Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

barriers Related Abstracts

37 Supporting Factors and Barriers to Implementing Eco-Efficiency of Automotive Industry: A Case of Thailand

Authors: Setthasakko Watchaneeporn, Angkawinijwong Sasiwan

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This paper aims to gain an understanding of supporting factors and barriers to implementing eco-efficiency of automotive industry in Thailand. It employs in-depth interviews with key involved informants, including environmental managers, plant managers and environmental officers of six leading companies. It is found that board of directors, legislation and customers’ need are three main supporting factors in implementing eco-efficiency. Data collection and lack of awareness and knowledge about eco-efficiency are identified as barriers.

Keywords: Automotive industry, Thailand, barriers, Eco-Efficiency, supporting factors

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36 Challenges and Opportunities for M-Government Implementation in Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. Alssbaiheen, S. Love

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Mobile government (m-government) is one of the promising technologies for developing the governance of developing countries. While developing countries often have less advanced internet infrastructure compared to the developed world, mobile phone penetration is very high in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and mobile internet use offers a means to transcend traditional logistical barriers to accessing government services. The study explores the challenges and opportunities of the mobile government in Saudi Arabia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse cohort of Saudi mobile users. A total of 77 semi-structured interviews were collected and subsequently analysed using open, axial, and selective coding. The participants’ responses revealed that many opportunities exist for the development of m-government in Saudi Arabia, including high popular awareness of government initiatives in e-government, and willingness to use such services, largely due to the time-saving and convenience aspects it offers compared with traditional bureaucratic services. However, numerous barriers were identified, including the low quality and speed of the internet, service customization, and concerns about privacy data security. It was also felt that in addition to infrastructure challenges, the traditional bureaucratic attitude of government department would itself hinder the effective deployment and utilization of m-government services.

Keywords: Mobile Government, Challenges, awareness, Opportunities, barriers, m-government, government services

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35 The Impact of Socio – Cultural Factors on Female Entrepreneurial Intention: The Case of Algeria

Authors: Nesrine Bouguerra

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Entrepreneurship is seen as a necessary ingredient for stimulating economic growth and employment opportunities in all societies. SMEs account for a wide share of economic activity and development. they are the primary engine of job creation, income growth and poverty reduction. Indeed, government support for entrepreneurship is a strategic option to foster economic growth and females’ input in this regard, is of equal significance not only for employability and productivity but also to narrow the gender gap created by social attitudes and beliefs. This study investigates the impact of socio–cultural factors, among other barriers on female entrepreneurial intention in Algeria. Data will be collected using a mixed method approach (Questionnaires and Interviews) from women intending to become entrepreneurs and those already in the field. This study has conceptual, theoretical and empirical contributions to the field of entrepreneurship which will be unveiled throughout.

Keywords: Women, SMEs, barriers, female entrepreneurship, socio –cultural values

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34 Investigating Perception of Iranian Organizations on Internet of Things Solutions and Applications

Authors: Changiz Valmohammadi

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The main purpose of this study is to explore the perception of Iranian experts and executive managers of sample organizations on the benefits and barriers of Internet of Things (IoT) solutions implementation. Based on the review of the related literature and web sites, benefits and barriers of successful implementation to IoT solutions were identified. Through a self-administered questionnaire which was collected from 67 Iranian organizations the ranking and importance of benefits and barriers of IoT solutions implementation were determined based on the perception of the experts of the surveyed organizations. Analysis of data and the obtained results revealed that “improved customer experience” and “Supply chain optimization and responsiveness” are the most important benefits that the survey organizations expect to reap as a result of IoT solutions implementation. Also,” Integration challenges" and “cannot find right suppliers” were ranked as the most challenging barriers to IoT solutions implementation.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), barriers, Iran, exploratory study, benefits

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33 Challenging Barriers to the Evolution of the Saudi Animation Industry Life-Cycle

Authors: Ohud Alharbi, Emily Baines

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The animation industry is one of the creative industries that have attracted recent historiographical attention. However, there has been very limited research on Saudi Arabian and wider Arabian animation industries, while there are a large number of studies that have covered this issue for North America, Europe and East Asia. The existing studies show that developed countries such as USA, Japan and the UK have reached the Maturity stage in their animation industry life-cycle. On the other hand, developing countries that are still in the Introduction phase of the industry life-cycle face challenges to improve their industry. Saudi Arabia is one of the countries whose animation industry is still in its infancy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to address the main barriers that hinder the evolution of the industry life-cycle for Saudi animation – challenges that are also relevant to many other early stage industries in developing countries. These barriers have been analysed using the early mobility barriers defined by Porter, to provide a conceptual structure for defining recommendations to enable the transition to a strong Growth phase industry. This study utilized qualitative methods to collect data, which involved in-depth interviews, document analysis and observations. It also undertook a comparative case study approach to investigate the animation industry life-cycle, with three selected case studies that have a more developed industry than Saudi animation. Case studies include: the United Kingdom, which represents a Mature animation industry; Egypt, which represents an established Growth stage industry; and the United Arab of Emirates, which is an early Growth stage industry. This study suggests adopting appropriate strategies that arise as findings from the comparative case studies, to overcome barriers and facilitate the growth of the Saudi animation industry.

