Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 723

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Biotechnology and Bioengineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

723 A High-Throughput Enzyme Screening Method Using Broadband Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy

Authors: Ruolan Zhang, Ryo Imai, Naoko Senda, Tomoyuki Sakai

Abstract:

Enzymes have attracted increasing attentions in industrial manufacturing for their applicability in catalyzing complex chemical reactions under mild conditions. Directed evolution has become a powerful approach to optimize enzymes and exploit their full potentials under the circumstance of insufficient structure-function knowledge. With the incorporation of cell-free synthetic biotechnology, rapid enzyme synthesis can be realized because no cloning procedure such as transfection is needed. Its open environment also enables direct enzyme measurement. These properties of cell-free biotechnology lead to excellent throughput of enzymes generation. However, the capabilities of current screening methods have limitations. Fluorescence-based assay needs applicable fluorescent label, and the reliability of acquired enzymatic activity is influenced by fluorescent label’s binding affinity and photostability. To acquire the natural activity of an enzyme, another method is to combine pre-screening step and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement. But its throughput is limited by necessary time investment. Hundreds of variants are selected from libraries, and their enzymatic activities are then identified one by one by HPLC. The turn-around-time is 30 minutes for one sample by HPLC, which limits the acquirable enzyme improvement within reasonable time. To achieve the real high-throughput enzyme screening, i.e., obtain reliable enzyme improvement within reasonable time, a widely applicable high-throughput measurement of enzymatic reactions is highly demanded. Here, a high-throughput screening method using broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) was proposed. CARS is one of coherent Raman spectroscopy, which can identify label-free chemical components specifically from their inherent molecular vibration. These characteristic vibrational signals are generated from different vibrational modes of chemical bonds. With the broadband CARS, chemicals in one sample can be identified from their signals in one broadband CARS spectrum. Moreover, it can magnify the signal levels to several orders of magnitude greater than spontaneous Raman systems, and therefore has the potential to evaluate chemical's concentration rapidly. As a demonstration of screening with CARS, alcohol dehydrogenase, which converts ethanol and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidized form (NAD+) to acetaldehyde and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH), was used. The signal of NADH at 1660 cm⁻¹, which is generated from nicotinamide in NADH, was utilized to measure the concentration of it. The evaluation time for CARS signal of NADH was determined to be as short as 0.33 seconds while having a system sensitivity of 2.5 mM. The time course of alcohol dehydrogenase reaction was successfully measured from increasing signal intensity of NADH. This measurement result of CARS was consistent with the result of a conventional method, UV-Vis. CARS is expected to have application in high-throughput enzyme screening and realize more reliable enzyme improvement within reasonable time.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, Enzyme screening, Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy, CARS, directed evolution

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722 Numerical Analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics of Co-Digestion in a Large-Scale Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

Authors: Sylvana A. Vega, Cesar E. Huilinir, Carlos J. Gonzalez

Abstract:

Co-digestion in anaerobic biodigesters is a technology improving hydrolysis by increasing methane generation. In the present study, the dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is numerically analyzed using Ansys Fluent software for agitation in a full-scale Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) biodigester during the co-digestion process. For this, a rheological study of the substrate is carried out, establishing rotation speeds of the stirrers depending on the microbial activity and energy ranges. The substrate is organic waste from industrial sources of sanitary water, butcher, fishmonger, and dairy. Once the rheological behavior curves have been obtained, it is obtained that it is a non-Newtonian fluid of the pseudoplastic type, with a solids rate of 12%. In the simulation, the rheological results of the fluid are considered, and the full-scale CSTR biodigester is modeled. It was coupling the second-order continuity differential equations, the three-dimensional Navier Stokes, the power-law model for non-Newtonian fluids, and three turbulence models: k-ε RNG, k-ε Realizable, and RMS (Reynolds Stress Model), for a 45° tilt vane impeller. It is simulated for three minutes since it is desired to study an intermittent mixture with a saving benefit of energy consumed. The results show that the absolute errors of the power number associated with the k-ε RNG, k-ε Realizable, and RMS models were 7.62%, 1.85%, and 5.05%, respectively, the numbers of power obtained from the analytical-experimental equation of Nagata. The results of the generalized Reynolds number show that the fluid dynamics have a transition-turbulent flow regime. Concerning the Froude number, the result indicates there is no need to implement baffles in the biodigester design, and the power number provides a steady trend close to 1.5. It is observed that the levels of design speeds within the biodigester are approximately 0.1 m/s, which are speeds suitable for the microbial community, where they can coexist and feed on the substrate in co-digestion. It is concluded that the model that more accurately predicts the behavior of fluid dynamics within the reactor is the k-ε Realizable model. The flow paths obtained are consistent with what is stated in the referenced literature, where the 45° inclination PBT impeller is the right type of agitator to keep particles in suspension and, in turn, increase the dispersion of gas in the liquid phase. If a 24/7 complete mix is considered under stirred agitation, with a plant factor of 80%, 51,840 kWh/year are estimated. On the contrary, if intermittent agitations of 3 min every 15 min are used under the same design conditions, reduce almost 80% of energy costs. It is a feasible solution to predict the energy expenditure of an anaerobic biodigester CSTR. It is recommended to use high mixing intensities, at the beginning and end of the joint phase acetogenesis/methanogenesis. This high intensity of mixing, in the beginning, produces the activation of the bacteria, and once reaching the end of the Hydraulic Retention Time period, it produces another increase in the mixing agitations, favoring the final dispersion of the biogas that may be trapped in the biodigester bottom.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, Organic Waste, anaerobic co-digestion, net power

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721 The Application of Enzymes on Pharmaceutical Products and Process Development

Authors: Reginald Anyanwu

Abstract:

Enzymes are biological molecules that significantly regulate the rate of almost all of the chemical reactions that take place within cells, and have been widely used for products’ innovations. They are vital for life and serve a wide range of important functions in the body, such as aiding in digestion and metabolism. The present study was aimed at finding out the extent to which biological molecules have been utilized by pharmaceutical, food and beverage, and biofuel industries in commercial and scale up applications. Taking into account the escalating business opportunities in this vertical, biotech firms have also been penetrating enzymes industry especially that of food. The aim of the study therefore was to find out how biocatalysis can be successfully deployed; how enzyme application can improve industrial processes. To achieve the purpose of the study, the researcher focused on the analytical tools that are critical for the scale up implementation of enzyme immobilization to ascertain the extent of increased product yield at minimum logistical burden and maximum market profitability on the environment and user. The researcher collected data from four pharmaceutical companies located at Anambra state and Imo state of Nigeria. Questionnaire items were distributed to these companies. The researcher equally made a personal observation on the applicability of these biological molecules on innovative Products since there is now shifting trends toward the consumption of healthy and quality food. In conclusion, it was discovered that enzymes have been widely used for products’ innovations but there are however variations on their applications. It was also found out that pivotal contenders of enzymes market have lately been making heavy investments in the development of innovative product solutions. It was recommended that the applications of enzymes on innovative products should be widely practiced.

