in women with cancer is statistically independent from their age (t–test, p = 0.58), their family status (χ2, p = 0.519), their place of residency (χ2, p = 0.148), the manifestation of gynecological cancer (χ2, p = 0.979) or the manifestation of any type of cancer in the family (χ2, p = 0.277). In contrast, it was observed that there was a dependence in relation to a total of phobias (χ2, p = 0.003), the fear of illness (χ2, p< 0.001) and the fear of heights (χ2, p = 0.004). Furthermore, the participants that responded that they feared cancer displayed greater level of stress both as situation (t=-3.462; p=0.001) and as a trait of their personality (t=-4.377; p<0.001), and at the same time they displayed greater levels of depression in comparisons with the other participants. Furthermore, following multiple linear regression analysis it was observed that the participants that responded positively to the question if they feared cancer had 8, 3 units greater stress level as a personality trait in comparison to women that responded negatively to the question if they feared cancer (B=8.3; p=0.016; R2=0.506). Conclusion: Women’s fear of cancer is statistically independent from their age, family status, place of residency, the manifestation of gynaecological cancer and with the manifestation of cancer any type in the family. In contrast, there is a dependency with the total of phobias, fear of illness and fear of heights. Women that state that they have a fear of cancer manifest greater levels of stress from the rest of the participants both as situation and as a trait of their personality (p = 0.001 and p< 0.001 accordingly). In specific, the study demonstrated that the participants that positively to the question if they feared cancer had 8,3 units greater stress level as a personality trait in comparison to women that responded negatively.

Keywords: Psychology, Cancer, Anxiety, Women Health, fear

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102 To Assess Variables Related to Self-Efficacy for Increasing Physical Activity in Advanced-Stage Cancer Patients

Authors: S. Nikpour, S. Vahidi, H. Haghani

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Introduction: Exercise has mental and physical health benefits for patients with advanced stage cancer who actively receive chemotherapy, yet little is known about patients’ levels of interest in becoming more active or their confidence in increasing their activity level. Methods and materials: A convenience sample of 200 patients with advanced-stage cancer who were receiving chemotherapy completed self-report measures assessing physical activity level, mood, and quality-of-life variables. Qualitative data on patient-perceived benefits of, and barriers to, physical activity also were collected, coded by independent raters, and organized by predominant themes. Results: Current physical activity level, physical activity outcome expectations, and positive mood were significantly associated with self-efficacy. Fatigue was the most frequently listed barrier to physical activity; improved physical strength and health were the most commonly listed benefits. Participants identified benefits related to both general health and cancer-symptom management that were related to exercise. 59.5% of participants reported that they were seriously planning to increase or maintain their physical activity level, and over 40% reported having interest in receiving an intervention to become more active. Conclusion: These results suggested that many advanced-stage cancer patients who receive chemotherapy are interested in maintaining or increasing their physical activity level and in receiving professional support for exercise. In addition, these individuals identified general health and cancer-specific benefits of, and barriers to, physical activity. Future research will investigate how these findings may be incorporated into physical activity interventions for advanced-stage oncology patients receiving medical treatment.

Keywords: Cancer, Physical Activity, Self-efficacy

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101 Coping Mechanisms of Batangueño Families Facing Cancer

Authors: Aiza G. Clanor, Lotlot B. Hernandez, Jonna Marie T. Ibuna

Abstract:

This study aimed to know the coping mechanisms of Batangueño families facing cancer, specifically, those from Cancer Warriors Foundation, Inc. Batangas chapter. The researchers used purposive sampling. This study was limited to the responses provided by the Batangueño families of the cancer patients. A family member of the immediate family with a child facing cancer represents the family as a whole. A total number of forty six (46) respondents were given the questionnaires. Upon analysis, most of the respondents came from rural areas and nuclear family and have Php 5000 and below family monthly income. Most of them have their own houses, and 3 to 5 members, one of whom is a cancer patient diagnosed for more than 2 years. The two most frequently utilized coping strategies were mobilizing the family to acquire and accept help, and reframing. Passive appraisal is the least utilized one. There was a significant difference on the coping mechanisms of the family relative to passive appraisal based on the length of time since the illness was first diagnosed. Based from the study, the researchers developed modules with discussions and activities on cancer awareness, ideas on coping and how to deal with the cancer patients that may help the respondents and other Batangueño families overcome the difficulties in facing cancer. The researchers recommend the modules for they are found to be effective ways to help the families relieve stress, reduce anxiety and improve quality of life.

Keywords: Psychology, Cancer, Family, coping with chronic illness

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100 Flame Spray Pyrolysis as a High-Throughput Method to Generate Gadolinium Doped Titania Nanoparticles for Augmented Radiotherapy

Authors: Simon Johnson, Malgorzata J. Rybak-Smith, Benedicte Thiebaut, Peter Bishop, Helen E. Townley