Keywords: Industry, barriers, industry life-cycle, Saudi animation

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32 Exploring Barriers to Social Innovation: Swedish Experiences from Nine Research Circles

Authors: Claes Gunnarsson, Karin Fröding, Nina Hasche

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Innovation is a necessity for the evolution of societies and it is also a driving force in human life that leverages value creation among cross-sector participants in various network arrangements. Social innovations can be characterized as the creation and implementation of a new solution to a social problem, which is more effective and sustainable than existing solutions in terms of improvement of society’s conditions and in particular social inclusion processes. However, barriers exist which may restrict the potential of social innovations to live up to its promise as a societal welfare promoting driving force. The literature points at difficulties in tackling social problems primarily related to problem complexity, access to networks, and lack of financial muscles. Further research is warranted at detailed at detail clarification of these barriers, also connected to recognition of the interplay between institutional logics on the development of cross-sector collaborations in networks and the organizing processes to achieve innovation barrier break-through. There is also a need to further elaborate how obstacles that spur a difference between the actual and desired state of innovative value creating service systems can be overcome. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate barriers to social innovations, based on qualitative content analysis of 36 dialogue-based seminars (i.e. research circles) with nine Swedish focus groups including more than 90 individuals representing civil society organizations, private business, municipal offices, and politicians; and analyze patterns that reveal constituents of barriers to social innovations. The paper draws on central aspects of innovation barriers as discussed in the literature and analyze barriers basically related to internal/external and tangible/intangible characteristics. The findings of this study are that existing institutional structures highly influence the transformative potential of social innovations, as well as networking conditions in terms of building a competence-propelled strategy, which serves as an offspring for overcoming barriers of competence extension. Both theoretical and practical knowledge will contribute to how policy-makers and SI-practitioners can facilitate and support social innovation processes to be contextually adapted and implemented across areas and sectors.

Keywords: Social innovation, Service Systems, barriers, research circles

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31 Factors of Influence in Software Process Improvement: An ISO/IEC 29110 for Very-Small Entities

Authors: N. Wongsai, R. Wetprasit, V. Siddoo

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The recently introduced ISO/IEC 29110 standard Lifecycle profile for Very Small Entities (VSE) has been adopted and practiced in many small and medium software companies, including in Thailand’s software industry. Many Thai companies complete their software process improvement (SPI) initiative program and have been certified. There are, however, a number of participants fail to success. This study was concerned with the factors that influence the accomplishment of the standard implementation in various VSE characteristics. In order to achieve this goal, exploring and extracting critical factors from prior studies were carried out and then the obtained factors were validated by the standard experts. Data analysis of comments and recommendations was performed using a qualitative content analysis method. This paper presents the initial set of influence factors in both positive and negative impact the ISO/IEC 29110 implementation with an aim at helping such SPI practitioners with some considerations to manage appropriate adoption approach in order to achieve its implementation.

Keywords: Software Process Improvement, barriers, critical success factors, SPI, ISO/IEC 29110, Very-Small Entity, VSE

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30 Barriers of the Development and Implementation of Health Information Systems in Iran

Authors: Abbas Sheikhtaheri, Nasim Hashemi

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Health information systems have great benefits for clinical and managerial processes of health care organizations. However, identifying and removing constraints and barriers of implementing and using health information systems before any implementation is essential. Physicians are one of the main users of health information systems, therefore, identifying the causes of their resistance and concerns about the barriers of the implementation of these systems is very important. So the purpose of this study was to determine the barriers of the development and implementation of health information systems in terms of the Iranian physicians’ perspectives. In this study conducted in 8 selected hospitals affiliated to Tehran and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2014, physicians (GPs, residents, interns, specialists) in these hospitals were surveyed. In order to collect data, a research made questionnaire was used (Cronbach’s α = 0.95). The instrument included 25 about organizational (9), personal (4), moral and legal (3) and technical barriers (9). Participants were asked to answer the questions using 5 point scale Likert (completely disagree=1 to completely agree=5). By using a simple random sampling method, 200 physicians (from 600) were invited to study that eventually 163 questionnaires were returned. We used mean score and t-test and ANOVA to analyze the data using SPSS software version 17. 52.1% of respondents were female. The mean age was 30.18 ± 7.29. The work experience years for most of them were between 1 to 5 years (80.4 percent). The most important barriers were organizational ones (3.4 ± 0.89), followed by ethical (3.18 ± 0.98), technical (3.06 ± 0.8) and personal (3.04 ± 1.2). Lack of easy access to a fast Internet (3.67±1.91) and the lack of exchanging information (3.61±1.2) were the most important technical barriers. Among organizational barriers, the lack of efficient planning for the development and implementation systems (3.56±1.32) and was the most important ones. Lack of awareness and knowledge of health care providers about the health information systems features (3.33±1.28) and the lack of physician participation in planning phase (3.27±1.2) as well as concerns regarding the security and confidentiality of health information (3.15 ± 1.31) were the most important personal and ethical barriers, respectively. Women (P = 0.02) and those with less experience (P = 0.002) were more concerned about personal barriers. GPs also were more concerned about technical barriers (P = 0.02). According to the study, technical and ethics barriers were considered as the most important barriers however, lack of awareness in target population is also considered as one of the main barriers. Ignoring issues such as personal and ethical barriers, even if the necessary infrastructure and technical requirements were provided, may result in failure. Therefore, along with the creating infrastructure and resolving organizational barriers, special attention to education and awareness of physicians and providing solution for ethics concerns are necessary.