Keywords: Process Development, Pharmaceuticals, Enzymes, quality food consumption, scale-up applications

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720 Isosorbide Bis-Methyl Carbonate: Opportunities for an Industrial Model Based on Biomass

Authors: Olga Gomez De Miranda, Jose R. Ochoa-Gomez, Stefaan De Wildeman, Luciano Monsegue, Soraya Prieto, Leire Lorenzo, Cristina Dineiro

Abstract:

The chemical industry is facing a new revolution. As long as processes based on the exploitation of fossil resources emerged with force in the XIX century, Society currently demands a new radical change that will lead to the complete and irreversible implementation of a circular sustainable economic model. The implementation of biorefineries will be essential for this. There, renewable raw materials as sugars and other biomass resources are exploited for the development of new materials that will partially replace their petroleum-derived homologs in a safer, and environmentally more benign approach. Isosorbide, (1,4:3,6-dianhydro-d-glucidol) is a primary bio-based derivative obtained from the plant (poly) saccharides and a very interesting example of a useful chemical produced in biorefineries. It can, in turn, be converted to other secondary monomers as isosorbide bis-methyl carbonate (IBMC), whose main field of application can be as a key biodegradable intermediary substitute of bisphenol-A in the manufacture of polycarbonates, or as an alternative to the toxic isocyanates in the synthesis of new polyurethanes (non-isocyanate polyurethanes) both with a huge application market. New products will present advantageous mechanical or optical properties, as well as improved behavior in non-toxicity and biodegradability aspects in comparison to their petro-derived alternatives. A robust production process of IBMC, a biomass-derived chemical, is here presented. It can be used with different raw material qualities using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as both co-reactant and solvent. It consists of the transesterification of isosorbide with DMC under soft operational conditions, using different basic catalysts, always active with the isosorbide characteristics and purity. Appropriate isolation processes have been also developed to obtain crude IBMC yields higher than 90%, with oligomers production lower than 10%, independently of the quality of the isosorbide considered. All of them are suitable to be used in polycondensation reactions for polymers obtaining. If higher qualities of IBMC are needed, a purification treatment based on nanofiltration membranes has been also developed. The IBMC reaction-isolation conditions established in the laboratory have been successfully modeled using appropriate software programs and moved to a pilot-scale (production of 100 kg of IBMC). It has been demonstrated that a highly efficient IBMC production process able to be up-scaled under suitable market conditions has been obtained. Operational conditions involved the production of IBMC involve soft temperature and energy needs, no additional solvents, and high operational efficiency. All of them are according to green manufacturing rules.

Keywords: biomass, Catalyst, transesterification, polyurethane, polycarbonate, isosorbide bis-methyl carbonate

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719 Algae for Wastewater Treatment and CO₂ Sequestration along with Recovery of Bio-Oil and Value Added Products

Authors: P. Kiran Kumar, S. Vijaya Krishna, Kavita Verma1, V. Himabindu

Abstract:

Concern about global warming and energy security has led to increased biomass utilization as an alternative feedstock to fossil fuels. Biomass is a promising feedstock since it is abundant and cheap and can be transformed into fuels and chemical products. Microalgae biofuels are likely to have a much lower impact on the environment. Microalgae cultivation using sewage with industrial flue gases is a promising concept for integrated biodiesel production, CO₂ sequestration, and nutrients recovery. Autotrophic, Mixotrophic, and Heterotrophic are the three modes of cultivation for microalgae biomass. Several mechanical and chemical processes are available for the extraction of lipids/oily components from microalgae biomass. In organic solvent extraction methods, a prior drying of biomass and recovery of the solvent is required, which are energy-intensive. Thus, the hydrothermal process overcomes the drawbacks of conventional solvent extraction methods. In the hydrothermal process, the biomass is converted into oily components by processing in a hot, pressurized water environment. In this process, in addition to the lipid fraction of microalgae, other value-added products such as proteins, carbohydrates, and nutrients can also be recovered. In the present study was (Scenedesmus quadricauda) was isolated and cultivated in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophically using sewage wastewater and industrial flue gas in batch and continuous mode. The harvested algae biomass from S. quadricauda was used for the recovery of lipids and bio-oil. The lipids were extracted from the algal biomass using sonication as a cell disruption method followed by solvent (Hexane) extraction, and the lipid yield obtained was 8.3 wt% with Palmitic acid, Oleic acid, and Octadeonoic acid as fatty acids. The hydrothermal process was also carried out for extraction of bio-oil, and the yield obtained was 18wt%. The bio-oil compounds such as nitrogenous compounds, organic acids, and esters, phenolics, hydrocarbons, and alkanes were obtained by the hydrothermal process of algal biomass. Nutrients such as NO₃⁻ (68%) and PO₄⁻ (15%) were also recovered along with bio-oil in the hydrothermal process.

Keywords: Microalgae, hydrothermal process, flue gas, sonication, sewage wastewater

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718 Application of Customized Bioaugmentation Inocula to Alleviate Ammonia Toxicity in CSTR Anaerobic Digesters

Authors: Irini Angelidaki, Yixin Yan, Miao Yan, Ioannis Fotidis

Abstract:

Ammonia, which derives from the degradation of urea and protein-substrates, is the major toxicant of the commercial anaerobic digestion reactors causing loses of up to 1/3 of their practical biogas production, which reflects directly on the overall revenue of the plants. The current experimental work is aiming to alleviate the ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion (AD) process by developing an innovative bioaugmentation method of ammonia tolerant methanogenic consortia. The ammonia tolerant consortia were cultured in batch reactors and immobilized together with biochar in agar (customized inocula). Three continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR), fed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste at a hydraulic retention time of 15 days and operated at thermophilic (55°C) conditions were assessed. After an ammonia shock of 4 g NH4+-N L-1, the customized inocula were bioaugmented into the CSTR reactors to alleviate ammonia toxicity effect on AD process. Recovery rate of methane production and methanogenic activity will be assessed to evaluate the bioaugmentation performance, while 16s rRNA gene sequence will be used to reveal the difference of microbial community changes through bioaugmentation. At the microbial level, the microbial community structures of the four reactors will be analysed to find the mechanism of bioaugmentation. Changes in hydrogen formation potential will be used to predict direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between ammonia tolerant methanogens and syntrophic bacteria. This experimental work is expected to create bioaugmentation inocula that will be easy to obtain, transport, handled and bioaugment in AD reactors to efficiently alleviate the ammonia toxicity, without alternating any of the other operational parameters including the ammonia-rich feedstocks.

Keywords: volatile fatty acids, acidogenesis, artisanal fishing waste, inoculum/substrate ratio

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717 The Occurrence of Triple Catalytic Characteristics of Yeast Lipases and Their Application Prospects in Biodiesel Production from Non-Edible Jatropha Curcas Oil: A Solvent-Free System Approach

Authors: Khurshid Ahmed Baloch, Apichat Upaichit, Benjamas Cheirsilp

Abstract:

Specific yeasts that could produce lipases in both extracellular and cell-bound forms were isolated and screened from the palm oil mill wastes for their potential applications as biocatalysts in biodiesel production. A total of 26 yeast strains were qualitatively screened as lipase producers because of their lipolytic enzyme activity. Subsequently, six yeast strains were selected and screened for quantitative lipase production. The D1/D2 domains of 26S rDNA and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 molecular region were applied to confirm the correct affiliation of the six yeast strains selected as potent lipase producers. Three yeast strains (A4C, 18B and 10F) and the other two strains (17B and AgB) were highly identical to Magnusiomyces capitatus and Saprochaete clavata, respectively, whereas the strain AW2 was identical to Magnusiomyces spicifer. Three main catalytic characteristics; hydrolysis, esterification and transesterification, of the yeast lipases were evaluated. Among the selected lipase producing yeasts, Magnusiomyces capitatus A4C showed the maximum extracellular lipolytic enzyme activity of 969 U/L with the cell-bound lypolytic enzyme activity of 11.3 U/gdm. While Magnusiomyces spicifer AW2 showed the maximum cell-bound lipolytic enzyme activity of 12.4 U/gdm with the extracellular lipolytic enzyme activity of 886 U/L. The cell-bound lipases (CBLs) from M. capitatus A4C and Saprochaete clavata 17B gave a high yield of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters; FAME) through both esterification and transesterification reactions. However, the CBL from M. spicifer AW2 synthesized the maximum FAME at 81.2% within 12 h indicating its prospective application in enzymatic biodiesel production.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Yeast, transesterification, lipase, esterification, Non-edible oil

