Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 116

Breast Cancer Related Abstracts

116 Significance of Tridimensional Volume of Tumor in Breast Cancer Compared to Conventional TNM Stage

Authors: Jaewoo Choi, Ki-Tae Hwang, Eunyoung Ko

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Backgrounds/Aims: Patients with breast cancer are currently classified according to TNM stage. Nevertheless, the actual volume would be mis-estimated, and it would bring on inappropriate diagnosis. Tridimensional volume-stage derived from the ellipsoid formula was presented as useful measure. Methods: The medical records of 480 consecutive breast cancer between January 2001 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were divided into three groups according to tumor volume by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and the ranges of each volume-stage were that V1 was below 2.5 cc, V2 was exceeded 2.5 and below 10.9 cc, and V3 was exceeded 10.9 cc. We analyzed outcomes of volume-stage and compared disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) between size-stage and volume-stage with variant intrinsic factor. Results: In the T2 stage, there were patients who had a smaller volume than 4.2 cc known as maximum value of T1. These findings presented that patients in T1c had poorer DFS than T2-lesser (mean of DFS 48.7 vs. 51.8, p = 0.011). Such is also the case in OS (mean of OS 51.1 vs. 55.3, p = 0.006). The cumulative survival curves for V1, V2 compared T1, T2 showed similarity in DFS (HR 1.9 vs. 1.9), and so did it for V3 compared T3 (HR 3.5 vs. 2.6) significantly. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that tumor volume had good feasibility on the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. We proposed that volume-stage should be considered for an additional stage indicator, particularly in early breast cancer.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, tridimensional volume of tumor, TNM stage, volume stage

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115 Microwave Tomography: The Analytical Treatment for Detecting Malignant Tumor Inside Human Body

Authors: Xu Jiadong, Muhammad Hassan Khalil

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Early detection through screening is the best tool short of a perfect treatment against the malignant tumor inside the breast of a woman. By detecting cancer in its early stages, it can be recognized and treated before it has the opportunity to spread and change into potentially dangerous. Microwave tomography is a new imaging method based on contrast in dielectric properties of materials. The mathematical theory of microwave tomography involves solving an inverse problem for Maxwell’s equations. In this paper, we present designed antenna for breast cancer detection, which will use in microwave tomography configuration.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Inverse Scattering, Microwave Imaging, malignant tumor detection

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114 Analysis of Saudi Breast Cancer Patients’ Primary Tumors using Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Authors: A. Chaudhary, L. M. Al-Harbi, A. M. Shokry, J. S. M. Sabir, J. Manikandan, K. S. Saini

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide and is the most common malignancy among Saudi females. During breast carcinogenesis, a wide-array of cytogenetic changes involving deletions, or amplification, or translocations, of part or whole of chromosome regions have been observed. Because of the limitations of various earlier technologies, newer tools are developed to scan for changes at the genomic level. Recently, Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) technique has been applied for detecting segmental genomic alterations at molecular level. In this study, aCGH was performed on twenty breast cancer tumors and their matching non-tumor (normal) counterparts using the Agilent 2x400K. Several regions were identified to be either amplified or deleted in a tumor-specific manner. Most frequent alterations were amplification of chromosome 1q, chromosome 8q, 20q, and deletions at 16q were also detected. The amplification of genetic events at 1q and 8q were further validated using FISH analysis using probes targeting 1q25 and 8q (MYC gene). The copy number changes at these loci can potentially cause a significant change in the tumor behavior, as deletions in the E-Cadherin (CDH1)-tumor suppressor gene as well as amplification of the oncogenes-Aurora Kinase A. (AURKA) and MYC could make these tumors highly metastatic. This study validates the use of aCGH in Saudi breast cancer patients and sets the foundations necessary for performing larger cohort studies searching for ethnicity-specific biomarkers and gene copy number variations.

Keywords: Ecology, Molecular Biology, Environment, Breast Cancer

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113 Molecular Study of P53- and Rb-Tumor Suppressor Genes in Human Papilloma Virus-Infected Breast Cancers

Authors: Shakir H. Mohammed Al-Alwany, Saad Hasan M. Ali, Ibrahim Mohammed S. Shnawa

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The study was aimed to define the percentage of detection of high-oncogenic risk types of HPV and their genotyping in archival tissue specimens that ranged from apparently healthy tissue to invasive breast cancer by using one of the recent versions of In Situ Hybridization(ISH) 0.2. To find out rational significance of such genotypes as well as over expressed products of mutants P53 and RB genes on the severity of underlying breast cancers. The DNA of HPV was detected in 46.5 % of tissues from breast cancers while HPV DNA in the tissues from benign breast tumours was detected in 12.5%. No HPV positive–ISH reaction was detected in healthy breast tissues of the control group. HPV DNA of genotypes (16, 18, 31 and 33) was detected in malignant group in frequency of 25.6%, 27.1%, 30.2% and 12.4%, respectively. Over expression of p53 was detected by IHC in 51.2% breast cancer cases and in 50% benign breast tumour group, while none of control group showed P53- over expression. Retinoblastoma protein was detected by IHC test in 49.7% of malignant breast tumours, 54.2% of benign breast tumours but no signal was reported in the tissues of control group. The significance prevalence of expression of mutated p53 & Rb genes as well as detection of high-oncogenic HPV genotypes in patients with breast cancer supports the hypothesis of an etiologic role for the virus in breast cancer development.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, human papilloma virus, P53