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Gadolinium doped titania (TiO2:Gd) nanoparticles (NPs) can be activated by X-ray radiation to generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which can be effective in killing cancer cells. As such, treatment with these NPs can be used to enhance the efficacy of conventional radiotherapy. Incorporation of the NPs in to tumour tissue will permit the extension of radiotherapy to currently untreatable tumours deep within the body, and also reduce damage to neighbouring healthy cells. In an attempt to find a fast and scalable method for the synthesis of the TiO2:Gd NPs, the use of Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) was investigated. A series of TiO2 NPs were generated with 1, 2, 5 and 7 mol% gadolinium dopant. Post-synthesis, the TiO2:Gd NPs were silica-coated to improve their biocompatibility. Physico-chemical characterisation was used to determine the size and stability in aqueous suspensions of the NPs. All analysed TiO2:Gd NPs were shown to have relatively high photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the FSP synthesized silica-coated TiO2:Gd NPs generated enhanced ROS in chemico. Studies on rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines (RD & RH30) demonstrated that in the absence of irradiation all TiO2:Gd NPs were inert. However, application of TiO2:Gd NPs to RMS cells, followed by irradiation, showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation. Consequently, our studies showed that the X-ray-activatable TiO2:Gd NPs can be prepared by a high-throughput scalable technique to provide a novel and affordable anticancer therapy.

Keywords: Cancer, X-Ray, gadolinium, ROS, titania nanoparticles

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99 Effect of Copper Complexes on Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line and Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Katarína Koňariková, Georgios A. Perdikaris, Lucia Andrezálová, Zdeňka Ďuračková, Lucia Laubertová, Helena Gbelcová, Ingrid Žitňanová

Abstract:

Introduction: The continuous demand for new anti-cancer drugs has stimulated chemotherapeutic research based on the use of essential metalloelements with the aim to develop potential drugs with lower toxicity and higher antiproliferative activity against tumors. Copper(II) and its complexes play an important role as suitable species for antiproliferative tests. Objectives: The central objective of the current study was to investigate the potential in vitro anti-proliferative effects of N-salicylidene-L-glutamato copper (II) complexes and molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by tested complexes. In our project we tested N-salicylidene-L-glutamato copper (II) complexes ZK1 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O; MK0 - ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O); MK1 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O; MK3 - transbis(ethanol)tetrakis(imidazol)Cu(II)(2+)bis(N-salicylidene-D,L-glutamato-N,O)-KO:KO´-(imidazol); MK5 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-D,L- glutamato)(2-methylimidazol] at concentration range 0.001-100 µmol/L against human colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 and human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Methods: Viability was assessed by direct counting of 0.4% trypan blue dye-excluding cells after 24, 48 and 72 hour cultivations with or without copper complex and by MTT assay. To analyze the type of cell death and its mechanism induced by our copper complex we used different methods. To distinguish apoptosis from necrosis we used electrophoretic analysis, to study the activity of caspases 8 and 9 – luminometric analysis and caspase activity 3 colorimetric assay. Results: The observed anti-proliferative effect of the copper complexes appeared to be dose-, time- and cell line- dependent. Human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 appeared to be more sensitive to the complex MK0 ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O) than to ZK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O) and MK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O)). Human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 appeared to be more sensitive to the complex than human breast carcinoma cells MCF-7. IC50 decreased with time of incubation (24, 48 and 72h) for HT-29, but increased for MCF-7. By electrophoresis we found apoptotic cell death induced by our copper complexes in HT-29 at concentrations 1, 10, 50 and 100 µmol/L after 48h (ZK1) and 72h (MK0, MK1) and in MCF-7 we did not find apoptosis. We also studied molecular mechanism of apoptosis in HT-29 induced by copper complexes. We found active caspase 9 in HT-29 after ZK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O) and MK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O)) influence and active caspase 8 after MK0 ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O) influence. Conclusion: Our copper complexes showed cytotoxic activities against human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in vitro. Apoptosis was activated by mitochondrial pathway (intrinsic pathway) in case of ZK1 [Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O; MK1 [Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O; MK3 - transbis(ethanol)tetrakis(imidazol)Cu(II)(2+)bis(N-salicylidene-D,L-glutamato-N,O)-KO:KO´-(imidazol) and MK5 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-D,L- glutamato)(2-methylimidazol] copper complexes and by death receptors (extrinsic pathway) in case of MK0 [Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O copper complex in HT-29.

Keywords: Cancer, apoptosis, copper complex, carcinoma cell line

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98 Discover a New Technique for Cancer Recognition by Analysis and Determination of Fractal Dimension Images in Matlab Software

Authors: Saeedeh Shahbazkhany

Abstract:

Cancer is a terrible disease that, if not diagnosed early, therapy can be difficult while it is easily medicable if it is diagnosed in early stages. So it is very important for cancer diagnosis that medical procedures are performed. In this paper we introduce a new method. In this method, we only need pictures of healthy cells and cancer cells. In fact, where we suspect cancer, we take a picture of cells or tissue in that area, and then take some pictures of the surrounding tissues. Then, fractal dimension of images are calculated and compared. Cancer can be easily detected by comparing the fractal dimension of images. In this method, we use Matlab software.