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716 Optimization of Artisanal Fishing Waste Fermentation for Volatile Fatty Acids Production

Authors: Luz Stella Cadavid-Rodriguez, Viviana E. Castro-Lopez

Abstract:

Fish waste (FW) has a high content of potentially biodegradable components, so it is amenable to be digested anaerobically. In this line, anaerobic digestion (AD) of FW has been studied for biogas production. Nevertheless, intermediate products such as volatile fatty acids (VFA), generated during the acidogenic stage, have been scarce investigated, even though they have a high potential as a renewable source of carbon. In the literature, there are few studies about the Inoculum-Substrate (I/S) ratio on acidogenesis. On the other hand, it is well known that pH is a critical factor in the production of VFA. The optimum pH for the production of VFA seems to change depending on the substrate and can vary in a range between 5.25 and 11. Nonetheless, the literature about VFA production from protein-rich waste, such as FW, is scarce. In this context, it is necessary to deepen on the determination of the optimal operating conditions of acidogenic fermentation for VFA production from protein-rich waste. Therefore, the aim of this research was to optimize the volatile fatty acid production from artisanal fishing waste, studying the effect of pH and the I/S ratio on the acidogenic process. For this research, the inoculum used was a methanogenic sludge (MS) obtained from a UASB reactor treating wastewater of a slaughterhouse plant, and the FW was collected in the port of Tumaco (Colombia) from the local artisanal fishers. The acidogenic fermentation experiments were conducted in batch mode, in 500 mL glass bottles as anaerobic reactors, equipped with rubber stoppers provided with a valve to release biogas. The effective volume used was 300 mL. The experiments were carried out for 15 days at a mesophilic temperature of 37± 2 °C and constant agitation of 200 rpm. The effect of 3 pH levels: 5, 7, 9, coupled with five I/S ratios, corresponding to 0.20, 0.15, 0.10, 0.05, 0.00 was evaluated taking as a response variable the production of VFA. A complete randomized block design was selected for the experiments in a 5x3 factorial arrangement, with two repetitions per treatment. At the beginning and during the process, pH in the experimental reactors was adjusted to the corresponding values of 5, 7, and 9 using 1M NaOH or 1M H2SO4, as was appropriated. In addition, once the optimum I/S ratio was determined, the process was evaluated at this condition without pH control. The results indicated that pH is the main factor in the production of VFA, obtaining the highest concentration with neutral pH. By reducing the I/S ratio, as low as 0.05, it was possible to maximize VFA production. Thus, the optimum conditions found were natural pH (6.6-7.7) and I/S ratio of 0.05, with which it was possible to reach a maximum total VFA concentration of 70.3 g Ac/L, whose major components were acetic acid (35%) and butyric acid (32%). The findings showed that the acidogenic fermentation of FW is an efficient way of producing VFA and that the operating conditions can be simple and economical.

Keywords: inoculum to substrate ratio, volatile fatty acids, acidogenesis, artisanal fishing waste

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715 Fishing Waste: A Source of Valuable Products through Anaerobic Treatments

Authors: Luisa Maria Arrechea Fajardo, Luz Stella Cadavid Rodriguez

Abstract:

Fish is one of the most commercialized foods worldwide. However, this industry only takes advantage of about 55% of the product's weight, the rest is converted into waste, which is mainly composed of viscera, gills, scales and spines. Consequently, if these wastes are not used or disposed of properly, they cause serious environmental impacts. This is the case of Tumaco (Colombia), the second largest producer of marine fisheries on the Colombian Pacific coast, where artisanal fishermen process more than 50% of the commercialized volume. There, fishing waste is disposed primarily in the ocean, causing negative impacts on the environment and society. Therefore, in the present research, a proposal was made to take advantage of fishing waste through anaerobic treatments, through which it is possible to obtain products with high added value from organic waste. The research was carried out in four stages. First, the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in semi-continuous 4L reactors was studied, evaluating three hydraulic retention times (HRT) (10, 7 and 5 days) with four organic loading rates (OLR) (16, 14, 12 and 10 gVS/L/day), the experiment was carried out for 150 days. Subsequently, biogas production was evaluated from the solid digestate generated in the VFA production reactors, initially evaluating the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of 4 total solid concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 6% TS), for 40 days and then, with the optimum TS concentration (2 gVS/L/day), 2 HRT (15 and 20 days) in semi-continuous reactors, were evaluated for 100 days. Finally, the integration of the processes was carried out with the best conditions found, a first phase of VFA production from fishing waste and a second phase of biogas production from unrecovered VFAs and unprocessed material Additionally, an VFA membrane extraction system was included. In the first phase, a liquid digestate with a concentration and VFA production yield of 59.04 gVFA/L and 0.527 gVFA/gVS, respectively, was obtained, with the best condition found (HRT:7 days and OLR: 16 gVS/L/día), where acetic acid and isobutyric acid were the predominant acids. In the second phase of biogas production, a BMP of 0.349 Nm3CH4/KgVS was reached, and it was found as best HRT 20 days. In the integration, the isovaleric, butyric and isobutyric acid were the VFA with the highest percentage of extraction, additionally a 106.67% increase in biogas production was achieved. This research shows that anaerobic treatments are a promising technology for an environmentally safe management of fishing waste and presents the basis of a possible biorefinery.

Keywords: biogas production, fishing waste, VFA membrane extraction, VFA production

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714 Feedforward Neural Network with Backpropagation for Epilepsy Seizure Detection

Authors: Natalia Espinosa, Arthur Amorim, Rudolf Huebner

Abstract:

Epilepsy is a chronic neural disease and around 50 million people in the world suffer from this disease, however, in many cases, the individual acquires resistance to the medication, which is known as drug-resistant epilepsy, where a detection system is necessary. This paper showed the development of an automatic system for seizure detection based on artificial neural networks (ANN), which are common techniques of machine learning. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is used for decomposing electroencephalogram (EEG) signal into main brain waves, with these frequency bands is extracted features for training a feedforward neural network with backpropagation, finally made a pattern classification, seizure or non-seizure. Obtaining 95% accuracy in epileptic EEG and 100% in normal EEG.

Keywords: seizure, artificial neural network (ANN), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Epilepsy Detection

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713 Improving Coconut (Cocos Nucifera) Micropropagation through Enhanced Somatic Embryogenesis

Authors: Shenali Balasooriya, Dinum Perera, Vijitha Vidhanaarachchi, Thanuja Gunathilake, Navodini Jayarathna

Abstract:

The coconut palm occupies a significant portion of humid tropics contributing to food security, improved nutrition, employment, and income generation. Owing to the genetically diverse nature of seedlings produced, clonal propagation of selected elite coconut genotypes by micropropagation is the ultimate strategy to produce large quantities of genetically uniform, disease free, high quality planting material rapidly. Although, in vitro cloning via somatic embryogenesis seems to provide a convenient alternative due to its potential for rapid and massive propagation, difficulties in the process are still preventing the establishment of an affordable and universal protocol. Some of such major bottlenecks are heterogeneous responsiveness of individual palms and explants to in vitro culture conditions, oxidative browning, and poor somatic embryo multiplication. The objective of the study is enhancing existing somatic embryogenesis protocol through improved media composition and incorporation of better multiplication strategies. Initial calli, generated from unfertilized ovaries, were cultured in Y3 basal medium with auxins (i.e. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D] and dicamba) alone and with auxin in combination with calcium ionophore A23187 and/or 22(S),23(S)-homobrassinolide. The number of somatic embryogenic calli produced per initial callus piece was recorded. The media with 2,4-D alone or in combination with calcium ionophore A23187 and/or 22(S),23(S)-homobrassinolide resulted in significantly greater number of somatic embryogenic calli (4.33, 4.41, 4.59, 4.55) compared to the media with dicamba alone or in combination with calcium ionophore A23187 and/or 22(S),23(S)-homobrassinolide (1.7, 1.83, 1.8, 1.92). Effect of incorporating 2,4-D into the media alone or in combination with calcium ionophore A23187 and/or 22(S),23(S)-homobrassinolide is yet to be investigated down the somatic embryogenic pathway in order to enhance the existing in vitro propagation protocol.