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112 Controlling Fear: Jordanian Women’s Perceptions of the Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer

Authors: Rana F. Obeidat, Suzanne S. Dickerson, Gregory G. Homish, Nesreen M. Alqaissi, Robin M. Lally

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Background: Despite the fact that breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Jordanian women, practically nothing is known about their perceptions of early stage breast cancer and surgical treatment. Objective: To gain understanding of the diagnosis and surgical treatment experience of Jordanian women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Methods: An interpretive phenomenological approach was used for this study. A purposive sample of 28 Jordanian women who were surgically treated for early stage breast cancer within 6 months of the interview was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Results: Fear had a profound effect on Jordanian women’s stories of diagnosis and surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer. Women’s experience with breast cancer and its treatment was shaped by their pre-existing fear of breast cancer, the disparity in the quality of care at various health care institutions, and sociodemographic factors (e.g., education, age). Conclusions: Early after the diagnosis, fear was very strong and women lost perspective of the fact that this disease was treatable and potentially curable. To control their fears, women unconditionally trusted God, the health care system, surgeons, family, friends, and/or neighbors, and often accepted treatment offered by their surgeons without questioning. Implications for practice: Jordanian healthcare providers have a responsibility to listen to their patients, explore meanings they ascribe to their illness, and provide women with proper education and support necessary to help them cope with their illness.

Keywords: Experience, Breast Cancer, phenomenology, early stage, Jordanian

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111 Spirituality and Coping with Breast Cancer among Omani Women

Authors: Huda Al-Awisi, Mohammed Al-Azri, Samira Al-Rasbi, Mansour Al-Moundhri

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Cancer diagnosis is invariably a profound and catastrophic life-changing experience for individuals and their families. It has been found that cancer patients and survivors are distressed with the fragility of their life and their mortality. Based on the literature, cancer patients /survivors value their spiritual experience and connecting with unknown power either related to religious belief or not as an important coping mechanism. Health care professionals including nurses are expected to provide spiritual care for cancer patients as holistic care. Yet, nurses face many challenges in providing such care mainly due to lack of clear definition of spirituality. This study aims to explore coping mechanisms of Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer throughout their cancer journey including spirituality using a qualitative approach. A purposive sample of 19 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer at different stages of cancer treatment modalities were interviewed. Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The framework approach was used to analyze the data. One main theme related to spirituality was identified and called “The power of faith”. For the majority of participants, faith in God (the will of God) was most important in coping with all stages of their breast cancer experience. Some participants thought that the breast cancer is a test from God which they have to accept. Participants also expressed acceptance of death as the eventual end and reward from God. This belief gives them the strength to cope with cancer and seek medical treatment. In conclusion, women participated in this study believed faith in God imposed spiritual power for them to cope with cancer. They connected spirituality with religious beliefs. Therefore, regardless of nurses’ faith in spirituality, the spiritual care needs to be tailored and provided according to each patient individual need.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Women, Breast Cancer, Religion, Coping, spiritual, oman

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110 The Impact of Breast Cancer Diagnosis on Omani Women

Authors: H. Al-Awaisi, M. H. Al-Azri, S. Al-Rasbi, M. Al-Moundhri

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Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. It is also the most common cancer among females in Oman with 100 new breast cancer cases diagnosed every year. It has been found that breast cancer have a devastating effect on women’s life. Women diagnosed with breast cancer might develop negative attitudes towards the illness and their bodies. They might also suffer from psychological ailments such as depression. Despite the evidence on the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on women, there was no study found to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis among women in Oman. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on Omani women. Data was collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 11 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data were analyzed thematically. From the data, there are four main themes identified in relation to the impact of cancer diagnosis on Omani women. These are 'shock and disbelieve', 'a death sentence', “uncertain future” and “social stigma”. At the time of interviews, all participants had advanced breast cancer with some participants having metastatic disease. The impact of the word “cancer” had a profound and catastrophic effect on the women and their close relatives. In conclusion, breast cancer diagnosis was shocking and mainly perceived as a death sentence by Omani women with uncertain future and social stigma. Regardless of age, maternal status and education level, it is evident that Omani women participated in this study lacked awareness about breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Women, Breast Cancer, Coping, oman

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109 Modulation of Tamoxifen-Induced Cytotoxicity in Breast Cancer Cell Lines by 3-Bromopyruvate

Authors: Yasmin M. Attia, Hanan S. El-Abhar, Mahmoud M. Al Marzabani, Samia A. Shouman

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Background: Tamoxifen (TAM) is the most commonly used hormone therapy for the treatment of early and metastatic breast cancer. Although it significantly decreases the tumor recurrence rate and provides an overall benefit, as much as 20–30% of women still relapse during or after long-term therapy. 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a promising agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors and cell lines. Aim: This study was designed to investigate the combined effect of (TAM) and (3-BP) in breast cancer cells and to explore their molecular interaction via assessment of apoptotic, angiogenic, and metastatic markers. Methods: In vitro cytotoxicity study was carried out for both compounds to determine the combination regimen producing a synergistic effect and mechanistic pathways were studied using RT-PCR and western techniques. Moreover, the anti-oncolytic and anti-angiogenic potentials were assessed in mice bearing solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC). Results: The combined treatment significantly increased the expressions and protein levels of caspase 7, 9, and 3 and decreased of angiogenic markers VEGF, HIF-1α, and HK2 compared to cells treated with either drug individually. However, there were no significant changes in MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels. Interestingly, the in vivo results supported the in vitro findings; there was a decrease in the tumor volume and VEFG using immunohistochemistry in the combination-treated groups compared to either TAM or 3-BP treated one. Conclusion: 3-BP synergizes the cytotoxic effect of TAM by increasing apoptosis and decreasing angiogenesis which makes this combination a promising regimen to be applied clinically.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Cytotoxicity, angiogenesis, tamoxifen