Keywords: Cancer, Matlab software, fractal dimension, surrounding tissues, cells or tissue, new method

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97 Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Ethanolic Extract from Monascus purpureus

Authors: F. Yazdian, M. Pourshirazi, M. Esmaelifar, A. Aliahmadi, A. S. Hatamian Zarami, S. J. Ashrafi

Abstract:

Medicinal fungi are the new potential source of drugs to improve the treatment of diseases with association to oxidative agents such as cancers. Monascus purpureus contains functional components potentially effective in improving human health. In the present work, ethanolic extract of Monascus purpureus (EEM) was evaluated for health improving potential mainly focusing on antioxidant and anticancer activities. Ferric ion reducing power (FRAP), scavenging of DPPH radicals and determining viability of breast carcinoma MCF-7 and cervical carcinoma HeLa cells with MTT assay were evaluated. Our data showed a significant antioxidant activity of EEM with 142.45 µg/ml inhibition concentration of 50% DPPH radicals and 2112.33 µg eq.Fe2+/mg extract of FRAP assay. These results might be caused by antioxidant components such as pigments and phenolic compounds. Further, the results demonstrated that EEM caused significant reduction in the viability of MCF-7 with IC50 of 7 µg/ml but not have good effect against viability of HeLa cells. Accordingly, Monascus purpureus is presented as a strong potential of breast cancer treatment. In further study, the mechanistic studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of anticancer activity of EEM.

Keywords: Cancer, Monascus purpureus, antioxidant, ethanolic extract

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96 Durable Phantom Production Identical to Breast Tissue for Use in Breast Cancer Detection Research Studies

Authors: Hayrettin Eroglu, Adem Kara

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Recently there has been significant attention given to imaging of the biological tissues via microwave imaging techniques. In this study, a phantom for the test and calibration of Microwave imaging used in detecting unhealthy breast structure or tumors was produced by using sol gel method. The liquid and gel phantoms being used nowadays are not durable due to evaporation and their organic ingredients, hence a new design was proposed. This phantom was fabricated from materials that were widely available (water, salt, gelatin, and glycerol) and was easy to make. This phantom was aimed to be better from the ones already proposed in the literature in terms of its durability and stability. S Parameters of phantom was measured with 1-18 GHz Probe Kit and permittivity was calculated via Debye method in “85070” commercial software. One, three, and five-week measurements were taken for this phantom. Finally, it was verified that measurement results were very close to the real biological tissue measurement results.

Keywords: Cancer, Microwave Imaging, phantom, breast tissue

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95 Assessment of the Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Annona squamosa L. on Den Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Experimental Animals

Authors: Vanitha Varadharaj, Vijalakshmi Krishnamurthy

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Annona squamosa Linn, commonly known as Sugar apple, belonging to the family Annonaceae, is said to show varied medicinal effects, including insecticide, antiovulatory and abortifacient. The alkaloid and flavonoids present in Annona squamosa leaf has proved to have antioxidant activity. The present work has been planned to investigate the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Annona squamosa leaf on Den Induced wistar albino rats. The study was carried out to analyze the biochemical Parmeters like Total Proteins, Bilirubin, Enzymatic and Non –Enzymatic enzymes, Marker enzymes and Tumor markers in serum and also the histopathological studies in liver is carried out in control and DEN induced rats. Supplementation of ELAS (Ethanolic Leaf Extract Of Annona squamosa) reduced the liver weight and also reduced the tumour incidence. Chemoprevention group showed near normal values of bilirubin when compared with the control rats. Total protein was decreased in the cancer bearing group and on treatment with the extract the levels of protein were restored. Both in pre and post treatment group, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and Glutathione peroxidase were increased but in pre treated animals it was more effective than post treated animals. The non- enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E were brought back to normal level significantly in post and pre treated animals. Activities of marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, γ GT were significantly elevated in the serum of cancer animals and the values returned to normal after treatment with the extract suggesting the hepato protective effect of the extract. Lipid peroxide was found to be elevated in the cancer induced group. This condition was brought back to the normal in the pre and post treated animals with ELAS. Histological examination also confirmed the anti- carcinogenic potential of ELAS, Cancer induced groups had a triple fold increase in their AFP values when compared to other groups. DEN treatment increased the level of AFP expression while ELAS partially counteracted the effect of it. So the scientific validation obtained from this study may pave way to many budding scientists to find new drugs from Annona squamosa for various ailments.

Keywords: Cancer, annona squamosa, biochemical parmeters, leaf extract

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94 CMPD: Cancer Mutant Proteome Database

Authors: Po-Jung Huang, Chi-Ching Lee, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan, Yuan-Ming Yeh, Julie Lichieh Chu, Tin-Wen Chen, Cheng-Yang Lee, Ruei-Chi Gan, Hsuan Liu, Petrus Tang

Abstract:

Whole-exome sequencing focuses on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes based on a priori knowledge is the most cost-effective method to study the association between genetic alterations and disease. Recent advances in high throughput sequencing technologies and proteomic techniques has provided an opportunity to integrate genomics and proteomics, allowing readily detectable mutated peptides corresponding to mutated genes. Since sequence database search is the most widely used method for protein identification using Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics technology, a mutant proteome database is required to better approximate the real protein pool to improve disease-associated mutated protein identification. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing studies were launched by National Cancer Institute (NCI), Broad Institute, and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which provide not only a comprehensive report on the analysis of coding variants in diverse samples cell lines but a invaluable resource for extensive research community. No existing database is available for the collection of mutant protein sequences related to the identified variants in these studies. CMPD is designed to address this issue, serving as a bridge between genomic data and proteomic studies and focusing on protein sequence-altering variations originated from both germline and cancer-associated somatic variations.