Keywords: Tissue Culture, In vitro, calcium ionophore, dicamba, homobrassinolide

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712 Sustainable Antimicrobial Biopolymeric Food & Biomedical Film Engineering Using Bioactive AMP-Ag+ Formulations

Authors: Eduardo Lanzagorta Garcia, Chaitra Venkatesh, Romina Pezzoli, Laura Gabriela Rodriguez Barroso, Declan Devine, Margaret E. Brennan Fournet

Abstract:

New antimicrobial interventions are urgently required to combat rising global health and medical infection challenges. Here, an innovative antimicrobial technology, providing price competitive alternatives to antibiotics and readily integratable with currently technological systems is presented. Two cutting edge antimicrobial materials, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and uncompromised sustained Ag+ action from triangular silver nanoplates (TSNPs) reservoirs, are merged for versatile effective antimicrobial action where current approaches fail. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exist widely in nature and have recently been demonstrated for broad spectrum of activity against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. TSNP’s are highly discrete, homogenous and readily functionisable Ag+ nanoreseviors that have a proven amenability for operation within in a wide range of bio-based settings. In a design for advanced antimicrobial sustainable plastics, antimicrobial TSNPs are formulated for processing within biodegradable biopolymers. Histone H5 AMP was selected for its reported strong antimicrobial action and functionalized with the TSNP (AMP-TSNP) in a similar fashion to previously reported TSNP biofunctionalisation methods. A synergy between the propensity of biopolymers for degradation and Ag+ release combined with AMP activity provides a novel mechanism for the sustained antimicrobial action of biopolymeric thin films. Nanoplates are transferred from aqueous phase to an organic solvent in order to facilitate integration within hydrophobic polymers. Extrusion is used in combination with calendering rolls to create thin polymerc film where the nanoplates are embedded onto the surface. The resultant antibacterial functional films are suitable to be adapted for food packing and biomedical applications. TSNP synthesis were synthesized by adapting a previously reported seed mediated approach. TSNP synthesis was scaled up for litre scale batch production and subsequently concentrated to 43 ppm using thermally controlled H2O removal. Nanoplates were transferred from aqueous phase to an organic solvent in order to facilitate integration within hydrophobic polymers. This was acomplised by functionalizing the TSNP with thiol terminated polyethylene glycol and using centrifugal force to transfer them to chloroform. Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Polylactic acid (PLA) were individually processed through extrusion, TSNP and AMP-TSNP solutions were sprayed onto the polymer immediately after exiting the dye. Calendering rolls were used to disperse and incorporate TSNP and TSNP-AMP onto the surface of the extruded films. Observation of the characteristic blue colour confirms the integrity of the TSNP within the films. Antimicrobial tests were performed by incubating Gram + and Gram – strains with treated and non-treated films, to evaluate if bacterial growth was reduced due to the presence of the TSNP. The resulting films successfully incorporated TSNP and AMP-TSNP. Reduced bacterial growth was observed for both Gram + and Gram – strains for both TSNP and AMP-TSNP compared with untreated films indicating antimicrobial action. The largest growth reduction was observed for AMP-TSNP treated films demonstrating the additional antimicrobial activity due to the presence of the AMPs. The potential of this technology to impede bacterial activity in food industry and medical surfaces will forge new confidence in the battle against antibiotic resistant bacteria, serving to greatly inhibit infections and facilitate patient recovery.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Antimicrobial, Polymer, Peptide, biodegradable

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711 2D and 3D Breast Cancer Cells Behave Differently to the Applied Free Palbociclib or the Palbociclib-Loaded Nanoparticles

Authors: Maryam Parsian, Pelin Mutlu, Ufuk Gunduz

Abstract:

Two-dimensional cell culture affords simplicity and low cost, but it has serious limitations; lacking cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions that are present in tissues. Cancer cells grown in 3D culture systems have distinct phenotypes of adhesion, growth, migration, invasion as well as profiles of gene and protein expression. These interactions cause the 3D-cultured cells to acquire morphological and cellular characteristics relevant to in vivo tumors. Palbociclib is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of ER-positive and HER-negative metastatic breast cancer. Poly-amidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer is a well-defined, special three-dimensional structure and has a multivalent surface and internal cavities that can play an essential role in drug delivery systems. In this study, palbociclib is loaded onto the magnetic PAMAM dendrimer. Hanging droplet method was used in order to form 3D spheroids. The possible toxic effects of both free drug and drug loaded nanoparticles were evaluated in 2D and 3D MCF-7, MD-MB-231 and SKBR-3 breast cancer cell culture models by performing MTT cell viability and Alamar Blue assays. MTT analysis was performed with six different doses from 1000 µg/ml to 25 µg/ml. Drug unloaded PAMAM dendrimer did not demonstrate significant toxicity on all breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that 3D spheroids are clearly less sensitive than 2D cell cultures to free palbociclib. Also, palbociclib loaded PAMAM dendrimers showed more toxic effect than free palbociclib in all cell lines at 2D and 3D cultures. The results suggest that the traditional cell culture method (2D) is insufficient for mimicking the actual tumor tissue. The response of the cancer cells to anticancer drugs is different in the 2D and 3D culture conditions. This study showed that breast cancer cells are more resistant to free palbociclib in 3D cultures than in 2D cultures. However, nanoparticle loaded drugs can be more cytotoxic when compared to free drug.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, palbociclibe, PAMAM magnetic nanoparticles

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710 Enhanced Methane Yield from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste with Coconut Biochar as Syntrophic Metabolism Biostimulant

Authors: Maria Altamirano, Alfonso Duran

Abstract:

Biostimulation has recently become important in order to improve the stability and performance of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. This strategy involves the addition of nutrients or supplements to improve the rate of degradation of a native microbial consortium. With the aim of biostimulate sytrophism between secondary fermenting bacteria and methanogenic archaea, improving metabolite degradation and efficient conversion to methane, the addition of conductive materials, mainly carbon based have been studied. This research seeks to highlight the effect that coconut biochar (CBC) has on the metanogenic conversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), analyzing the surface chemistry properties that give biochar its capacity to serve as a redox mediator in the anaerobic digestion process. The biochar characterization techniques were electrical conductivity (EC) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier Transform Infrared Transmission Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). Effect of coconut biochar addition was studied using Authomatic Methane Potential Test System (AMPTS II) applying a one-way variance analysis to determine the dose that leads to higher methane performance. The surface chemistry of the CBC could confer properties that enhance the AD process, such as the presence of alkaline and alkaline earth metals and their hydrophobicity that may be related to their buffering capacity and the adsorption of polar and non-polar compounds, such as NH4+ and CO2. It also has aromatic functional groups, just as quinones, whose potential as a redox mediator has been demonstrated and its morphology allows it to form an immobilizing matrix that favors a closer activity among the syntrophic microorganisms, which directly contributed in the oxidation of secondary metabolites and the final reduction to methane, whose yield is increased by 39% compared to controls, with a CBC dose of 1 g/L.