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108 Impact of Mammographic Screening on Ethnic Inequalities in Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis and Survival in New Zealand

Authors: Sanjeewa Seneviratne, Ian Campbell, Nina Scott, Ross Lawrenson

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Introduction: Indigenous Māori women experience a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We explored the impact of difference in the rate of screen detected breast cancer between Māori and European women on more advanced disease at diagnosis and lower survival in Māori women. Methods: All primary in-situ and invasive breast cancers diagnosed in screening age women (as defined by the New Zealand National Breast Cancer Screening Programme) between 1999 and 2012 in the Waikato area were identified from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register and the national screening database. Association between screen versus non-screen detection and cancer stage at diagnosis and survival were compared by ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation. Results: Māori women had 50% higher odds of being diagnosed with more advance staged cancer compared with NZ European women, a half of which was explained by the lower rate of screen detected cancer in Māori women. Significantly lower breast cancer survival rates were observed for Māori compared with NZ European and most deprived compared with most affluent socioeconomic groups for symptomatically detected breast cancer. No significant survival differences by ethnicity or socioeconomic deprivation were observed for screen detected breast cancer. Conclusions: Low rate of screen detected breast cancer appears to be a major contributor for more advanced stage disease at diagnosis and lower breast cancer survival in Māori compared with NZ European women. Increasing screening participation for Māori has the potential to substantially reduce breast cancer mortality inequity between Māori and NZ European women.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Ethnicity, Screening, inequity

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107 Lacunarity measures on Mammographic Image Applying Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity Measures

Authors: S. Balasubramanian, S. Sushma, K. C. Latha, R. Sridhar

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Structural texture measures are used to address the aspect of breast cancer risk assessment in screening mammograms. The current study investigates whether texture properties characterized by local Fractal Dimension (FD) and lacunarity contribute to assess breast cancer risk. Fractal Dimension represents the complexity while the lacunarity characterize the gap of a fractal dimension. In this paper, we present our result confirming that the lacunarity value resulted in algorithm using mammogram images states that level of lacunarity will be low when the Fractal Dimension value will be high.

Keywords: Image Analysis, Breast Cancer, mammogram, fractal dimension, lacunarity

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106 Lived Experience of Breast Cancer for Arab Muslim Women

Authors: Nesreen M. Alqaissi

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Little is known about the lived experiences of breast cancer among Arab Muslim women. The researcher used a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design to explore the lived experiences of breast cancer as described by Jordanian Muslim women. A purposive sample of 20 women with breast cancer was recruited. Data were collected utilizing individual semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using Heideggerian Hermeneutical methodology. Results: Five related themes and one constitutive pattern: (a) breast cancer means death; (b) matriarchal family members as important source of support; (c) spirituality as a way to live and survive breast cancer; (d) concealing cancer experiences to protect self and families; (e) physicians as protectors and treatment decision makers; (f) the constitutive pattern: culture influencing Jordanian women experiences with breast cancer. In conclusion, researchers and healthcare providers should consider the influence of culture, spirituality, and families, when caring for women with breast cancer from Jordan.

Keywords: Culture, Breast Cancer, Spirituality, jordan, Arab Muslim, lived experiences

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105 Identification of New Familial Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes: Are We There Yet?

Authors: Na Li, Ian Campbell, Gillian Mitchell, Paul James, Ella Thompson

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The genetic cause of the majority of multiple-case breast cancer families remains unresolved. Next generation sequencing has emerged as an efficient strategy for identifying predisposing mutations in individuals with inherited cancer. We are conducting whole exome sequence analysis of germ line DNA from multiple affected relatives from breast cancer families, with the aim of identifying rare protein truncating and non-synonymous variants that are likely to include novel cancer predisposing mutations. Data from more than 200 exomes show that on average each individual carries 30-50 protein truncating mutations and 300-400 rare non-synonymous variants. Heterogeneity among our exome data strongly suggest that numerous moderate penetrance genes remain to be discovered, with each gene individually accounting for only a small fraction of families (~0.5%). This scenario marks validation of candidate breast cancer predisposing genes in large case-control studies as the rate-limiting step in resolving the missing heritability of breast cancer. The aim of this study is to screen genes that are recurrently mutated among our exome data in a larger cohort of cases and controls to assess the prevalence of inactivating mutations that may be associated with breast cancer risk. We are using the Agilent HaloPlex Target Enrichment System to screen the coding regions of 168 genes in 1,000 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative familial breast cancer cases and 1,000 cancer-naive controls. To date, our interim analysis has identified 21 genes which carry an excess of truncating mutations in multiple breast cancer families versus controls. Established breast cancer susceptibility gene PALB2 is the most frequently mutated gene (13/998 cases versus 0/1009 controls), but other interesting candidates include NPSR1, GSN, POLD2, and TOX3. These and other genes are being validated in a second cohort of 1,000 cases and controls. Our experience demonstrates that beyond PALB2, the prevalence of mutations in the remaining breast cancer predisposition genes is likely to be very low making definitive validation exceptionally challenging.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Exome sequencing, predisposition, familial