Keywords: Cancer, mutant, TCGA, proteome

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93 C-eXpress: A Web-Based Analysis Platform for Comparative Functional Genomics and Proteomics in Human Cancer Cell Line, NCI-60 as an Example

Authors: Po-Jung Huang, Chi-Ching Lee, Petrus Tang, Kuo-Yang Huang

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Background: Recent advances in high-throughput research technologies such as new-generation sequencing and multi-dimensional liquid chromatography makes it possible to dissect the complete transcriptome and proteome in a single run for the first time. However, it is almost impossible for many laboratories to handle and analysis these “BIG” data without the support from a bioinformatics team. We aimed to provide a web-based analysis platform for users with only limited knowledge on bio-computing to study the functional genomics and proteomics. Method: We use NCI-60 as an example dataset to demonstrate the power of the web-based analysis platform and data delivering system: C-eXpress takes a simple text file that contain the standard NCBI gene or protein ID and expression levels (rpkm or fold) as input file to generate a distribution map of gene/protein expression levels in a heatmap diagram organized by color gradients. The diagram is hyper-linked to a dynamic html table that allows the users to filter the datasets based on various gene features. A dynamic summary chart is generated automatically after each filtering process. Results: We implemented an integrated database that contain pre-defined annotations such as gene/protein properties (ID, name, length, MW, pI); pathways based on KEGG and GO biological process; subcellular localization based on GO cellular component; functional classification based on GO molecular function, kinase, peptidase and transporter. Multiple ways of sorting of column and rows is also provided for comparative analysis and visualization of multiple samples.

Keywords: Cancer, Database, Visualization, functional annotation

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92 Lung Cancer Patients in Eastern Region of Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta

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The number of new cancer cases annually is estimated to rise from 10.9 million in 2002 to more than 16 million by 2020, if current trends continue. Much of this increase in absolute numbers derives from the ageing of populations worldwide. The objectives of this study were to find out the demographic characteristics of the admitted cancer patients in BPKIHS. It was hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted reviewing all the records of admitted diagnosed cancer patients in BPKIHS from 15th October 2004 to 14th October 2012. Using total enumerative sampling technique all 1379 diagnosed cancer patients record were reviewed after obtaining the permission from concerned authorities. Using SPSS-15 software package data was analyzed. It was found that majority (71%) of cancer patients were of age more than 40 years and equal of both sexes. Most of the clients were form Sunsari (31.1%), Morang (16.6%) and Jhapa (17%) districts. The mean hospitalization day is 8.32 and very few patients (5.2%) were only cured. The numbers of cancer patients are markedly increases in BPKIHS, especially in advanced stage. It is mandatory to start the cancer information and education programme in eastern region of Nepal and proper management of cancer patients using chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery at BPKIHS for quality patient care.

Keywords: Cancer, Lung, patients, Nepal

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91 Lymphomas as Estrogen-Regulated Cancers

Authors: M. S. Hasni, J. Guan, K. Yakimchuk, M. Berglund, B. Sander, G. Enblad, R. M. Amini, S. Okret

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Lymphomas are generally not considered as endocrine-related cancers. However, most lymphoid malignancies show gender differences in incidence and show prognosis with males being more affected. Furthermore, some epidemiological data indicate a protective role of estrogens against Non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Recent studies have demonstrated estrogen receptor β (ERβ) to be the major ER expressed in normal and malignant cells of lymphoid origin. We have analyzed the effects of estradiol and selective ERα and ERβ agonists on lymphoma growth in culture and in vivo. Treating lymphoma cells with estradiol or ERα selective agonist had minor or no effect on cell growth while selective ERβ agonist treatment showed an antiproliferative effect. When grafting mice with murine T lymphoma cells, male mice developed larger tumors compared to female mice, a difference that was abolished following ovariectomy, demonstrating estrogen-dependent growth in vivo. When subcutaneously grafting lymphoma cells to mice, so far growth of all tested human B lymphoma tumors (Raji and Ramos Burkitt lymphoma, SU.DHL4 (GC) and U2932 (ABC) DLBCL, Granta-519, Maver1 and Z138 MCL cells), were reduced following treatment with ERβ selective agonist (ref. 2 and unpublished). Moreover, the number and size of liver foci of disseminating Raji cells was reduced. We have identified target genes and mechanism that could explain the above effects of ERβ agonists. This included effects on angio and lymphangiogenesis. Now we have further analyzed effects of ERβ agonists on Ibrutinib-sensitive and -insensitive MCL cells in xenograft experiments as well as ERβ expression in primary lymphoma material (DLBCL). Preliminary statistical analysis has been done correlating ERβ expression to other biomarkers and clinical data.

Keywords: Cancer, lymphomas, estrogen receptors, liver foci

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90 Spatio-Temporal Risk Analysis of Cancer to Assessed Environmental Exposures in Coimbatore, India

Authors: Janani Selvaraj, M. Prashanthi Devi, P. B. Harathi

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Epidemiologic studies conducted over several decades have provided evidence to suggest that long-term exposure to elevated ambient levels of particulate air pollution is associated with increased mortality. Air quality risk management is significant in developing countries and it highlights the need to understand the role of ecologic covariates in the association between air pollution and mortality. Several new methods show promise in exploring the geographical distribution of disease and the identification of high risk areas using epidemiological maps. However, the addition of the temporal attribute would further give us an in depth idea of the disease burden with respect to forecasting measures. In recent years, new methods developed in the reanalysis were useful for exploring the spatial structure of the data and the impact of spatial autocorrelation on estimates of risk associated with exposure to air pollution. Based on this, our present study aims to explore the spatial and temporal distribution of the lung cancer cases in the Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu in relation to air pollution risk areas. A spatio temporal moving average method was computed using the CrimeStat software and visualized in ArcGIS 10.1 to document the spatio temporal movement of the disease in the study region. The random walk analysis performed showed the progress of the peak cancer incidences in the intersection regions of the Coimbatore North and South taluks that include major commercial and residential regions like Gandhipuram, Peelamedu, Ganapathy, etc. Our study shows evidence that daily exposure to high air pollutant concentration zones may lead to the risk of lung cancer. The observations from the present study will be useful in delineating high risk zones of environmental exposure that contribute to the increase of cancer among daily commuters. Through our study we suggest that spatially resolved exposure models in relevant time frames will produce higher risks zones rather than solely on statistical theory about the impact of measurement error and the empirical findings.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Cancer, India, spatio-temporal analysis