Keywords: Biochar, Biostimulation, Anaerobic Digestion, syntrophic metabolism

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709 The Impact of Mycotoxins on the Anaerobic Digestion Process

Authors: Harald Lindorfer, Bettina Frauz, Dietmar Ramhold

Abstract:

Next to the well-known inhibitors in anaerobic digestion like ammonia, antibiotics or disinfectants, the number of process failures connected with mould growth in the feedstock increased significantly in the last years. It was assumed that mycotoxins are the cause of the negative effects. The financial damage to plants associated with these process failures is considerable. The aim of this study was to find a way of predicting the failures and furthermore strategies for a fast process recovery. In a first step, mould-contaminated feedstocks causing process failures in full-scale digesters were sampled and analysed on mycotoxin content. A selection of these samples was applied to biological inhibition tests. In this test, crystalline cellulose is applied in addition to the feedstock sample as standard substrate. Affected digesters were also sampled and analytical process data as well as operational data of the plants were recorded. Additionally, different mycotoxin substances, Deoxynivalenol, Zearalenon, Aflatoxin B1, Mycophenolic acid and Citrinin, were applied as pure substances to lab-scale digesters, individually and in various combinations, and effects were monitored. As expected, various mycotoxins were detected in all of the mould-contaminated samples. Nevertheless, inhibition effects were observed with only one of the collected samples, after applying it to an inhibition test. With this sample, the biogas yield of the standard substrate was reduced by approx. 20%. This result corresponds with observations made on full-scale plants. However, none of the tested mycotoxins applied as pure substance caused a negative effect on biogas production in lab scale digesters, neither after application as individual substance nor in combination. The recording of the process data in full-scale plants affected by process failures in most cases showed a severe accumulation of fatty acids alongside a decrease in biogas production and methane concentration. In the analytical data of the digester samples, a typical distribution of fatty acids with exceptionally high acetic acid concentrations could be identified. This typical fatty acid pattern can be used as a rapid identification parameter pointing to the cause of the process troubles and enable a fast implication of countermeasures. The results of the study show that more attention needs to be paid to feedstock storage and feedstock conservation before their application to anaerobic digesters. This is all the more important since first studies indicate that the occurrence of mycotoxins will likely increase in Europe due to the ongoing climate change.

Keywords: Biogas, Anaerobic Digestion, inhibition, Feedstock conservation, Fungal mycotoxins, process failure

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708 Improvement of Activity of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis via Immobilization on Polyethylenimine-Chitosan

Authors: Luciana R. B. Goncalves, Carlos A. C. G. Neto, Natan C. G. e Silva, Thaís de O. Costa, Maria V. P. Rocha

Abstract:

β-galactosidases (E.C. 3.2.1.23) are enzymes that have attracted by catalyzing the hydrolysis of lactose and in producing galacto-oligosaccharides by favoring transgalactosylation reactions. These enzymes, when immobilized, can have some enzymatic characteristics substantially improved, and the coating of supports with multifunctional polymers is a promising alternative to enhance the stability of the biocatalysts, among which polyethylenimine (PEI) stands out. PEI has certain properties, such as being a flexible polymer that suits the structure of the enzyme, giving greater stability, especially for multimeric enzymes such as β-galactosidases. Besides that, protects them from environmental variations. The use of chitosan support coated with PEI could improve the catalytic efficiency of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis in the transgalactosylation reaction for the production of prebiotics, such as lactulose since this strain is more effective in the hydrolysis reaction. In this context, the aim of the present work was first to develop biocatalysts of β-galactosidase from K. lactis immobilized on chitosan-coated with PEI, determining the immobilization parameters, its operational and thermal stability, and then to apply it in hydrolysis and transgalactolisation reactions to produce lactulose using whey as a substrate. The immobilization of β-galactosidase in chitosan previously functionalized with 0.8% (v/v) glutaraldehyde and then coated with 10% (w/v) PEI solution was evaluated using an enzymatic load of 10 mg protein per gram support. Subsequently, the hydrolysis and transgalactosylation reactions were conducted at 50 °C, 120 RPM for 20 minutes, using whey supplemented with fructose at a ratio of 1:2 lactose/fructose, totaling 200 g/L. Operational stability studies were performed in the same conditions for 10 cycles. Thermal stabilities of biocatalysts were conducted at 50 ºC in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.6 with 0.1 mM MnCl2. The biocatalyst whose support was coated was named CHI_GLU_PEI_GAL, and the one that was not coated was named CHI_GLU_GAL. The coating of the support with PEI considerably improved the parameters of immobilization. The immobilization yield increased from 56.53% to 97.45%, biocatalyst activity from 38.93 U/g to 95.26 U/g and the efficiency from 3.51% to 6.0% for uncoated and coated support, respectively. The biocatalyst CHI_GLU_PEI_GAL was better than CHI_GLU_GAL in the hydrolysis of lactose and production of lactulose, converting 97.05% of lactose at 5 min of reaction and producing 7.60 g/L lactulose in the same time interval. QUI_GLU_PEI_GAL biocatalyst was stable in the hydrolysis reactions of lactose during the 10 cycles evaluated, converting 73.45% lactose even after the tenth cycle, and in the lactulose production was stable until the fifth cycle evaluated, producing 10.95 g/L lactulose. However, the thermal stability of CHI_GLU_GAL biocatalyst was superior, with a half-life time 6 times higher, probably because the enzyme was immobilized by covalent bonding, which is stronger than adsorption (CHI_GLU_PEI_GAL). Therefore, the strategy of coating the supports with PEI has proven to be effective for the immobilization of β-galactosidase from K. lactis, considerably improving the immobilization parameters, as well as, the catalytic action of the enzyme. Besides that, this process can be economically viable due to the use of an industrial residue as a substrate.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, immobilization, whey, lactulose, polyethylenimine, kluyveromyces lactis, transgalactosylation reaction

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707 Immobilization of β-Galactosidase from Kluyveromyces Lactis on Polyethylenimine-Agarose for Production of Lactulose

Authors: Natan C. G. Silva, Carlos A. C. G. Neto, Thais O. Costa, Luciana R. B. Goncalves, Maria v. P. Rocha

Abstract:

Galactosidases are enzymes responsible for catalyzing lactose hydrolysis reactions and also favoring transgalactosylation reactions for the production of prebiotics, among which lactulose stands out. These enzymes, when immobilized, can have some enzymatic characteristics substantially improved, and the coating of supports with multifunctional polymers in immobilization processes is a promising alternative in order to extend the useful life of the biocatalysts, for example, the coating with polyethyleneimine (PEI). PEI is a flexible polymer that suits the structure of the enzyme, giving greater stability, especially for multimeric enzymes such as β-galactosidases and also protects it from environmental variations, for example, pH and temperature. In addition, it can substantially improve the immobilization parameters and also the efficiency of enzymatic reactions. In this context, the aim of the present work was first to develop biocatalysts of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis immobilized on PEI coated agarose, determining the immobilization parameters, its operational and thermal stability, and then to apply it in the hydrolysis of lactose and synthesis of lactulose, using whey as a substrate. This immobilization strategy was chosen in order to improve the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme in the transgalactosylation reaction for the production of prebiotics, and there are few studies with β-galactosidase from this strain. The immobilization of β-galactosidase in agarose previously functionalized with 48% (w/v) glycidol and then coated with 10% (w/v) PEI solution was evaluated using an enzymatic load of 10 mg/g of protein. Subsequently, the hydrolysis and transgalactosylation reactions were conducted at 50 °C, 120 RPM for 20 minutes, using whey (66.7 g/L of lactose) supplemented with 133.3 g/L fructose at a ratio of 1:2 (lactose/fructose). Operational stability studies were performed in the same conditions for 10 cycles. Thermal stabilities of biocatalysts were conducted at 50 ºC in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.6, with 0.1 mM MnCl2. The biocatalysts whose supports were coated were named AGA_GLY_PEI_GAL, and those that were not coated were named AGA_GLY_GAL. The coating of the support with PEI considerably improved immobilization yield (2.6-fold), the biocatalyst activity (1.4-fold), and efficiency (2.2-fold). The biocatalyst AGA_GLY_PEI_GAL was better than AGA_GLY_GAL in hydrolysis and transgalactosylation reactions, converting 88.92% of lactose at 5 min of reaction and obtaining a residual concentration of 5.24 g/L. Besides that, it was produced 13.90 g/L lactulose in the same time interval. AGA_GLY_PEI_GAL biocatalyst was stable during the 10 cycles evaluated, converting approximately 80% of lactose and producing 10.95 g/L of lactulose even after the tenth cycle. However, the thermal stability of AGA_GLY_GAL biocatalyst was superior, with a half-life time 5 times higher, probably because the enzyme was immobilized by covalent bonding, which is stronger than adsorption (AGA_GLY_PEI_GAL). Therefore, the strategy of coating the supports with PEI has proven to be effective for the immobilization of β-galactosidase from K. lactis, considerably improving the immobilization parameters, as well as the enzyme, catalyzed reactions. In addition, the use of whey as a raw material for lactulose production has proved to be an industrially advantageous alternative.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, immobilization, whey, lactulose, polyethylenimine