Keywords: Implementation, barriers, physicians, development health information systems

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29 Barriers towards Effective Participation in Physically Oriented Leisure Time Activities: A Case Study of Federal College of Education, Pankshin Plateau State, Nigeria

Authors: Mulak Moses Yokdi

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Correct use of leisure time has suffered neglect in our society and the people ignorantly think that the trend does not matter. The researcher felt concerned about the issue and went on to find out why using FCE, Pankshin workers as a case study. Four hypotheses were used, considering such variables as leadership, traditional activities, stress due to work pressure and time constraint. The participants selected for the study were one hundred and ten members of FCE, Pankshin staff. A self-developed questionnaire was the instrument used. Chi-square (x2) was employed to test the hypotheses at P = 0.005; df = 3. The statistics of percentages was also used to describe the situation as implicated by the data. The results showed that all hypotheses were significant (P = 0.05). It was concluded that the four variables were impediments to effective participation in physically oriented leisure time activities among the FCE, Staff. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the FCE should get good leadership, create good awareness for people to understand why they should be effectively involved in physically oriented leisure time activities.

Keywords: barriers, time constraint, effective participation, leisure time, physically oriented, work pressure

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28 Education System Development: Challenges and Barriers

Authors: Kumar Vikas

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Education is to be anticipated for Human resource development and then national development. However, in most of the developing countries, due to the inadequacy of resources it is almost unattainable to educate all of their citizens through on-campus teaching. Huge amount of money is necessary to establish the infrastructure for on-campus teaching which is out of the reach of the developing countries. In these circumstances, to educate their huge inhabitants the developing countries are to depend on open learning and distance education system. However, a question still stands: can the educators dissimulate knowledge to the learners smoothly through this new system of education? Some recent research shows that the graduates of the open and distance learning institutions in the developing countries are treated as second-grade graduates. This paper aims to identify the challenges or barriers in the development of distance and Open learning system in India and suggest possible alternatives may be followed to overcome the barriers.

Keywords: Distance Education, developing countries, Motivation, barriers, alternative solutions

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27 Disabling Barriers to Community Participation in Everyday Environments from the Perspective of People with Disabilities

Authors: Leah Samples

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Barriers to participation persist for people with disabilities despite a long history of legislation designed to support equal opportunity for people with disabilities. Historically, the focus has been solely placed on structural barriers, but newer research highlights the importance of looking at social and informational barriers to participation. Collectively, these barriers prevent people with disabilities from fully engaging in community life and consequently from achieving full citizenship. Disability is crucial to understanding the meaning of citizenship. Drawing upon the influences of feminist, critical race and human rights theorists, citizenship can be defined as a set of rights and responsibilities that an individual has because they are a part of a community. However, when those rights are taken away or denied one’s citizenship is in question. Employing this definition of citizenship allows one to examine how barriers to citizenship present themselves in societies that are built on an ideal of a non-disabled person. To understand at a deeper level how this notion of citizenship manifests itself, this study seeks to unearth commonly experienced barriers to participation in the lives of visually-impaired adults in everyday environments. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore commonly-experienced barriers to participation in the lives of visually impaired adults in leisure settings (e.g. restaurants, stores, etc.). Thirty adults with visual impairments participated in semi-structured interviews, as well as participant observations. The results suggest that barriers to participation are still pervasive in everyday environments and subsequently have an adverse effect on participation and belonging for people with visual impairments. This study highlights the importance of exploring and acknowledging the daily tensions that persons with disabilities face in their communities. A full exploration of these tensions is necessary in order to develop solutions and tools to create more just communities for everyone.

Keywords: Citizenship, barriers, belonging, everyday environments

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26 Barriers of Successful Employment of Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Mubarak Aldosari

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The focus of this qualitative study was to explore the main barriers of successful employment of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: The semi-structured interviews were used to explore perception of a sample of eight managers/supervisors of employees who had ID regarding the main barriers that face successful employment of individuals with ID. Results: Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed four major themes that impede successful employment of individuals with ID: experiences of work, (b) social skills, (c) attitudes to individuals with ID, and (d) transportation. Conclusion: The current study was designed to provide important information to policymakers, officials, educators and parents regarding the challenges and barriers that face the successful employment of individuals with ID. The study show the importance of the support as well as effective and planned preparation for individuals with ID during schools to be qualified and have skills that they to be successful in the employment. Additionally, the results of this study will encourage further study of transition to post schools for individuals with ID in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Employment, Social Skills, barriers, individuals with mild intellectual disabilities

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25 An Exploratory Study on the Level of Awareness and Common Barriers of Physicians on Overweight and Obesity Management in Bangladesh

Authors: Kamrun Nahar Koly, Saimul Islam

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Overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and a leading risk factor for morbidity throughout the world. In a country like Bangladesh where under nutrition and overweight both co-exist at the same time, but this issue has been underexplored as expected. The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and identify the barriers of the physicians regarding overweight and obesity management on an urban hospital of Dhaka city in Bangladesh. A simple cross sectional study was conducted at two selected government and two private hospital to assess the knowledge, attitude and common barriers regarding overweight and obesity management among healthcare professionals. One hundred and fifty five physicians were surveyed. A standard questionnaire was constructed in local language and interview was administrated. Among the 155 physicians, majority 53 (34.20%) were working on SMC, 36 (23.20%) from DMC, 33 (21.30%) were based on SSMC and the rest 33 (21.30%) were from HFRCMH. Mean age of the study physicians were 31.88±5.92. Majority of the physicians 80 (51.60%) were not able to answer the correct prevalence of obesity but also a substantial number of them 75(48.40%) could mark the right answer. Among the physicians 150 (96.77%) reported BMI as a diagnostic index for overweight and obesity, where as 43 (27.74%) waist circumference, 30 (19.35%) waist hip ratio and 26 (16.77%) marked mid-arm circumference. A substantial proportion 71 (46.70%) of the physicians thought that they do not have much to do controlling weight problem in Bangladesh context though it has been opposed by 42 (27.60%) of the physicians and 39(25.70%) was neutral to comment. The majority of them 147 (96.1%) thought that a family based education program would be beneficial followed by 145 (94.8%) physicians mentioned about raising awareness among mothers as she is the primary caregiver. The idea of a school based education program will also help to early intervene referred by 142 (92.8%) of the physicians. Community based education program was also appreciated by 136 (89.5%) of the physicians. About 74 (47.7%) of them think that the patients still lack in motivation to maintain their weight properly at the same time too many patients to deal with can be a barrier as well assumed by 73 (47.1%) of them. Lack of national policy or management guideline can act as an obstacle told by 60 (38.7%) of the physicians. The relationship of practicing as a part of the general examination and chronic disease management was statistically significant (p<0.05) with physician occupational status. As besides, perceived barriers like lack of parents support, lack of a national policy was statistically significant (p<0.05) with physician occupational status. For the young physician, more training programme will be needed to transform their knowledge and attitude into practice. However, several important barriers interface for the physician treatment efforts and need to address.