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89 Sustainability with Health: A Daylighting Approach

Authors: Mohamed Boubekri

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Daylight in general and sunlight in particular are vital to life on earth, and it is not difficult to believe that their absence fosters conditions that promote disease. Through photosynthesis and other processes, sunlight provides photochemical ingredients necessary for our lives. There are fundamental biological, hormonal, and physiological functions coordinated by cycles that are crucial to life for cells, plants, animals, and humans. Many plants and animals, including humans, develop abnormal behaviors when sunlight is absent because their diurnal cycle is disturbed. Building​ codes disregard this aspect of daylighting when promulgating windows for buildings. This paper discusses the health aspects of daylighting design.

Keywords: Cancer, Health, Disorders, Sleep, Daylighting, sunlight, circadian rythm

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88 Hyaluronic Acid Binding to Link Domain of Stabilin-2 Receptor

Authors: Aleksandra Twarda, Dobrosława Krzemień, Grzegorz Dubin, Tad A. Holak

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Stabilin-2 belongs to the group of scavenger receptors and plays a crucial role in clearance of more than 10 ligands from the bloodstream, including hyaluronic acid, products of degradation of extracellular matrix and metabolic products. The Link domain, a defining feature of stabilin-2, has a sequence similar to Link domains in other hyaluronic acid receptors, such as CD44 or TSG-6, and is responsible for most of ligands binding. Present knowledge of signal transduction by stabilin-2, as well as ligands’ recognition and binding mechanism, is limited. Until now, no experimental structures have been solved for any segments of stabilin-2. It has recently been demonstrated that the stabilin-2 knock-out or blocking of the receptor by an antibody effectively opposes cancer metastasis by elevating the level of circulating hyaluronic acid. Moreover, loss of expression of stabilin-2 in a peri-tumourous liver correlates with increased survival. Solving of the crystal structure of stabilin-2 and elucidation of the binding mechanism of hyaluronic acid could enable the precise characterization of the interactions in the binding site. These results may allow for designing specific small-molecule inhibitors of stabilin-2 that could be used in cancer therapy. To carry out screening for crystallization of stabilin-2, we cloned constructs of the Link domain of various lengths with or without surrounding domains. The folding properties of the constructs were checked by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It is planned to show the binding of hyaluronic acid to the Link domain using several biochemical methods, i.a. NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence polarization assay.

Keywords: Cancer, NMR, X-Ray Crystallography, hyaluronic acid, stabilin-2, Link domain

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87 The Endocrinology of Obesity and Dejenerative Joint Disease

Authors: Kebret Kebede, Anthony Scinta

Abstract:

Obesity is the most prevalent global problem that continues to rise at alarming rates both in the industrialized and developing countries. Adipose tissue is an endocrine tissue that secretes numerous chemical signals, hormones, lipids, cytokines and coagulation factors as well as prompting insulin resistance which is a primary contributor to Type II Diabetes- one of its most common adverse effects on health. Other hormones whose levels are linked to obesity and nutritional state are leptin, IGF-1, and adiponectin. Several studies indicate that obesity is the leading cause of high levels of cholesterol that leads to fatty liver disease, gallstones, hypertension, increased risk for cancer and degenerative joint disease that primarily affects the weight bearing joints of the lower extremities. The activation of inflammatory pathways promotes synovial pathology that results in accelerated degeneration of the joints. The study examines the prevalence of obesity in the US female population in comparison to that of the developing world and its emergence as a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in degenerative disease of the hip and knee joints that has resulted in staggering healthcare cost. Studies have shown that as the prevalence of obesity rises, we continue to see a rise in degenerative joint disease. The percentage of arthritis cases linked directly to obesity has risen from 3 percent in 1971 to 18 percent in 2002. A person with obesity is around 60 percent more likely to develop arthritis than someone of normal body weight. In women, obesity is associated with increased mortality from breast, cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer that may accompany debilitating joint diseases and restricted mobility.