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104 The Role of Moringa oleifera Extract Leaves in Inducing Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Line

Authors: V. Yurina, H. Sujuti, E. Rahmani, A. R. Nopitasari

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Breast cancer has the highest prevalence cancer in women. Moringa leaves (M. oleifera) contain quercetin, kaempferol, and benzyl isothiocyanate which can enhance induction of apoptosis. This research aimed to study the role of the leaf extract of Moringa to increase apoptosis in breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 cells. This research used in vitro experimental, post-test only, control group design on breast cancer cells MCF-7 in vitro. Moringa leaves were extracted by maceration method with ethanol 70%. Cells were treated with drumstick leaves extract on 1100, 2200, and 4400 μg/ml for Hsp27 and caspase-9 expression (immunocytochemistry) and apoptosis (TUNEL assay) test. The results of this study found that the IC50 2200 µg/ml. Moringa leaves extract can significantly increase the expression of caspase-9 (p<0.05) and decreased Hsp 27 expression (p<0.05). Moreover it can increase apoptosis (p<0.05) significantly in MCF-7 cells. The conclusion of this study is Moringa leaves extract is able to increase the expression of caspase-9, decrease Hsp27 expression and increase apoptosis in breast cancer cell-line MCF-7.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, apoptosis, Moringa oleifera, caspase-9, Hsp27

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103 Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Sung Yong Kim, Byung Joo Song

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Background: Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels has been considered to be inversely related to breast cancer development, recurrence risk, and mortality. Mean vitamin D levels in Korean population is lower than western countries due to higher incidence of lactose intolerance and lower exposure to sunlight. The purpose of this study was to assess incidence of 25(OH)D deficiency at diagnosis and after adjuvant chemotherapy and to investigate the correlation serum 25(OH)D levels with clinicopathologic features. Methods: From December 2011 to October 2012, 280 breast cancer patients seen at a single tertiary cancer center were enrolled. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at the time of surgery and after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. Statistical analyses used chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, and ANOVA. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D was 18.5 ng/ml. The 25(OH)D levels were deficient (<20 ng/ml) in 190 patients (67.9%), insufficient (20-29 ng/ml) in 51 patients(18.2%), and sufficient (30-150 ng/ml) in 39 patients(13.9%). A notable decrease in 25(OH)D concentration was observed(p<0.001) after chemotherapy but was not related to chemotherapy regimens. It was found significant lower 25(OH)D levels at winter season(from October to March, p=0.030). Subjects with invasive carcinoma (IDC or ILC) had significantly lower circulating levels of 25(OH)D than those with ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS) (p=0.010). Patients with larger tumor size tends to have lower serum 25(OH)D but there were no statistical significance. Conclusions: Most of the breast cancer patients showed deficient or insufficient serum 25(OH)D concentration. Incidence of vitamin D deficiency was higher in invasive carcinoma than DCIS. Serum 25(OH)D levels were decreased after chemotherapy. Consideration should be given to the supplement of vitamin D to those patients.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, vitamin D, breast neoplasms, Korean population

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102 Effects of Aerobic Training on MicroRNA Let-7a Expression and Levels of Tumor Tissue IL-6 in Mice With Breast Cancer

Authors: Leila Anoosheh

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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess The effects of aerobic training on microRNA let-7a expression and levels of tumor tissue IL-6 in mice with breast cancer. Method: Twenty BALB/c c mice (4-5 weeks,17 gr mass) were cancerous by injection of estrogen-dependent receptor breast cancer cells MC4-L2 and divided into two groups: tumor-training(TT) and tumor-control(TC) group. Then TT group completed aerobic training for 6 weeks, 5 days per week (14-18 m/min). After tumor emersion, tumor width and length were measured by digital caliper every week. 48 hours after the last exercise subjects were killed. Tissue sampling were collected and stored in -70ᵒ. Tumor tissue was homogenized and let-7a expression and IL-6 levels were accounted with Real time-PCR and ELISA Kit respectively. Statistical analysis of let-7a was conducted by the REST software. Repeated measures and independent tests were used to assess tumor size and IL-6, respectively. Results: Tumor size and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased in TT group compare with TC group (p<0.05). microRNA let-7a was increased significantly in TT against control group respectively (p=0/000). Conclusion: Reduction in tumor size, followed by aerobic exercise can be attributed to the loss of inflammatory factors such as IL-6; It seems that regarding to up regulation effects of aerobic exercise training on let-7a and down regulation effects of that on IL-6 in mice with breast cancer, This type of training can be used as adjuvant therapy in conjunction with other therapies for breast cancer.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Aerobic Training, microRNA let-7a, IL-6

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101 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj

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In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer .we reviewed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer. In this study, a total of 25 articles regarding the subject matter of the article have been presented in which 640 patients were examined that 320 patients with breast cancer and 320 were controls. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulate the activities of growth steroids, obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer is confirmed. Our study and other studies show that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer can be prevented in the future.