Keywords: Physician, awareness, obesity management, barriers, Bangladesh

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24 Identifying the Barriers behind the Lack of Six Sigma Use in Libyan Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Osama Elgadi, Martin Birkett, Wai Ming Cheung

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This paper investigates the barriers behind the underutilisation of six sigma in Libyan manufacturing companies (LMCs). A mixed-method methodology is proposed, starting by conducting interviews to collect qualitative data followed by the development of a questionnaire to obtain quantitative data. The focus of this paper is on discussing the findings of the interview stage and how these can be used to further develop the questionnaire stage. The interview results showed that only four key barriers were highlighted as being encountered by LMCs. With a difference in terms of their significance, these factors were identified, and placed in descending order according to their importance, namely: “Lack of top management commitment”, “Lack of training”, “Lack of knowledge about six sigma”, and “Culture effect”. The findings also showed that some barriers which, were found in previous studies of six sigma implementation were not considered as barriers to LMCs but can, in fact, be considered as success factors or enablers for six sigma adoption. These factors were identified as: “sufficiency of time and financial resources”; “customers unsatisfied”; “good communication between all departments in the company”; “we are certain about its results and benefits to our company and unhappy with the current quality system”. These results suggest that LMCs face fewer barriers to adopting six sigma than many well-established global companies operating in other countries and could take advantage of these successful factors by developing and implementing a six sigma framework to improve their product quality and competitiveness.

Keywords: Six Sigma, barriers, interview, Libyan manufacturing companies

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23 Lean Healthcare: Barriers and Enablers in the Colombian Context

Authors: Erika Ruiz, Nestor Ortiz

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Lean philosophy has evolved over time and has been implemented both in manufacturing and services, more recently lean has been integrated in the companies of the health sector. Currently it is important to understand the successful way to implement this philosophy and try to identify barriers and enablers to the sustainability of lean healthcare. The main purpose of this research is to identify the barriers and enablers in the implementation of Lean Healthcare based on case studies of Colombian healthcare centers. In order to do so, we conducted semi-structured interviews based on a maturity model. The main results indicate that the success of Lean implementation depends on its adaptation to contextual factors. In addition, in the Colombian context were identified new factors such as organizational culture, management models, integration of the care and administrative departments and triple helix relationship.

Keywords: Sustainability, Implementation, barriers, enablers, lean healthcare

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22 Interpretive Structural Modeling Technique for Hierarchal Ranking of Barriers in Implementation ofGreen Supply Chain Management-Case of Indian Petroleum Industry

Authors: Richa Grover, Kavish Kejriwal

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Consumer awareness and pending legislation have pushed environmental issues into the spotlight, making it imperative for organizations to have a plan of action for “going green.” This is the reason why Green Supply Chain Management has become the integral part of many organization with a goal to reduce cost, increase efficiency and be environmental friendly. Implementation of GSCM involves many factors which act as barriers, making it a tedious task. These barriers have different relationship among themselves creating different impact on implementation Green Supply Chain Management. This work focuses on determining those barriers which have essentially to be removed in the initial stages of GSCM adoption. In this work, the author has taken the case of a petroleum industry in order to come up with a solution. A DEMATEL approach is used to reach the solution.

Keywords: Environment, Impact, barriers, green supply chain management, interpretive structural modeling

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21 Empirical Investigation of Barriers to Industrial Energy Conservation Measures in the Manufacturing Small and Medium Enterprises (SME's) of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Tahir Hassan, Stas Burek, Mohamed Emad

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Industrial sector in Pakistan accounts for 25% of total energy consumption in the country. The performance of this sector has been severely affected due to the adverse effect of current energy crises in the country. Energy conservation potentials of Pakistan’s industrial sectors through energy management can save wasted energy which would ultimately leads to economic and environmental benefits. However due to lack of financial incentives of energy efficiency and absence of energy benchmarking within same industrial sectors are some of the main challenges in the implementation of energy management. In Pakistan, this area has not been adequately explored, and there is a lack of focus on the need for industrial energy efficiency and proper management. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the current energy management performance of Pakistani industrial sector and empirical investigation of the existence of various barriers to industrial energy efficiency. Data was collected from the respondents of 192 small and medium-sized enterprises (SME’s) of Pakistan i.e. foundries, textile, plastic industries, light engineering, auto and spare parts and ceramic manufacturers and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Current energy management performance of manufacturing SME’s in Pakistan has been evaluated by employing two significant indicators, ‘Energy Management Matrix’ and ‘pay-off criteria’, with modified approach. Using the energy management matrix, energy management profiles of overall industry and the individual sectors have been drawn to assess the energy management performance and identify the weak and strong areas as well. Results reveal that, energy management practices in overall surveyed industries are at very low level. Energy management profiles drawn against each sector suggest that performance of textile sector is better among all the surveyed manufacturing SME’s. The empirical barriers to industrial energy efficiency have also been ranked according to the overall responses. The results further reveal that there is a significant relationship exists among the industrial size, sector type and nature of barriers to industrial energy efficiency for the manufacturing SME’s in Pakistan. The findings of this study may help the industries and policy makers in Pakistan to formulate a sustainable energy policy to support industrial energy efficiency keeping in view the actual existing energy efficiency scenario in the industrial sector.