Keywords: Mobility, Cancer, Endocrine, Obesity, Mortality, degenerative, joint diseases, debilitating

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86 Small Molecule Inhibitors of PD1-PDL1 Interaction

Authors: K. Żak, S. Przetocka, R. Kitel, K. Guzik, B. Musielak, S. Malicki, G. Dubin, T. A. Holak

Abstract:

Studies on tumor genesis revealed a number of factors that may potentially serve as molecular targets for immunotherapies. One of such promising targets are PD1 and PDL1 proteins. PD1 (Programmed cell death protein 1) is expressed by activated T cells and plays a critical role in modulation of the host's immune response. One of the PD1 ligands -PDL1- is expressed by macrophages, monocytes and cancer cells which exploit it to avoid immune attack. The notion of the mechanisms used by cancer cells to block the immune system response was utilized in the development of therapies blocking PD1-PDL1 interaction. Up to date, human PD1-PDL1 complex has not been crystallized and structure of the mouse-human complex does not provide a complete view of the molecular basis of PD1-PDL1 interactions. The purpose of this study is to obtain crystal structure of the human PD1-PDL1 complex which shall allow rational design of small molecule inhibitors of the interaction. In addition, the study presents results of binding small-molecules to PD1 and fragment docking towards PD1 protein which will facilitate the design and development of small–molecule inhibitors of PD1-PDL1 interaction.

Keywords: Cancer, Drug discovery, PD1, PDL1, small molecule

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85 Structural Characterization of TIR Domains Interaction

Authors: Grzegorz Dubin, Sara Przetocka, Krzysztof Żak, Tadeusz Holak

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play central role in the innate immune response and inflammation by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). A fundamental basis of TLR signalling is dependent upon the recruitment and association of adaptor molecules that contain the structurally conserved Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) is the universal adaptor for TLRs and cooperates with Mal (MyD88 adapter-like protein, also known as TIRAP) in TLR4 response which is predominantly used in inflammation, host defence and carcinogenesis. Up to date two possible models of MyD88, Mal and TLR4 interactions have been proposed. The aim of our studies is to confirm or abolish presented models and accomplish the full structural characterisation of TIR domains interaction. Using molecular cloning methods we obtained several construct of MyD88 and Mal TIR domain with GST or 6xHis tag. Gel filtration method as well as pull-down analysis confirmed that recombinant TIR domains from MyD88 and Mal are binding in complexes. To examine whether obtained complexes are homo- or heterodimers we carried out cross-linking reaction of TIR domains with BS3 compound combined with mass spectrometry. To investigate which amino acid residues are involved in this interaction the NMR titration experiments were performed. 15N MyD88-TIR solution was complemented with non-labelled Mal-TIR. The results undoubtedly indicate that MyD88-TIR interact with Mal-TIR. Moreover 2D spectra demonstrated that simultaneously Mal-TIR self-dimerization occurs which is necessary to create proper scaffold for Mal-TIR and MyD88-TIR interaction. Final step of this study will be crystallization of MyD88 and Mal TIR domains complex. This crystal structure and characterisation of its interface will have an impact in understanding the TLR signalling pathway and possibly will be used in development of new anti-cancer treatment.

Keywords: Cancer, MyD88, TIR domains, Toll-like receptors

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84 Utilization of Cervical Cancer Screening Among HIV Infected Women in Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: E. Njuguna, S. Ilovi, P. Muiruri, K. Mutai, J. Kinuthia, P. Njoroge

Abstract:

Introduction: Cervical cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality among women in developing countries in Sub Saharan Africa. Screening for cervical cancer in all women regardless of HIV status is crucial for the early detection of cancer of the cervix when treatment is most effective in curing the disease. It is particularly more important to screen HIV infected women as they are more at risk of developing the disease and progressing faster once infected with HPV (Human Papilloma Virus). We aimed to determine the factors affecting the utilization of cervical cancer screenings among HIV infected women above 18 years of age at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Comprehensive Care Center (CCC). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional mixed quantitative and qualitative study involving randomly and purposefully selected HIV positive female respectively was conducted. Qualitative data collection involved 4 focus group discussions of eligible female participants while quantitative data were acquired by one to one interviewer administered structured questionnaires. The outcome variable was the utilization of cervical cancer screening. Data were entered into Access data base and analyzed using Stata version 11.1. Qualitative data were analyzed after coding for significant clauses and transcribing to determine themes arising. Results: We enrolled a total of 387 patients, mean age (IQ range) 40 years (36-44). Cervical cancer screening utilization was 46% despite a health care provider recommendation of 85%. The screening results were reported as normal in 72 of 81 (88.9%) and abnormal 7 of 81(8.6%) of the cases. Those who did not know their result were 2 of 81(2.5%). Patients were less likely to utilize the service with increasing number of years attending the clinic (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.86-0.99, p-value 0.02), but more likely to utilize the service if recommendation by a staff was made (OR 10, 95% CI 4.2-23.9, p<0.001), and if cervical screening had been done before joining KNH CCC (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7-4.9, p < 0.001). Similarly, they were more likely to rate the services on cervical cancer screening as good (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.7-3.4, p <0.001) and very good (OR 8.1, 95% CI 2.5-6.1, p<0.001) if they had utilized the service. The main barrier themes emerging from qualitative data included fear of screening due to excessive pain or bleeding, lack of proper communication on screening procedures and increased waiting time. Conclusions: Utilization of cervical cancer screening services was low despite health care recommendation. Patient socio-demographic characteristics did not influence whether or not they utilized the services, indicating the important role of the health care provider in the referral and provision of the service.