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706 Bioflocculation Using the Purified Wild Strain of P. aeruginosa Culture in Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Mohammad Hajjartabar, Tahereh Kermani Ranjbar

Abstract:

P. aeruginosa EF2 was isolated and identified from human infection sources before in our previous study. The present study was performed to determine the characteristics and activity role of bioflocculant produced by the bacterium in flocculation of the wastewater active sludge treatment. The bacterium was inoculated and then was grown in an orbital shaker at 250 rpm for 5 days at 35 °C under TSB and peptone water media. After incubation period, culture broths of the bacterial strain was collected and washed. The concentration of the bacteria was adjusted. For the extraction of the bacterial bioflocculant, culture was centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min at 4 °C to remove bacterial cells. Supernatant was decanted and pellet containing bioflocculant was dried at 105 °C to a constant weight according to APHA, 2005. The chemical composition of the extracted bioflocculant from the bacterial sample was then analyzed. Wastewater active sludge sample obtained from aeration tank from one of wastewater treatment plants in Tehran, was first mixed thoroughly. After addition of bioflocculant, improvements in floc density were observed with an increase in bioflocculant. The results of this study strongly suggested that the extracted bioflucculant played a significant role in flocculation of the wastewater sample. The use of wild bacteria and nutrient regulation techniques instead of genetic manipulation opens wide investigation area in the future to improve wastewater treatment processes. Also this may put a new path in front of us to attain and improve the more effective bioflocculant using the purified microbial culture in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, sludge treatment, P. aeruginosa

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705 Reduction of Specific Energy Consumption in Microfiltration of Bacillus velezensis Broth by Air Sparging and Turbulence Promoter

Authors: Ivana Pajčin, Jovana Grahovac, Natasa Lukic, Jelena Dodic, Aleksandar Jokic

Abstract:

To obtain purified biomass to be used in the plant pathogen biocontrol or as soil biofertilizer, it is necessary to eliminate residual broth components at the end of the fermentation process. The main drawback of membrane separation techniques is permeate flux decline due to the membrane fouling. Fouling mitigation measures increase the pressure drop along membrane channel due to the increased resistance to flow of the feed suspension, thus increasing the hydraulic power drop. At the same time, these measures lead to an increase in the permeate flux due to the reduced resistance of the filtration cake on the membrane surface. Because of these opposing effects, the energy efficiency of fouling mitigation measures is limited, and the justification of its application is provided by information on a reducing specific energy consumption compared to a case without any measures employed. In this study, the influence of static mixer (Kenics) and air-sparging (two-phase flow) on reduction of specific energy consumption (ER) was investigated. Cultivation Bacillus velezensis was carried out in the 3-L bioreactor (Biostat® Aplus) containing 2 L working volume with two parallel Rushton turbines and without internal baffles. Cultivation was carried out at 28 °C on at 150 rpm with an aeration rate of 0.75 vvm during 96 h. The experiments were carried out in a conventional cross-flow microfiltration unit. During experiments, permeate and retentate were recycled back to the broth vessel to simulate continuous process. The single channel ceramic membrane (TAMI Deutschland) used had a nominal pore size 200 nm with the length of 250 mm and an inner/external diameter of 6/10 mm. The useful membrane channel surface was 4.33×10⁻³ m². Air sparging was brought by the pressurized air connected by a three-way valve to the feed tube by a simple T-connector without diffusor. The different approaches to flux improvement are compared in terms of energy consumption. Reduction of specific energy consumption compared to microfiltration without fouling mitigation is around 49% and 63%, for use of two-phase flow and a static mixer, respectively. In the case of a combination of these two fouling mitigation methods, ER is 60%, i.e., slightly lower compared to the use of turbulence promoter alone. The reason for this result can be found in the fact that flux increase is more affected by the presence of a Kenics static mixer while sparging results in an increase of energy used during microfiltration. By comparing combined method with turbulence promoter flux enhancement method ER is negative (-7%) which can be explained by increased power consumption for air flow with moderate contribution to the flux increase. Another confirmation for this fact can be found by comparing energy consumption values for combined method with energy consumption in the case of two-phase flow. In this instance energy reduction (ER) is 22% that demonstrates that turbulence promoter is more efficient compared to two phase flow. Antimicrobial activity of Bacillus velezensis biomass against phytopathogenic isolates Xanthomonas campestris was preserved under different fouling reduction methods.

Keywords: microfiltration, two-phase flow, static mixer, Bacillus velezensis

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704 Separation of Urinary Proteins with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis in Patients with Secondary Nephropathies

Authors: Ognen Kostovski, Irena Kostovska, Katerina Tosheska Trajkovska, Svetlana Cekovska, Julijana Brezovska Kavrakova, Hristina Ampova, Sonja Topuzovska, Goce Spasovski, Danica Labudovic

Abstract:

Background: Proteinuria is an important feature of secondary nephropathies. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of proteinuria plays an important role in determining the types of proteinuria (glomerular, tubular and mixed), in the diagnosis and prognosis of secondary nephropathies. The damage of the glomerular basement membrane is responsible for a proteinuria characterized by the presence of large amounts of protein with high molecular weights such as albumin (69 kilo Daltons-kD), transferrin (78 kD) and immunoglobulin G (150 kD). An insufficiency of proximal tubular function is the cause of a proteinuria characterized by the presence of proteins with low molecular weight (LMW), such as retinol binding protein (21 kD) and α1-microglobulin (31 kD). In some renal diseases, a mixed glomerular and tubular proteinuria is frequently seen. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is the most widely used method of analyzing urine proteins for clinical purposes. The main aim of the study is to determine the type of proteinuria in the most common secondary nephropathies such as diabetic, hypertensive nephropathy and preeclampsia. Material and methods: In this study were included 90 subjects: subjects with diabetic nephropathy (n=30), subjects with hypertensive nephropahty (n=30) and pregnant women with preeclampsia (n=30). We divided all subjects according to UM/CR into three subgroups: macroalbuminuric (UM/CR >300 mg/g), microalbuminuric (UM/CR 30-300 mg/g) and normolabuminuric (UM/CR<30 mg/g). In all subjects, we measured microalbumin and creatinine in urine with standard biochemical methods. Separation of urinary proteins was performed by SDS-PAGE, in several stages: linear gel preparation (4-22%), treatment of urinary samples before their application on the gel, electrophoresis, gel fixation, coloring with Coomassie blue, and identification of the separated protein fractions based on standards with exactly known molecular weight. Results: According to urinary microalbumin/creatinin ratio in group of subject with diabetic nephropathy, nine patients were macroalbuminuric, while 21 subject were microalbuminuric. In group of subjects with hypertensive nephropathy, we found macroalbuminuria (n=4), microalbuminuria (n=20) and normoalbuminuria (n=6). All pregnant women with preeclampsia were macroalbuminuric. Electrophoretic separation of urinary proteins showed that in macroalbuminric patients with diabetic nephropathy 56% have mixed proteinuria, 22% have glomerular proteinuria and 22% have tubular proteinuria. In subgroup of subjects with diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria, 52% have glomerular proteinuria, 8% have tubular proteinuria, and 40% of subjects have normal electrophoretic findings. All patients with maroalbuminuria and hypertensive nephropathy have mixed proteinuria. In subgroup of patients with microalbuminuria and hypertensive nephropathy, we found: 32% with mixed proteinuria, 27% with normal findings, 23% with tubular, and 18% with glomerular proteinuria. In all normoalbuminruic patiens with hypertensive nephropathy, we detected normal electrophoretic findings. In group of subjects pregnant women with preeclampsia, we found: 81% with mixed proteinuria, 13% with glomerular, and 8% with tubular proteinuria. Conclusion: By SDS PAGE method, we detected that in patients with secondary nephropathies the most common type of proteinuria is mixed proteinuria, indicating both loss of glomerular permeability and tubular function. We can conclude that SDS PAGE is high sensitive method for detection of renal impairment in patients with secondary nephropathies.