Keywords: Obesity, Breast Cancer, Overweight, review study

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100 Breast Cancer Risk is Predicted Using Fuzzy Logic in MATLAB Environment

Authors: S. Balasubramanian, R. Sridhar, P. B. Harathi, S. Valarmathi

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Machine learning tools in medical diagnosis is increasing due to the improved effectiveness of classification and recognition systems to help medical experts in diagnosing breast cancer. In this study, ID3 chooses the splitting attribute with the highest gain in information, where gain is defined as the difference between before the split versus after the split. It is applied for age, location, taluk, stage, year, period, martial status, treatment, heredity, sex, and habitat against Very Serious (VS), Very Serious Moderate (VSM), Serious (S) and Not Serious (NS) to calculate the gain of information. The ranked histogram gives the gain of each field for the breast cancer data. The doctors use TNM staging which will decide the risk level of the breast cancer and play an important decision making field in fuzzy logic for perception based measurement. Spatial risk area (taluk) of the breast cancer is calculated. Result clearly states that Coimbatore (North and South) was found to be risk region to the breast cancer than other areas at 20% criteria. Weighted value of taluk was compared with criterion value and integrated with Map Object to visualize the results. ID3 algorithm shows the high breast cancer risk regions in the study area. The study has outlined, discussed and resolved the algorithms, techniques / methods adopted through soft computing methodology like ID3 algorithm for prognostic decision making in the seriousness of the breast cancer.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Fuzzy Logic, MATLAB, ID3 algorithm

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99 18 F-FDG PET/CT: Utility in Breast Cancer Surgery

Authors: R. Sonda, F. Pellini, A. Invento, S. Mirandola, F. Riolfatti, D. Grigolato, G. P. Pollini

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The purpose of study is to assess utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with breast heteroplasia and possibility of changing the surgery/therapeutic treatment. Among these "under fourty-five" candidated for NAC, the prevalence of change in therapeutic approach in comparison with first and second level exams has been: 43.75%, while by 22% among the "over forty-five". The surgical timing according to first-level exams have been deferred in 31.46% cases; PET/CT has led to a change in therapeutic treatment of 48.31% on the previous given; then the addition of MRI has led to a similar variation. For all the total patients, the prevalent choice was found to the debulking approach by increasing from a prevalence of 12.92% to 15.17%, resulting in a reduction of conservative one.The present study set itself the objective to demonstrate how the FDG PET/CT could improve on breast imaging according to a more appropriate surgery.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, FGD PET/CT, preoperative staging, surgical approach

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98 The Role of Surgery to Remove the Primary Tumor in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer

Authors: A. D. Zikiryahodjaev, L. V. Bolotina, A. S. Sukhotko

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Purpose. To evaluate the expediency and timeliness of performance of surgical treatment as a component of multi-therapy treatment of patients with stage IV breast cancers. Materials and Methods. This investigation comparatively analyzed the results of complex treatment with or without surgery in patients with metastatic breast cancer. We analyzed retrospectively treatment experience of 196 patients with generalized breast cancer in the department of oncology and breast reconstructive surgery of P.A. Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute from 2000 to 2012. The average age was (58±1,1) years. Invasive ductul carcinoma was verified in128 patients (65,3%), invasive lobular carcinoma-33 (16,8%), complex form - 19 (9,7%). Complex palliative care involving drug and radiation therapies was performed in two patient groups. The first group includes 124 patients who underwent surgical intervention as complex treatment, the second group includes 72 patients with only medical therapy. Standard systemic therapy was given to all patients. Results. Overall, 3-and 5-year survival in fist group was 43,8 and 21%, in second - 15,1 and 9,3% respectively [p=0,00002 log-rank]. Median survival in patients with surgical treatment composed 32 months, in patients with only systemic therapy-21. The factors having influencing an influence on the prognosis and the quality of life outcomes for of patients with generalized breast cancer were are also studied: hormone-dependent tumor, Her2/neu hyper-expression, reproductive function status (age, menopause existence). Conclusion.Removing primary breast tumor in patients with generalized breast cancer improve long-term outcomes. Three- and five-year survival increased by 28,7 and 16,3% respectively, and median survival–for 11 months. These patients may benefit from resection of the breast tumor. One explanation for the effect of this resection is that reducing the tumor load influences metastatic growth.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Primary tumor, combination therapy, factors of prognosis

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97 The Effectiveness of Laughing Qigong for Women with Breast Cancer in Community

Authors: Chueh Chang, Chia-jung Hsieh, Fu-yu Yu, Yu-Hwa Lin

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Background:The majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer undergo treatment involving surgery and radiotherapy or chemotherapy, or both. With these major advances in breast cancer management, many patients still have to deal with short or long-term side effects and psychological distress related to the disease and treatment, which have a substantial impact on their quality of life. The Laughing Qigong Program (LQP) is an interactive laughter program that combines the physical and physiological benefits of laughter with the mental benefits of Chinese qigong. Purpose: In order to improve the quality of life for breast cancer women in the community as well as echoing the WHO 2004 “Promoting Mental Health” for every one. This study focused on how to promote the positive mental health for women of breast cancer through the “laughter program” in Taiwan. During the presentation, how to practice Laughing Qigong will be demonstrated. Method: Using nonequivalent pretest-posttest design, ix-one breast cancer patients were volunteered to enroll in this study from the Taiwan Breast Cancer Alliance (TBCA). Thirty patients were assigned to the experimental group and the other 31 patients were assigned to the control group. The women who were assigned to the experimental group received laughter program one hour per session, once a week, totally 12 sessions. All subjects were tested before and after the intervention on the following: Self-Esteem scale (RSE), Face Scale (FS), Anxiety and pain experience were measured as psychological markers; saliva cortisol (CS) as an immunological marker; blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR),and heart rate variability (HRV) as physiological markers of the body’s response to stress. Results: After comparing the experimental and control groups, the results revealed that those breast cancer women with “laughing program” their sense of humor were improved, less uncomfortable on self report physical conditions, more positive attitudes toward stress management by using laughter, and had emotional improvement according to the face scale.