Keywords: Environment, Energy Conservation, barriers, energy management profile, manufacturing SME's of Pakistan

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20 An Evaluation of Barriers to Implement Reverse Logistics: A Case Study of Indian Fastener Industry

Authors: S. Luthra, A. Haleem, D. Garg

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Reverse logistics (RL) is supposed to be a systematic procedure that helps in improving the environmental hazards and maintain business sustainability for industries. Industries in Indian are now opting for adoption of RL techniques in business. But, RL practices are not popular in Indian industries because of many barriers for its successful implementation. Therefore, need arises to identify and evaluate the barriers to implement RL practices by taking an Indian industries perspective. Literature review approach and case study approach have been adapted to identify relevant barriers to implement RL practices. Further, Fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory methodology has been brought into use for evaluating causal relationships among the barriers to implement RL practices. Seven barriers out of ten barriers have been categorized into the cause group and remaining into effect group. This research will help Indian industries to manage these barriers towards effective implementing RL practices.

Keywords: Fuzzy set theory, barriers, decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL), Indian industries, reverse logistics (RL)

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19 Barriers to Business Model Innovation in the Agri-Food Industry

Authors: Pia Ulvenblad, Henrik Barth, Jennie Cederholm BjöRklund, Maya Hoveskog, Per-Ola Ulvenblad

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The importance of business model innovation (BMI) is widely recognized. This is also valid for firms in the agri-food industry, closely connected to global challenges. Worldwide food production will have to increase 70% by 2050 and the United Nations’ sustainable development goals prioritize research and innovation on food security and sustainable agriculture. The firms of the agri-food industry have opportunities to increase their competitive advantage through BMI. However, the process of BMI is complex and the implementation of new business models is associated with high degree of risk and failure. Thus, managers from all industries and scholars need to better understand how to address this complexity. Therefore, the research presented in this paper (i) explores different categories of barriers in research literature on business models in the agri-food industry, and (ii) illustrates categories of barriers with empirical cases. This study is addressing the rather limited understanding on barriers for BMI in the agri-food industry, through a systematic literature review (SLR) of 570 peer-reviewed journal articles that contained a combination of ‘BM’ or ‘BMI’ with agriculture-related and food-related terms (e.g. ‘agri-food sector’) published in the period 1990-2014. The study classifies the barriers in several categories and illustrates the identified barriers with ten empirical cases. Findings from the literature review show that barriers are mainly identified as outcomes. It can be assumed that a perceived barrier to growth can often be initially exaggerated or underestimated before being challenged by appropriate measures or courses of action. What may be considered by the public mind to be a barrier could in reality be very different from an actual barrier that needs to be challenged. One way of addressing barriers to growth is to define barriers according to their origin (internal/external) and nature (tangible/intangible). The framework encompasses barriers related to the firm (internal addressing in-house conditions) or to the industrial or national levels (external addressing environmental conditions). Tangible barriers can include asset shortages in the area of equipment or facilities, while human resources deficiencies or negative willingness towards growth are examples of intangible barriers. Our findings are consistent with previous research on barriers for BMI that has identified human factors barriers (individuals’ attitudes, histories, etc.); contextual barriers related to company and industry settings; and more abstract barriers (government regulations, value chain position, and weather). However, human factor barriers – and opportunities - related to family-owned businesses with idealistic values and attitudes and owning the real estate where the business is situated, are more frequent in the agri-food industry than other industries. This paper contributes by generating a classification of the barriers for BMI as well as illustrating them with empirical cases. We argue that internal barriers such as human factors barriers; values and attitudes are crucial to overcome in order to develop BMI. However, they can be as hard to overcome as for example institutional barriers such as governments’ regulations. Implications for research and practice are to focus on cognitive barriers and to develop the BMI capability of the owners and managers of agri-industry firms.

Keywords: Innovation, Business Model, barriers, agri-food

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18 Removing Barriers in Assessment and Feedback for Blind Students in Open Distance Learning

Authors: Sindile Ngubane-Mokiwa

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This paper addresses two questions: (1) what barriers do the blind students face with assessment and feedback in open distance learning contexts? And (2) How can these barriers be removed? The paper focuses on the distance education through which most students with disabilities elevate their chances of accessing higher education. Lack of genuine inclusion is also evident in the challenges the blind students face during the assessment. These barriers are experienced at both formative and summative stages. The insights in this paper emanate from a case study that was carried out through qualitative approaches. The data was collected through in-depth interview, life stories, and telephonic interviews. The paper provides a review of local, continental and international views on how best assessment barriers can be removed. A group of five blind students, comprising of two honours students, two master's students and one doctoral student participated in this study. The data analysis was done through thematic analysis. The findings revealed that (a) feedback to the assignment is often inaccessible; (b) the software used is incompatible; (c) learning and assessment are designed in exclusionary approaches; (d) assessment facilities are not conducive; and (e) lack of proactive innovative assessment strategies. The article concludes by recommending ways in which barriers to assessment can be removed. These include addressing inclusive assessment and feedback strategies in professional development initiatives.