Keywords: Cancer, Women, HIV, Cervical, comprehensive care center

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83 Free Energy Computation of A G-Quadruplex-Ligand Structure: A Classical Molecular Dynamics and Metadynamics Simulation Study

Authors: Juan Antonio Mondragon Sanchez, Ruben Santamaria

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The DNA G-quadruplex is a four-stranded DNA structure formed by stacked planes of four base paired guanines (G-quartet). Guanine rich DNA sequences appear in many sites of genomic DNA and can potential form G-quadruplexes, such as those occurring at 3'-terminus of the human telomeric DNA. The formation and stabilization of a G-quadruplex by small ligands at the telomeric region can inhibit the telomerase activity. In turn, the ligands can be used to down regulate oncogene expression making G-quadruplex an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Many G-quadruplex ligands have been proposed with a planar core to facilitate the pi–pi stacking and electrostatic interactions with the G-quartets. However, many drug candidates are impossibilitated to discriminate a G-quadruplex from a double helix DNA structure. In this context, it is important to investigate the site topology for the interaction of a G-quadruplex with a ligand. In this work, we determine the free energy surface of a G-quadruplex-ligand to study the binding modes of the G-quadruplex (TG4T) with the daunomycin (DM) drug. The complex TG4T-DM is studied using classical molecular dynamics in combination with metadynamics simulations. The metadynamics simulations permit an enhanced sampling of the conformational space with a modest computational cost and obtain free energy surfaces in terms of the collective variables (CV). The free energy surfaces of TG4T-DM exhibit other local minima, indicating the presence of additional binding modes of daunomycin that are not observed in short MD simulations without the metadynamics approach. The results are compared with similar calculations on a different structure (the mutated mu-G4T-DM where the 5' thymines on TG4T-DM have been deleted). The results should be of help to design new G-quadruplex drugs, and understand the differences in the recognition topology sites of the duplex and quadruplex DNA structures in their interaction with ligands.

Keywords: Cancer, Molecular Dynamics, G-Quadruplex, metadynamics

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82 Targeted Nano Anti-Cancer Drugs for Curing Cancers

Authors: Imran Ali

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General chemotherapy for cancer treatment has many side and toxic effects. A new approach of targeting nano anti-cancer drug is under development stage and only few drugs are available in the market today. The unique features of these drugs are targeted action on cancer cells only without any side effect. Sometimes, these are called magic drugs. The important molecules used for nano anti-cancer drugs are cisplatin, carboplatin, bleomycin, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, dactinomycin, 6-mercaptopurine, paclitaxel, topotecan, vinblastin and etoposide etc. The most commonly used materials for preparing nano particles carriers are dendrimers, polymeric, liposomal, micelles inorganic, organic etc. The proposed lecture will comprise the-of-art of nano drugs in cancer chemo-therapy including preparation, types of drugs, mechanism, future perspectives etc.

Keywords: Cancer, Future Perspectives, nano-anti-cancer drugs, chemo-therapy, mechanism of action

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81 Radiological Analysis of Skeletal Metastases from Cervical Cancer

Authors: Jacklynn Walters, Amanda A. Alblas, Linda M. Greyling

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Cervical carcinoma is the second most common cancer found in women. Diagnosis of skeletal metastases is uncommon in cervical cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of skeletal metastases in in a Western Cape skeletal population. Skeletal samples (n=14) from the Kirsten Skeletal Collection at Stellenbosch University, diagnosed pre-mortem with cervical cancer, were examined. Macroscopic analysis was done using low magnification to examine each skeletal element for signs of disease. Skeletons were also x-rayed using the Lodox® Statscan® Imaging system and the scans evaluated by a musculoskeletal radiologist. Three (21%) of the skeletons showed metastases, with the os coxae and lower vertebral column affected in all three cases. Furthermore, metastases occurred in the scapulae and ribs in two of the cases and in one case the skull, mandible, and long bones were affected. Additionally, three skeletons without evidence of skeletal metastases presented with a periosteal reaction on the os coxae in response to the diseased adjacent soft tissue. Previous studies observed that skeletal metastases are more common than what is diagnosed pre-mortem with the vertebral spine most commonly affected. The findings of this study agree with previous reports and illustrate the effectiveness of the Lodox® scanner in diagnoses of metastases in skeletal material.

Keywords: Radiology, Cancer, cervix, skeletal metastases

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80 Medical Radiation Exposure in a Cohort of Children Diagnosed with Solid Tumors: Single Institution Study 1985-2015

Authors: Robin L. Rohrer

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Introduction: Pre-natal or early childhood exposure to the medical radiation used in diagnosis or treatment is an identified risk for childhood cancers but can be difficult to document. The author developed a family questionnaire/interview form to identify possible exposures. Aims: This retrospective study examines pre-natal and early childhood medical radiation exposure in a cohort of children diagnosed with a solid tumor including brain tumors from 1985-2015 at the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh (CHP). The hospital is a tri-state regional referral center which treats about 150-180 new cases of cancer in children per year. About 70% are diagnosed with a solid tumor. Methods: Each consented family so far (approximately 50% of the cohort) has been interviewed in person or by the phone call. Medical staff and psycho- social staff referred patient families for the interview with the author. Results: Among the families interviewed to date at least one medical radiation exposure has been identified (pre-conception, pre-natal or early childhood) in over 70% of diagnosed children. These exposures have included pre-conception sinus or chest CT or X-ray in either parent, sinus CT or X-ray in the mother or diagnostic radiation of chest or abdomen in children. Conclusions: Exposures to medical radiation for a child later diagnosed with cancer may occur at several critical junctures. These exposures may well contribute to a ‘perfect storm’ in the still elusive causes of childhood cancer. The author plans to expand the study from 1975 to present to hopefully further document these junctures.