Keywords: Women, Breast Cancer, mental health promotion, laughing Qigong

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96 Differential Expression of Biomarkers in Cancer Stem Cells and Side Populations in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Dipali Dhawan

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Cancerous epithelial cells are confined to a primary site by the continued expression of adhesion molecules and the intact basal lamina. However, as the cancer progresses some cells are believed to undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) event, leading to increased motility, invasion and, ultimately, metastasis of the cells from the primary tumour to secondary sites within the body. These disseminated cancer cells need the ability to self-renew, as stem cells do, in order to establish and maintain a heterogeneous metastatic tumour mass. Identification of the specific subpopulation of cancer stem cells amenable to the process of metastasis is highly desirable. In this study, we have isolated and characterized cancer stem cells from luminal and basal breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-468, MCF7 and T47D) on the basis of cell surface markers CD44 and CD24; as well as Side Populations (SP) using Hoechst 33342 dye efflux. The isolated populations were analysed for epithelial and mesenchymal markers like E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Sfrp1 and Vimentin by Western blotting and Immunocytochemistry. MDA-MB-231 cell lines contain a major population of CD44+CD24- cells whereas MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 cell lines show a side population. We observed higher expression of N-cadherin in MCF-7 SP cells as compared to MCF-7NSP (Non-side population) cells suggesting that the SP cells are mesenchymal like cells and hence express increased N-cadherin with stem cell-like properties. There was an expression of Sfrp1 in the MCF7- NSP cells as compared to no expression in MCF7-SP cells, which suggests that the Wnt pathway is expressed in the MCF7-SP cells. The mesenchymal marker Vimentin was expressed only in MDA-MB-231 cells. Hence, understanding the breast cancer heterogeneity would enable a better understanding of the disease progression and therapeutic targeting.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Breast Cancer, Cancer Stem Cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition

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95 Standard Protocol Selection for Acquisition of Breast Thermogram in Perspective of Early Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Debotosh Bhattacharjee, Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik, Usha Rani Gogoi Jr., Anjan Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

In the last few decades, breast thermography has achieved an average sensitivity and specificity of 90% for breast tumor detection. Breast thermography is a non-invasive, cost-effective, painless and radiation-free breast imaging modality which makes a significant contribution to the evaluation and diagnosis of patients, suspected of having breast cancer. An abnormal breast thermogram may indicate significant biological risk for the existence or the development of breast tumors. Breast thermography can detect a breast tumor, when the tumor is in its early stage or when the tumor is in a dense breast. The infrared breast thermography is very sensitive to environmental changes for which acquisition of breast thermography should be performed under strictly controlled conditions by undergoing some standard protocols. Several factors like air, temperature, humidity, etc. are there to be considered for characterizing thermal images as an imperative tool for detecting breast cancer. A detailed study of various breast thermogram acquisition protocols adopted by different researchers in their research work is provided here in this paper. After going through a rigorous study of different breast thermogram acquisition protocols, a new standard breast thermography acquisition setup is proposed here in this paper for proper and accurate capturing of the breast thermograms. The proposed breast thermogram acquisition setup is being built in the Radiology Department, Agartala Government Medical College (AGMC), Govt. of Tripura, Tripura, India. The breast thermograms are captured using FLIR T650sc thermal camera with the thermal sensitivity of 20 mK at 30 degree C. The paper is an attempt to highlight the importance of different critical parameters of breast thermography like different thermography views, patient preparation protocols, acquisition room requirements, acquisition system requirements, etc. This paper makes an important contribution by providing a detailed survey and a new efficient approach on breast thermogram capturing.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, infrared thermography, acquisition protocol, breast thermography

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94 Morphological Features Fusion for Identifying INBREAST-Database Masses Using Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines

Authors: Nadia el Atlas, Mohammed el Aroussi, Mohammed Wahbi

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In this paper a novel technique of mass characterization based on robust features-fusion is presented. The proposed method consists of mainly four stages: (a) the first phase involves segmenting the masses using edge information’s. (b) The second phase is to calculate and fuse the most relevant morphological features. (c) The last phase is the classification step which allows us to classify the images into benign and malignant masses. In this step we have implemented Support Vectors Machines (SVM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), which were evaluated with the following performance criteria: confusion matrix, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristic ROC, and error histogram. The effectiveness of this new approach was evaluated by a recently developed database: INBREAST database. The fusion of the most appropriate morphological features provided very good results. The SVM gives accuracy to within 64.3%. Whereas the ANN classifier gives better results with an accuracy of 97.5%.