Keywords: Disabilities, Feedback, Universal design for learning, barriers, Assessment Design, blind students

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17 The Requirements of Developing a Framework for Successful Adoption of Quality Management Systems in the Construction Industry

Authors: Mohammed Ali Ahmed, Vaughan Coffey, Bo Xia

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Quality management systems (QMSs) in the construction industry are often implemented to ensure that sufficient effort is made by companies to achieve the required levels of quality for clients. Attainment of these quality levels can result in greater customer satisfaction, which is fundamental to ensure long-term competitiveness for construction companies. However, the construction sector is still lagging behind other industries in terms of its successful adoption of QMSs, due to the relative lack of acceptance of the benefits of these systems among industry stakeholders, as well as from other barriers related to implementing them. Thus, there is a critical need to undertake a detailed and comprehensive exploration of adoption of QMSs in the construction sector. This paper comprehensively investigates in the construction sector setting, the impacts of all the salient factors surrounding successful implementation of QMSs in building organizations, especially those of external factors. This study is part of an ongoing PhD project, which aims to develop a new framework that integrates both internal and external factors affecting QMS implementation. To achieve the paper aim and objectives, interviews will be conducted to define the external factors influencing the adoption of QMSs, and to obtain holistic critical success factors (CSFs) for implementing these systems. In the next stage of data collection, a questionnaire survey will be developed to investigate the prime barriers facing the adoption of QMSs, the CSFs for their implementation, and the external factors affecting the adoption of these systems. Following the survey, case studies will be undertaken to validate and explain in greater detail the real effects of these factors on QMSs adoption. Specifically, this paper evaluates the effects of the external factors in terms of their impact on implementation success within the selected case studies. Using findings drawn from analyzing the data obtained from these various approaches, specific recommendations for the successful implementation of QMSs will be presented, and an operational framework will be developed. Finally, through a focus group, the findings of the study and the new developed framework will be validated. Ultimately, this framework will be made available to the construction industry to facilitate the greater adoption and implementation of QMSs. In addition, deployment of the applicable recommendations suggested by the study will be shared with the construction industry to more effectively help construction companies to implement QMSs, and overcome the barriers experienced by businesses, thus promoting the achievement of higher levels of quality and customer satisfaction.

Keywords: barriers, Quality Management Systems, critical success factors, external factors, internal factors

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16 Analysis of the Barriers and Aids That Lecturers Offer to Students with Disabilities

Authors: Anabel Moriña

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In recent years, advances have been made in disability policy at Spanish universities, especially in terms of creating more inclusive learning environments. Nevertheless, while efforts to foster inclusion at the tertiary level -and the growing number of students with disabilities at university- are clear signs of progress, serious barriers to full participation in learning still exist. The research shows that university responses to diversity tend to be reactive, not proactive; as a result, higher education (HE) environments can be especially disabling. It has been demonstrated that the performance of students with disabilities is closely linked to the good will of university faculty and staff. Lectures are key players when it comes to helping or hindering students throughout the teaching/learning process. This paper presents an analysis of how lecturers respond to students with disabilities, the initial question being: do lecturers aid or hinder students? The general aim is to analyse-by listen to the students themselves-lecturers barriers and support identified as affecting academic performance and overall perception of the higher education (HE) experience. Biographical-narrative methodology was employed. This research analysed the results differentiating by fields of knowledge. The research was conducted in two phases: discussion groups along with individual oral/written interviews were set up with 44 students with disabilities and mini life histories were completed for 16 students who participated in the first stage. The study group consisted of students with disabilities enrolled during three academic years. The results of this paper noted that participating students identified many more barriers than bridges when speaking about the role lecturers play in their learning experience. Findings are grouped into several categories: Faculty attitudes when “dealing with” students with disabilities, teaching methodologies, curricular adaptations, and faculty training in working with students. Faculty does not always display appropriate attitudes towards students with disabilities. Study participants speak of them turning their backs on their problems-or behaving in an awkward manner. In many cases, it seems lecturers feel that curricular adaptations of any kind are a form of favouritism. Positive attitudes, however, often depend almost entirely on the good will of faculty and-although well received by students-are hard to come by. As the participants themselves suggest, this study confirms that good teaching practices not only benefit students with disabilities but the student body as a whole. In this sense, inclusive curricula provide new opportunities for all students. A general coincidence has been the lack of training on behalf of lecturers to adequately attend disabled students, and the need to cover this shortage. This can become a primary barrier and is more often due to deficient faculty training than to inappropriate attitudes on the part of lecturers. In conclusion, based on this research we can conclude that more barriers than bridges exist. That said, students do report receiving a good deal of support from their lecturers-although almost exclusively in a spirit of good will; when lecturers do help, however, it tends to have a very positive impact on students' academic performance.