Keywords: Cancer, Pediatric, solid tumors, medical radiation

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79 Patients' Perceptions of Receiving a Diagnosis of a Haematological Malignancy, following the SPIKES Protocol

Authors: Lauren Dixon, David Galvani

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Objective: Sharing devastating news with patients is often considered the most difficult task of doctors. This study aimed to explore patients’ perceptions of receiving bad news including which features improve the experience and which areas need refining. Methods: A questionnaire was written based on the steps of the SPIKES model for breaking bad news. 20 patients receiving treatment for a haematological malignancy completed the questionnaire. Results: Overall, the results are promising as most patients praised their consultation. ‘Poor’ was more commonly rated by women and participants aged 45-64. The main differences between the ‘excellent’ and ‘poor’ consultations include the doctor’s sensitivity and checking the patients’ understanding. Only 35% of patients were asked their existing knowledge and 85% of consultations failed to discuss the impact of the diagnosis on daily life. Conclusion: This study agreed with the consensus of existing literature. The commended aspects include consultation set-up and information given. Areas patients felt needed improvement include doctors determining the patient’s existing knowledge and exploring how the diagnosis will affect the patient’s life. With a poorer prognosis, doctors should work on conveying appropriate hope. The study was limited by a small sample size and potential recall bias.

Keywords: Cancer, Diagnosis, Haematology, patients

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78 Formulation and Evaluation of Silibilin Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Paresh Patel, Priya Patel, Mihir Raval

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Silibinin, a flavanone as an antimicrotubular agent used in the treatment of cancer, was encapsulated in nanoparticles (NPs) of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using the spray-drying technique. The effects of various experimental parameters were optimized by box-behnken experimental design. Production yield, encapsulation efficiency and dissolution study along with characterization by scanning electron microscopy, DSC, FTIR followed by bioavailability study. Particle size and zeta potential were evaluated by using zetatrac particle size analyzer. Experimental design it was evaluated that inlet temperature and polymer concentration influence on the drug release. Feed flow rate impact on particle size. Results showed that spray drying technique yield 149 nm indicate nanosize range. The small size of the nanoparticle resulted in an enhanced cellular entry and greater bioavailability. Entrapment efficiency was found between 89.35% and 98.36%. Zeta potential shows good stability index of nanoparticle formulation. The in vitro release studies indicated the silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles provide controlled drug release over a period of 32 h. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that after oral administration of silibinin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, relative bioavailability was enhanced about 8.85-fold, compared to silibinin suspension as control hence, this investigation demonstrated the potential of the experimental design in understanding the effect of the formulation variables on the quality of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles. These results describe an effective strategy of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles and might provide a promising approach against the cancer.

Keywords: Cancer, Nanoparticles, Bioavailability, PLGA, silibinin

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77 The Role of Volunteers in Quality Palliative Care Delivery

Authors: Aditya Manna, Lalit Kumar Khanra, Shyamal Kumar Sarkar

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Introduction: Here in India almost 75% of cancer patient die a sad death of neglect due to lack of awareness about palliative care and low economic level. Surveys in India show that two third of cancer patient do not get proper care during the terminal phase of their life. Palliative care through volunteers can make a significant difference in this respect. Objective: To identify and try to solve, to the extent possible, the main difficulties in giving palliative care to the terminal cancer patients of the area. And evaluate the impact of volunteer’s direct care of palliative patients and their families. Methods: Feedback from patients and their relatives regarding the palliative care they receive from nursing home and from volunteers and compare the two. Also feedback from volunteers regarding their positive and negative experience while delivering palliative care service. Then evaluate the data to compare and improve the quality of service. Results: We carried out two studies. One study was undertaken in nursing home palliative care and another was in home setting by volunteers. Both studies were in adult palliative care services. Since January 2015, 496 cases were studied to enquire about their experience in both home based care and nursing home care. Both the studies fulfilled our quality appraisal criteria. One found that those families and patients who received home visits from volunteers were significantly more satisfied. The study highlighted the value of the role of volunteers in better satisfaction of patients and their families. Conclusions: Further research is needed to evaluate the role of volunteers in palliative care and how it can be delivered appropriately and effectively. We also wish to compare our findings with similar studies elsewhere.

Keywords: Cancer, palliative care, Home care, Terminal Care

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76 Ancelim: Health System Restoration Protocol for Cancer Patients

Authors: Mark Berry

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A number of studies have identified several factors involved in the malignant progression of cancer cells. The Primary modulator in driving inflammation to these transformed cells has been identified as the transcription factor known as nuclear factor-κB. This essential regulator of inflammation and the development of cancer, combined with a microenvironment of inflammation and signaling molecules, plays a major role in the malignant progression of cancer, and this progression is the result of the mutagenic predisposition of persistent substances that combat infection at tumor sites and other areas of chronic inflammation. Inflammation-induced tumors, and their inflammatory cells and regulators may be the primary source of metastasis of tumor cells through angiogenesis. Previous research on cytokines and chemokines, including their downstream targets, has been the focus of the cancer/inflammation connection. The identification of the biological mechanisms of other proteins vital to the inflammation cascade and their interactions are crucial to novel and effective therapeutic protocols for the treatment of inflammation-induced cancers. The Ancelim HSRP Protocol is just such a therapeutic intervention.

Keywords: Cancer, Tumor, Inflammation, ancelim

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