Keywords: Diabetic Nephropathy, SDS PAGE, preeclampsia, hypertensive nephropathy

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703 Umbilical Cord-Derived Cells in Corneal Epithelial Regeneration

Authors: Hasan Mahmud Reza

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Extensive studies of the human umbilical cord, both basic and translational, over the last three decades have unveiled a plethora of information. The cord lining harbors at least two phenotypically different multipotent stem cells: mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cord lining epithelial stem cells (CLECs). These cells exhibit a mixed genetic profiling of both embryonic and adult stem cells, hence display a broader stem features than cells from other sources. We have observed that umbilical cord-derived cells are immunologically privileged and non-tumorigenic by animal study. These cells are ethically acceptable, thus provides a significant advantage over other stem cells. The high proliferative capacity, viability, differentiation potential, and superior harvest of these cells have made them better candidates in comparison to contemporary adult stem cells. Following 30 replication cycles, these cells have been observed to retain their stemness, with their phenotype and karyotype intact. Transplantation of bioengineered CLEC sheets in limbal stem cell-deficient rabbit eyes resulted in regeneration of clear cornea with phenotypic expression of the normal cornea-specific epithelial cytokeratin markers. The striking features of low immunogenicity protecting self along with co-transplanted allografts from rejection largely define the transplantation potential of umbilical cord-derived stem cells.

Keywords: Regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cell, umbilical cord, cord lining epithelial stem cells

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702 Biophysical Characterization of the Inhibition of cGAS-DNA Sensing by KicGAS, Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Inhibitor of cGAS

Authors: Y. Tian, D. Bhowmik, Q. Yin, F. Zhu

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Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), recognises cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), indicative of bacterial and viral infections, as well as the leakage of self DNA by cellular dysfunction and stresses, to elicit the host's immune responses. Viruses also have developed numerous strategies to antagonize the cGAS-STING pathway. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human DNA tumor virus that is the causative agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma and several other malignancies. To persist in the host, consequently causing diseases, KSHV must overcome the host innate immune responses, including the cGAS-STING DNA sensing pathway. We already found that ORF52 or KicGAS (KSHV inhibitor of cGAS), an abundant and basic gamma herpesvirus-conserved tegument protein, directly inhibits cGAS enzymatic activity. To better understand the mechanism, we have performed the biochemical and structural characterization of full-length KicGAS and various mutants in regarding binding to DNA. We observed that KicGAS is capable of self-association and identified the critical residues involved in the oligomerization process. We also characterized the DNA-binding of KicGAS and found that KicGAS cooperatively oligomerizes along the length of the double stranded DNA, the highly conserved basic residues at the c-terminal disordered region are crucial for DNA recognition. Deficiency in oligomerization also affects DNA binding. Thus DNA binding by KicGAS sequesters DNA and prevents it from being detected by cGAS, consequently inhibiting cGAS activation. KicGAS homologues also inhibit cGAS efficiently, suggesting inhibition of cGAS is evolutionarily conserved mechanism among gamma herpesvirus. These results highlight the important viral strategy to evade this innate immune sensor.

Keywords: inhibition, DNA binding, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, KSHV, cGAS

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701 Construction and Performance of Nanocomposite-Based Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Jianfang Wang, Xianzhe Chen, Zhuoliang Liu, Cheng-An Tao, Yujiao Li

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Organophosphorus (OPs) pesticide used as insecticides are widely used in agricultural pest control, household and storage deworming. The detection of pesticides needs more simple and efficient methods. One of the best ways is to make electrochemical biosensors. In this paper, an electrochemical enzyme biosensor based on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) was constructed, and its sensing properties and sensing mechanisms were studied. Reduced graphene oxide-polydopamine complexes (RGO-PDA), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared firstly and composited with AChE and chitosan (CS), then fixed on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface to construct the biosensor GCE/RGO-PDA-AuNPs-AgNPs-AChE-CS by one-pot method. The results show that graphene oxide (GO) can be reduced by dopamine (DA) and dispersed well in RGO-PDA complexes. And the composites have a synergistic catalysis effect and can improve the surface resistance of GCE. The biosensor selectively can detect acetylcholine (ACh) and OPs pesticide with good linear range and high sensitivity. The performance of the biosensor is affected by the ratio and adding ways of AChE and the adding of AuNPs and AChE. And the biosensor can achieve a detection limit of 2.4 ng/L for methyl parathion and a wide linear detection range of 0.02 ng/L ~ 80 ng/L, and has excellent stability, good anti-interference ability, and excellent preservation performance, indicating that the sensor has practical value.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, reduced graphene oxide, organophosphates, electrochemical biosensor, acetylcholine esterase

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700 Photocatalytic Removal of Methylene Blue Dye: Fabrication and Optimization of Adsorbant Material and a Photocatlyst in Unilayer and Bilayer System

Authors: S. Ismail, M. Z. Mahmood

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A reusable immobilized unilayer thin coating of adsorbent material bentonite and photocatalyst (TiO₂) was fabricated on the glass beaker to remove aqueous methylene blue solution. The dye removal efficiency of photocatalyst was much lower with pure titanium dioxide. In the preliminary experiments, different compositions of TiO₂ – bentonite were tested on unilayer and bilayer system, and it was observed that 0.50:0.50 ratios are best for maximum photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in aqueous medium when applied on unilayer coating system.

Keywords: Adsorption, TiO2, bentonite, photocatalyst

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699 Systematic Taxonomy and Phylogenetic of Commercial Fish Species of Family Nemipetridae from Malaysian Waters and Neighboring Seas

Authors: Ayesha Imtiaz, Darlina Md. Naim

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Family Nemipteridae is among the most abundantly distributed family in Malaysian fish markets due to its high contribution to landing sites of Malaysia. Using an advanced molecular approach that used two mitochondrial (Cytochrome oxidase c I and Cytochrome oxidase b) and one nuclear gene (Recombination activating gene, RAGI) to expose cryptic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among commercially important species of family Nemipteridae. Our research covered all genera (including 31 species out total 45 species) of family Nemipteridae, distributed in Malaysia. We also found certain type of geographical barriers in the South China sea that reduces dispersal and stops a few species to intermix. Northside of the South China Sea (near Vietnam) does not allow genetic diversity to mix with the Southern side of the South China sea (Sarawak) and reduces dispersal. Straits of Malacca reduce the intermixing genetic diversity of South China Sea and the Indian Ocean.