Keywords: Higher Education, Disability, barriers, lecturers

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15 Barriers Facing the Implementation of Lean Manufacturing in Libyan Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Martin Birkett, Mohamed Abduelmula, Chris Connor

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Lean Manufacturing has developed from being a set of tools and methods to becoming a management philosophy which can be used to remove or reduce waste in manufacturing processes and so enhance the operational productivity of an enterprise. Several enterprises around the world have applied the lean manufacturing system and gained great improvements. This paper investigates the barriers and obstacles that face Libyan manufacturing companies to implement lean manufacturing. A mixed-method approach is suggested, starting with conducting a questionnaire to get quantitative data then using this to develop semi-structured interviews to collect qualitative data. The findings of the questionnaire results and how these can be used further develop the semi-structured interviews are then discussed. The survey was distributed to 65 manufacturing companies in Libya, and a response rate of 64.6% was obtained. The results showed that these are five main barriers to implementing lean in Libya, namely organizational culture, skills and expertise, and training program, financial capability, top management, and communication. These barriers were also identified from the literature as being significant obstacles to implementing Lean in other countries industries. Having an understanding of the difficulties that face the implementation of lean manufacturing systems, as a new and modern system and using this to develop a suitable framework will help to improve the manufacturing sector in Libya.

Keywords: Lean manufacturing, barriers, questionnaire, Libyan manufacturing companies

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14 Health Care Providers' Perceptions on mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program: A Thematic Analysis

Authors: Kim H. K. Choy, Oliva H. K. Chu, W. Y. Keung, B. Lim, Winnie P. Y. Tang

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Background: Health care providers have been identified as an at-risk group for obesity. Mobile health technology can be used to motivate lifestyle behavioral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate hospital-based health care providers’ perceptions of mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted at a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Ten health care providers were purposively selected for the study. Qualitative data was collected by individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews which were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: Four themes were identified: (1) mobile health technology motivates lifestyle changes, (2) self-perceived body weight initiates health behavioral changes, (3) organizational support promotes healthy behavior, (4) lack of self-confidence hinders lifestyle modification. The health care providers’ perceptions of mobile health technology, barriers, and facilitators to participation in the mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program were discussed in the study. Conclusions: Barriers, facilitators, self-perceived body weight and experiences of mobile health technology were associated with intention of participation in mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program. The knowledge generated from the study could be used to guide the design and implementation of effective interventions, strategies and policies of workplace wellness programs to promote participation for hospital’s employees.

Keywords: Mobile Health, Qualitative, barriers, workplace wellness program, facilitators

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13 Understanding Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Osifeko Christiana Osikorede, Folarin Bolanle Eunice, Olugbenga Adebola Shodiya

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During these difficult economic times, nations are looking for ways to improve their finances, preserve the environment as well as the socio-political climate and educational institutions, which are needed to increase their economy and preserve their sustainable development. Sport is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examine and understanding barriers to participation in sport. A total of 1,025 students were purposively selected from five schools (School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Languages, School of Education, School of Sciences and School of Vocational and Technical Education) in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education (MOCPED). A questionnaire, with a tested reliability coefficient of 0.71, was used for data collection. The collected data were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. The findings showed that sports facilities, funding and lecture schedules were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities be provided by the Lagos State government.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Sports, Participation, barriers, state government

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12 Scoping Review of the Barriers and Facilitators to Enabling Scholarly Activity within Canadian Schools of Nursing

Authors: Paramita Banerjee, Christa Siminiuk, Morgan Yates, Alison Curtis, Lysbeth Cuanda

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This review looked at current evidence regarding barriers and facilitators to nursing scholarship within the content of Canadian Schools of Nursing. Nursing scholarship mainly referred to research, though other activities as described by Boyer’s Model were also discussed. This scoping review was done to assist the Langara School of Nursing in developing an evidenced-based plan to enhance scholarly work among its faculty members. The scoping review identified 10 articles which detailed barriers and facilitators in both Canadian and international contexts. Barriers and facilitators in these articles were extracted and they were also critically appraised. The identified barriers and facilitators fell into three main areas; personal attributes, facility factors and system challenges. The three area will be discussed further in the presentation as well as strategies identified to overcome these barriers.

Keywords: Nursing Education, Scholarship, barriers, facilitators

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11 Exploring Socio-Economic Barriers of Green Entrepreneurship in Iran and Their Interactions Using Interpretive Structural Modeling

Authors: Younis Jabarzadeh, Rahim Sarvari, Negar Ahmadi Alghalandis

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Entrepreneurship at both individual and organizational level is one of the most driving forces in economic development and leads to growth and competition, job generation and social development. Especially in developing countries, the role of entrepreneurship in economic and social prosperity is more emphasized. But the effect of global economic development on the environment is undeniable, especially in negative ways, and there is a need to rethink current business models and the way entrepreneurs act to introduce new businesses to address and embed environmental issues in order to achieve sustainable development. In this paper, green or sustainable entrepreneurship is addressed in Iran to identify challenges and barriers entrepreneurs in the economic and social sectors face in developing green business solutions. Sustainable or green entrepreneurship has been gaining interest among scholars in recent years and addressing its challenges and barriers need much more attention to fill the gap in the literature and facilitate the way those entrepreneurs are pursuing. This research comprised of two main phases: qualitative and quantitative. At qualitative phase, after a thorough literature review, fuzzy Delphi method is utilized to verify those challenges and barriers by gathering a panel of experts and surveying them. In this phase, several other contextually related factors were added to the list of identified barriers and challenges mentioned in the literature. Then, at the quantitative phase, Interpretive Structural Modeling is applied to construct a network of interactions among those barriers identified at the previous phase. Again, a panel of subject matter experts comprised of academic and industry experts was surveyed. The results of this study can be used by policymakers in both the public and industry sector, to introduce more systematic solutions to eliminate those barriers and help entrepreneurs overcome challenges of sustainable entrepreneurship. It also contributes to the literature as the first research in this type which deals with the barriers of sustainable entrepreneurship and explores their interaction.