Keywords: Fusion, Breast Cancer, Mammography, features, CAD system

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93 Nurse’s Role in Early Detection of Breast Cancer through Mammography and Genetic Screening and Its Impact on Patient's Outcome

Authors: Salwa Hagag Abdelaziz, Dorria Salem, Hoda Zaki, Suzan Atteya

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Early detection of breast cancer saves many thousands of lives each year via application of mammography and genetic screening and many more lives could be saved if nurses are involved in breast care screening practices. So, the aim of the study was to identify nurse's role in early detection of breast cancer through mammography and genetic screening and its impact on patient's outcome. In order to achieve this aim, 400 women above 40 years, asymptomatic were recruited for mammography and genetic screening. In addition, 50 nurses and 6 technologists were involved in the study. A descriptive analytical design was used. Five tools were utilized: sociodemographic, mammographic examination and risk factors, women's before, during and after mammography, items relaying to technologists, and items related to nurses were also obtained. The study finding revealed that 3% of women detected for malignancy and 7.25% for fibroadenoma. Statistically, significant differences were found between mammography results and age, family history, genetic screening, exposure to smoke, and using contraceptive pills. Nurses have insufficient knowledge about screening tests. Based on these findings the present study recommended involvement of nurses in breast care which is very important to in force population about screening practices.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Early Detection, Mammography, genetic screening

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92 Aza-Flavanones as Small Molecule Inhibitors of MicroRNA-10b in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Debasmita Mukhopadhyay, Manika Pal Bhadra

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MiRNAs contribute to oncogenesis either as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Hence, discovery of miRNA-based therapeutics are imperative to ameliorate cancer. Modulation of miRNA maturation is accomplished via several therapeutic agents, including small molecules and oligonucleotides. Due to the attractive pharmacokinetic properties of small molecules over oligonucleotides, we set to identify small molecule inhibitors of a metastasis-inducing microRNA. Cytotoxicity profile of aza-flavanone C1 was analyzed in a panel of breast cancer cells employing the NCI-60 screen protocols. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and western blotting of apoptotic or EMT markers were performed to analyze the effect of C1. A dual luciferase assay unequivocally suggested that C1 repressed endogenous miR-10b in MDA-MB-231 cells. A derivative of aza-flavanone C1 is shown as a strong inhibitor miR-10b. Blockade of miR-10b by C1 resulted in decreased expression of miR-10b targets in an aggressive breast cancer cell line model, MDA-MB-231. Abrogation of TWIST1, an EMT-inducing transcription factor also contributed to C1 mediated apoptosis. Moreover C1 exhibited a specific and selective down-regulation of miR-10b and did not function as a general inhibitor of miRNA biogenesis or other oncomiRs of breast carcinoma. Aza-flavanone congener C1 functions as a potent inhibitor of the metastasis-inducing microRNA, miR-10b. Our present study provides evidence for targeting metastasis-inducing microRNA, miR-10b with a derivative of Aza-flavanone. Better pharmacokinetic properties of small molecules place them as attractive agents compared to nucleic acids based therapies to target miRNA. Further work, in generating analogues based on aza-flavanone moieties will significantly improve the affinity of the small molecules to bind miR-10b. Finally, it is imperative to develop small molecules as novel miRNA-therapeutics in the fight against cancer.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, microRNA, metastasis, EMT

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91 Knowledge, Awareness and Practices Concerning of Breast Cancer among Nursing Students in Sri Lanka

Authors: Vimarshi Sandamali Godigamuwa

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Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Its incidence is increasing and young women affected more than ever. Nursing students are the future nurses who will have the opportunity to encourage and influence women to be aware of breast cancers. Objectives: To determine the level of knowledge, awareness and practices concerning of breast cancer among Sri Lankan student nurses. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 150 nursing students who are in their 2nd and 3rd year studies by distributing a standard self-administered questionnaire. The completed questionnaire were retrieved, graded and scored. Results: Mean age of the respondents was 24.27; (SD=1.66) years and ranged from 20-30 years. Most of the students were female which was 85%. 32% of nursing students scored below 55% for the questionnaire and only 7.3% had good overall knowledge and awareness of breast cancer. Out of 128 female students 89.9% were answered that they know how to perform Breast Self Examination (BSE), out of which 37% of them performed BSE regularly. Only 33% were aware of recommended age for BSE and 10% were knew the recommended age for mammography. 9.3% were aware of frequency for Clinical Breast Examination on 20-39 years of age group. Of the female participants, 11.7% reported positive family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Nursing students should explore to health educational programs on regular basis on breast cancer and its screening methods. Further studies are needed to identify reasons for not practicing BSE.

Keywords: Knowledge, Breast Cancer, Practice, awareness, student nurses, BSE

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90 CAM Use and Its Association with Quality of Life in a Sample of Lebanese Breast Cancer Patients: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Farah Naja, Romy Abi Fadel, Yasmin Aridi, Aya Zarif, Dania Hariri, Mohammad Alameddine, Anas Mugharbel, Maya Khalil, Zeina Nahleh, Arafat Tfayli

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The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence and determinants of CAM use among breast cancer patients in Beirut, Lebanon. A secondary objective is to evaluate the association between CAM use and quality of life (QOL). A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 180 breast cancer patients recruited from two major referral centers in Beirut. In a face to face interview, participants completed a questionnaire comprised of three sections: socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, breast cancer condition, and CAM use. The assessment of QOL was carried using the FACT-B Arabic version. Prevalence of CAM use since diagnosis was 40%. CAM use was negatively associated with age, treatment at a philanthropic hospital and positively associated with having an advanced stage of disease. The most commonly used CAM was ‘Special food’ followed by ‘Herbal teas’. Only 4% of CAM users cited health care professionals as influencing their choice of CAM. One in four patients disclosed CAM use to their treating physician. There was no significant association between CAM use and QOL. The use of CAM therapies among breast cancer patients is prevalent in Lebanon. Efforts should be dedicated at educating physicians to discuss CAM use with their patients and advising patients to disclose of their use with their physicians.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Quality of Life, Alternative Medicine, complementary medicine, Lebanon