Keywords: Malaysia, South East Asia, Nemipteridae, RAG I

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698 Polymorphisms of STAT5A and DGAT1 Genes and Their Associations with Milk Trait in Egyptian Goats

Authors: Othman Elmahdy Othman

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The objectives of this study were to identify polymorphisms in the STAT5A using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and DGAT1 using Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism genes among three Egyptian goat breeds (Barki, Zaraibi, and Damascus) as well as investigate the effect of their genotypes on milk composition traits of Zaraibi goats. One hundred and fifty blood samples were collected for DNA extraction, 60 from Zaraibi, 40 from Damascus and 50 from Barki breeds. Fat, protein and lactose percentages were determined in Zaraibi goat milk using an automatic milk analyzer. Two genotypes, CC and CT (for STAT5A) and C-C- and C-C+ (for DGAT1), were identified in the three Egyptian goat breeds with different frequencies. The associations between these genotypes and milk fat, protein and lactose were determined in Zaraibi breed. The results showed that the STAT5A genotypes had significant effects on milk yield, protein, fat and lactose with the superiority of CT genotype over CC. Regarding DGAT1 polymorphism, the result showed the only association between it with milk fat where the animals with C-C+ genotype had greater milk fat than animals possess C-C- genotype. The association of combined genotypes with milk trait declared that the does with heterozygous genotypes for both genes are preferred than does with homozygous genotypes where the animals with CTC-C+ have more milk yield, fat and protein than those with CCC-C- genotype. In conclusion, the result showed that C/T and C-/C+ SNPs of STAT5A and DGAT1 genes respectively may be useful markers for assisted selection programs to improve goat milk composition

Keywords: genetic polymorphism, DGAT1, milk trait, STAT5A

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697 Prospects of Milk Protein as a Potential Alternative of Natural Antibiotic

Authors: Syeda Fahria Hoque Mimmi

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Many new and promising treatments for reducing or diminishing the adverse effects of microorganisms are being discovered day by day. On the other hand, the dairy industry is accelerating the economic wheel of Bangladesh. Considering all these facts, new thoughts were developed to isolate milk proteins by the present experiment for opening up a new era of developing natural antibiotics from milk. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein with multifunctional properties, is crucial to strengthening the immune system and also useful for commercial applications. The protein’s iron-binding capacity makes it undoubtedly advantageous to immune system modulation and different bacterial strains. For fulfilling the purpose, 4 of raw and 17 of commercially available milk samples were collected from different farms and stores in Bangladesh (Dhaka, Chittagong, and Cox’s Bazar). Protein quantification by nanodrop technology has confirmed that raw milk samples have better quantities of protein than the commercial ones. All the samples were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 18 pathogens, where raw milk samples showed a higher percentage of antibacterial activity. In addition to this, SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate–Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) was performed to identify lactoferrin in the milk samples. Lactoferrin was detected in 9 samples from which 4 were raw milk samples. Interestingly, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera, Staphylococcus aureus, and enterotoxigenic E. coli significantly displayed sensitivity against lactoferrin collected from raw milk. Only Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis, and ETEC (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) were susceptible to lactoferrin obtained from a commercial one. This study suggested that lactoferrin might be used as the potential alternative of antibiotics for many diseases and also can be used to reduce microbial deterioration in the food and feed industry.

Keywords: Pathogens, Raw Milk, lactoferrin, alternative of antibiotics, commercially available milk, nanodrop technology

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696 Tunable Optoelectronic Properties of WS₂ by Local Strain Engineering and Folding

Authors: Ahmed Raza Khan

Abstract:

Local-strain engineering is an exciting approach to tune the optoelectronic properties of materials and enhance the performance of devices. Two dimensional (2D) materials such as 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are particularly well-suited for this purpose because they have high flexibility and can withstand high deformations before rupture. Wrinkles on thick TMDC layers have been reported to show the interesting photoluminescence enhancement due to bandgap modulation and funneling effect. However, the wrinkles in ultrathin TMDCs have not been investigated, because the wrinkles can easily fall down to form folds in these ultrathin layers of TMDCs. Here, we have achieved both wrinkle and fold nano-structures simultaneously on 1-3L WS₂ using a new fabrication technique. The comparable layer dependent reduction in surface potential is observed for both folded layers and corresponding perfect pack layers due to the dominant interlayer screening effect. The strains produced from the wrinkle nanostructures considerably vary semi conductive junction properties. Thermo-ionic modelling suggests that the strained (1.6%) wrinkles can lower the Schottky barrier height (SBH) by 20%. The photo-generated carriers would further significantly lower the SBH. These results present an important advance towards controlling the optoelectronic properties of atomically thin WS₂ using strain engineering, with important implications for practical device applications.

Keywords: Folding, surface potential, photo current, strain engineering, WS₂, Kelvin probe force microscopy, KPFM, layer dependence

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695 Test Method Development for Evaluation of Process and Design Effect on Reinforced Tube

Authors: Cathal Merz, Gareth O’Donnell

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Coil reinforced thin-walled (CRTW) tubes are used in medicine to treat problems affecting blood vessels within the body through minimally invasive procedures. The CRTW tube considered in this research makes up part of such a device and is inserted into the patient via their femoral or brachial arteries and manually navigated to the site in need of treatment. This procedure replaces the requirement to perform open surgery but is limited by reduction of blood vessel lumen diameter and increase in tortuosity of blood vessels deep in the brain. In order to maximize the capability of these procedures, CRTW tube devices are being manufactured with decreasing wall thicknesses in order to deliver treatment deeper into the body and to allow passage of other devices through its inner diameter. This introduces significant stresses to the device materials which have resulted in an observed increase in the breaking of the proximal segment of the device into two separate pieces after it has failed by buckling. As there is currently no international standard for measuring the mechanical properties of these CRTW tube devices, it is difficult to accurately analyze this problem. The aim of the current work is to address this discrepancy in the biomedical device industry by developing a measurement system that can be used to quantify the effect of process and design changes on CRTW tube performance, aiding in the development of better performing, next generation devices. Using materials testing frames, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging, experiment planning, analysis of variance (ANOVA), T-tests and regression analysis, test methods have been developed for assessing the impact of process and design changes on the device. The major findings of this study have been an insight into the suitability of buckle and three-point bend tests for the measurement of the effect of varying processing factors on the device’s performance, and guidelines for interpreting the output data from the test methods. The findings of this study are of significant interest with respect to verifying and validating key process and design changes associated with the device structure and material condition. Test method integrity evaluation is explored throughout.

Keywords: buckling, tensile, neurovascular catheter, coil reinforced tube, three-point bend

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694 Phytoplankton Diversity and Abundance in Burullus Lagoon, Southern Mediterranean Coast, Egypt

Authors: Shymaa S. Zaher, Hesham M. Abd El-Fatah, Dina M. Ali

Abstract:

Burullus Lagoon is the second largest lake, along the Mediterranean seashore. It exposed to over nutrient enrichment from fish farming and agricultural drainage wastes. This study assesses the present status phytoplankton response to different flow events, including domestic, agricultural, industrial, and fish farms discharge in the three main sectors of Burullus Lagoon, to focus on the influence of environmental variables on phytoplankton species composition inhabiting the Lagoon. Twelve sites representing the eastern, central, and western basin were selected during winter and summer 2018. Among the most abundant group, Chlorophyceae came in the first rank by 37.9% of the total phytoplankton densities, Bacillariophyceae (29.31%), Cyanophyceae (20.7%), Euglenophyceae (8.63%) and Dinophyceae (3.4%). Cyclotella menenghiana was the most abundant diatoms, while Scenedesmus quadricauda, S. acuminatus, and S. bijuga were highly recorded nearby the drains (in the middle sector). Phytoplankton in Burullus Lagoon attained the lowest values during the winter season and the highest ones during the summer season. The total count of phytoplankton in the middle and western basin of the lake was higher than that of the eastern part. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and washing out of nutrients loaded to the drainage water, leading to a significant pronounced decrease in community composition and standing crop of phytoplankton in Burullus Lake from year to year, hold the danger of shifting the lagoon ecosystem.

Keywords: Water pollution, phytoplankton, environmental variables, Burullus Lagoon

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