Keywords: Green Entrepreneurship, barriers, Fuzzy Delphi Method, interpretive structural modeling

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10 Exploring Attitudes and Experiences of the Cervical Screening Programme in Brighton, United Kingdom

Authors: Kirsty Biggs, Peter Larsen-Disney

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Background: The UK cervical screening programme significantly reduces cancer mortality through the early detection of abnormal cells. Despite this, over a quarter of eligible women choose not to attend their appointment. Objective: To qualitatively explore patients’ barriers to attending cervical smear appointments and identify key trends of cervical screening behaviour, knowledge, and attitudes in primary and secondary care. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate smear services in Brighton and Hove using questionnaires in general practice and colposcopy. 226 patients participated in the voluntary questionnaire between 10/11/2017 and 02/02/2018. 118 patients were recruited from general practice surgeries and 108 from the colposcopy department. Women were asked about their smear knowledge, self-perceived risks factors, prior experiences and reasons for non-attendance. Demographic data was also collected. Results: Approximately a third of women did not engage in smear testing services. This was consistent across primary and secondary care groups. Over 90% were aware of the role of the screening process in relation to cervical cancer; however, over two thirds believed the smear was also a tool to screen for other pathologies. The most commonly cited reasons for non-attendance were negative emotions or previous experiences. Inconvenient appointment times were also commonly described. In a comparison of attenders versus non-attenders previous negative experiences (p < 0.01) and number of identified risk factors (p = 0.02) were statistically significant with non-attenders describing more prior negative smears and identifying more risk factors. Smear knowledge, risk perception and perceived importance of screening were not significant. Negative previous experiences were described in relation to poor bedside manner, pain, embarrassment and staff competency. Conclusions: In contrary to the literature, our white Caucasian cohort experienced significant barriers to accessing smear services. Women’s prior negative experiences are overriding their perceived importance to attend the screening programme; therefore, efforts need to focus on improving clinical experiences through auditing tools, training and providing a supportive appointment setting. Positive changes can also be expected by improving appointment availabilities with extended hours and self-booking systems.

Keywords: Cervical, Screening, barriers, smear, Papanicolaou

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9 Registered Nurse's Attitudes and Practices towards Physical Examination in the Clinical Settings

Authors: Besher Gharaibeh

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This article addressed the issue of using physical exam in nursing. Nurses hold different attitudes toward using physical exam in the clinical settings. These attitudes determine to embrace physical examination in practice. So, the aim of the study was to examine registered nurses’ attitudes and practices, identify perceived barriers, and to identify the factors which influence the performance and the attitudes towards physical examinations. Results showed that even though nurses reported performing physical exam often, they had negative attitudes toward it. Stress and performing physical examinations on someone of the opposite gender (n=236; 87.4%) were the main barriers. Nurse's level of education influenced the attitude (t=-4.3; p < .01). These results indicated that RNs recognize the necessity of physical examinations, but they face many barriers and challenges which hinder the performance of the examination. Cultural factors and experience were the most influential barriers which deter performance of the physical examination.

Keywords: Nursing, Practices, attitudes, barriers, physical exam

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8 Impact of Transportation on Access to Reproductive and Maternal Health Services in Northeast Cambodia: A Policy Brief

Authors: Elizabeth Hoban, Joanne Williams, Zaman Jawahar, Anne Rouve-Khiev

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Ensuring access to timely obstetric care is essential to prevent maternal deaths. Geographical barriers pose significant challenges for women accessing quality reproductive and maternal health services in rural Cambodia. This policy brief affirms the need to address the issue of transportation and cost (direct and indirect) as critical barriers to accessing reproductive and maternal health (RMH) services in four provinces in Northeast Cambodia (Kratie, Ratanak Kiri, Mondul Kiri, Stung Treng). A systemic search of the literature identified 1,116 articles, and only ten articles from low-and-middle-income countries met the inclusion criteria. The ten articles reported on transportation and cost related to accessing RMH services. In addition, research findings from Partnering to Save Lives (PSL) studies in the four provinces were included in the analysis. Thematic data analysis using the information in the ten articles and PSL research findings was conducted, and the findings are presented in this paper. The key findings are the critical barriers to accessing RMH services in the four provinces because women experience: 1) difficulties finding affordable transportation; 2) lack of available and accessible transportation; 3) greater distance and traveling time to services; 4) poor geographical terrain and; 5) higher opportunity costs. Distance and poverty pose a double burden for the women accessing RMH services making a facility-based delivery less feasible compared to home delivery. Furthermore, indirect and hidden costs associated with institutional delivery may have an impact on women’s decision to seek RMH care. Existing health financing schemes in Cambodia such as the Health Equity Fund (HEF) and the Voucher Scheme contributed to the solution but have also shown some limitations. These schemes contribute to improving access to RMH services for the poorest group, but the barrier of transportation costs remains. In conclusion, initiatives that are proven to be effective in the Cambodian context should continue or be expanded in conjunction with the HEF, and special consideration should be given to communities living in geographically remote regions and difficult to access areas. The following strategies are recommended: 1) maintain and further strengthen transportation support in the HEF scheme; 2) expand community-based initiatives such as Community Managed Health Equity Funds and Village Saving Loans Associations; 3) establish maternity waiting homes; and 4) include antenatal and postnatal care in the provision of integrated outreach services. This policy brief can be used to inform key policymakers and provide evidence that can assist them to develop strategies to increase poor women’s access to RMH services in low-income settings, taking into consideration the geographic distance and other indirect costs associated with a facility-based delivery.

Keywords: Access, barriers, northeast Cambodia, reproductive and maternal health service, transportation and cost

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