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89 Prevalence and Determinants of the Use of CAM and Its Association with Quality of Life in a Sample of Lebanese Breast Cancer Patients: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Farah Naja, Romy Abi Fadel, Yasmin Aridi, Aya Zarif, Dania Hariri, Mohammad Alameddine, Anas Mugharbel, Maya Khalil, Zeina Nahleh, Arafat Tfayli

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence and determinants of CAM use among breast cancer patients in Beirut, Lebanon. A secondary objective is to evaluate the association between CAM use and quality of life (QOL). A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 180 breast cancer patients recruited from two major referral centers in Beirut. In a face to face interview, participants completed a questionnaire comprised of three sections: socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, breast cancer condition, and CAM use. The assessment of QOL was carried using the FACT-B Arabic version. Prevalence of CAM use since diagnosis was 40%. CAM use was negatively associated with age, treatment at a philanthropic hospital and positively associated with having an advanced stage of disease. The most commonly used CAM was ‘Special food’ followed by ‘Herbal teas’. Only 4% of CAM users cited health care professionals as influencing their choice of CAM. One in four patients disclosed CAM use to their treating physician. There was no significant association between CAM use and QOL. The use of CAM therapies among breast cancer patients is prevalent in Lebanon. Efforts should be dedicated at educating physicians to discuss CAM use with their patients and advising patients to disclose of their use with their physicians.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Quality of Life, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Lebanon

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88 Dietary Patterns and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Breast Cancer Female Patients in Lebanon: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Farah Naja, Lara Nasreddine, Anas Mugharbel, Maya Khalil, Arafat Tfayli, Yasmine Aridi

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Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer site among women worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer mortality. Breast cancer rates differ vastly between geographical areas, countries, and within the same country. In Lebanon, the proportion of breast cancer to all other sites of tumor is 38.2%; these rates are still lower than those observed worldwide, but remain the highest among Arab countries. Studies and evidence based reviews show a strong association between breast cancer development and prognosis and dietary habits, specifically the Mediterranean diet (MD). As such, the aim of this study is to examine dietary patterns and adherence to the MD among a sample of 182 breast cancer female patients in Beirut, Lebanon. Subjects were recruited from two major hospitals; a private medical center and a public hospital. All subjects were administered two questionnaires: socio- demographics and Mediterranean diet adherence. Five Mediterranean scores were calculated: MS, MSDPS, PMDI, PREDIMED and DDS. The mean age of the participants was 53.78 years. The overall adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) was low since the sample means of 3 out of the 5 calculated scores were less than the scores’ medians. Given that 4 out of the 5 Mediterranean scores significantly varied between the recruitment sites, women in the private medical center were found to adhere more to the MD. Our results also show that the majority of the sample population’s intakes are exceeding the recommendations for total and saturated fat, while meeting the requirements for fiber, EPA, DHA and Linolenic Acid. Participants in the private medical center were consuming significantly more calories, carbohydrates, fiber, sugar, Lycopene, Calcium, Iron and Folate and less fat. After conducting multivariate linear regression analyses, the following significant results were observed: positive associations between MD (CPMDI, PREDIMED) and monthly income & current state of health, while negative associations between MD (MSDPS, PREDIMED) and age & employment status. Our findings indicated a low overall adherence to the MD and identified factors associated with it; which suggests a need to address dietary habits among BC patients in Lebanon, specifically encouraging them to adhere to their traditional Mediterranean diet.

Keywords: Nutrition, Breast Cancer, Adherence, Dietary Patterns, mediterranean diet

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87 Synergistic Effect of Doxorubicin-Loaded Silver Nanoparticles – Polymeric Conjugates on Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Nancy M. El-Baz, Laila Ziko, Rania Siam, Wael Mamdouh

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Cancer is one of the most devastating diseases, and has over than 10 million new cases annually worldwide. Despite the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents, their systemic toxicity and non-selective anticancer actions represent the main obstacles facing cancer curability. Due to the effective enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of nanomaterials, nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as drug nanocarriers providing targeted cancer drug delivery systems. In addition, several inorganic nanoparticles such as silver (AgNPs) nanoparticles demonstrated a potent anticancer activity against different cancers. The present study aimed at formulating core-shell inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapy based on combining the anticancer activity of AgNPs along with doxorubicin (DOX) and evaluating their cytotoxicity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapies were designed to (i) Target and kill cancer cells with high selectivity, (ii) Have an improved efficacy/toxicity balance, and (iii) Have an enhanced therapeutic index when compared to the original non-modified DOX with much lower dosage The in-vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that the NPs-based combinatorial therapy achieved the same efficacy of non-modified DOX on breast cancer cell line, but with 96% reduced dose. Such reduction in DOX dose revealed that the combination between DOX and NPs possess a synergic anticancer activity against breast cancer. We believe that this is the first report on a synergic anticancer effect at very low dose of DOX against MCF-7 cells. Future studies on NPs-based combinatorial therapy may aid in formulating novel and significantly more effective cancer therapeutics.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Silver Nanoparticles, doxorubicin, nanoparticles-based combinatorial therapy

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