Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1169

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Architectural and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1169 Mosque Art in a 19th Century British Home: Case Study of Leighton House Museum, London

Authors: May Aljamea

Abstract:

This paper investigates the appearance of a public religious interior, the mosque, in a private British home. It examines the way in which the aesthetic decoration of the mosque interior influenced the development of the home design of Frederic Leighton, one of the most famous British artists of the nineteenth century, as well as playing an important role in the production of a historical cultural landmark. The Islamic symbolic elements related to mosque architecture analyzed in the case study include the dome, the crescent, wood mashrabiya, the water fountain, and the use and location of calligraphy from the holy texts of the Qur’an. In addition to identifying this link between the case study and mosque architecture, the study also emphasizes the use of construction and finishing materials originally collected from old mosques and brought to Britain from the Middle East, as well as the impact of Leighton’s exposure to different cultures, experiences and images. The case study provides visual evidence to support a unique examination into the significant effect of Islamic Art on one of the leading British figures of the 19th century Aesthetic Movement. In this context, the richest Islamic art ornamentations were projected through the reproduction of a mosque interior design in the home environment. This expression of the Islamic identity through the mosque interior design approach can be interpreted as a way to fulfil the need of the artist to create luxury, aesthetic, and a unique religious atmosphere in his private home during the Victorian art age.

Keywords: Identity, Cultural, Islamic Art, Mosque Architecture, home environment

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1168 Artificial Intelligent Assisted Construction Safety Analytic: An Application in Monitoring Personal Protective Equipments and Safety Zone of Heavy Machinery

Authors: Warren Paau, Kenny Wong, Nicolas Tsang

Abstract:

Construction sites are open areas with people, vehicles, and equipment constantly moving within it, and different activities are being held, which creates a different type of risk that could potentially harm both the workers and the project. The use of an AI-assisted construction safety analytic system may lead to a significantly lower fatality rate and massively improve the safety and health of construction sites with non-stop safety inspections and analysis around the clock. By utilizing existing IP cameras installed at the construction sites, our Karta-X AI-Assisted Construction Safety Analytic (KACSA) engine can perform close to real-time checking of site activities happening on site. KACSA is a self-invented AI algorithm that aims to develop a single safety analytic platform to improve construction safety for workers. Additionally, cameras with KACSA engines can be placed at an elevated level on a construction vehicle, and our system will make it clear if there are workers around the vehicle and whether a worker is within proximity of the machinery unexpectedly. This paper will describe the key considerations and difficulties for the development of KACSA. In addition, it will also cover its applications in construction sites in Hong Kong for real-time checking to ensure any person entering the construction site are equipped with Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), the monitoring of safety zones of heavy machinery to prevent unsafe intrusion in the working area and finally, based on the developed continuous safety monitoring, the significant improvement in the inspection for unsafe behavior on construction sites through the use of KACSA.

Keywords:

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1167 The Dimension of Urban Morphology on Placemaking Theory: A Comparative Typomorphological Analysis of a Self-Built Neighbourhood and Its Transformation Project in Ankara, Turkey

Authors: Merve Okkalı Alsavada

Abstract:

The informal settlement as a self-urbanity is a broad phenomenon which includes many aspects in Turkey. These settlements are not identified and addressed as an integral part of the city environment, even by dwellers. Also, these areas are defined as problematic environments which need to be urgently transformed into more healthy spaces by public authorities. Hence, housing production through urban transformation projects extremely affects the quality and identity of built form and urban life in Turkish cities. In accordance with that, the main problem that drives the research is the continuum of built environment identity in Turkish cities due to the urban transformation model. Therefore, this study attempts to draw attention to the potential of the concept of morphology and typology together on evaluating the quality of urban form and characteristics of urban life. The main purpose is to offer a comparative analysis approach between self-built neighbourhoods and their transformed situations from the perspective of placemaking theory to find out different morphological properties and spatial dynamics of a self-built neighbourhood. The study has dual methodology which contains literature review and typomorphological analysis. The typomorphological analysis reveals the impact of spatial changes of neighbourhood environment. In accordance with that, Cinderesi, Feridun Celik neighbourhood in Altindag, Ankara is selected as a case study area to reveal both typological and morphological transformations in terms of the continuity of place identity and living patterns of dwellers. The analysis of 'plan typologies', 'housing unit-street relationship', 'climate responsive design', 'employing recycled and local traditional materials' are documented by mappings, housing plan drawings, and photographs. The main findings of the research are the design quality of self-urbanity can be acknowledged as recognizable wholes, and the destruction of existing spatial patterns in transformation projects causes the loss of urban identity in Turkey context. Observing the built environment regarding places means observing its richness and complexity as a complicated interplay between individuals and environment.

Keywords: Urban Transformation, Urban Morphology, placemaking, self-urbanity

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1166 Floating Populations, Rooted Networks. Tracing the Evolution of Russeifa City through the Lens of Marka Refugee Camp.

Authors: Dina Dahood Dabash

Abstract:

Refugee camps are habitually defined as receptive sites, transient spaces of exile and nondescript depoliticized places of exception. However, such arguments form partial sides of an existing situation, especially in countries that are geopolitically challenged and rely immensely on international aid as Jordan. In Jordan, the dynamics brought with the floating population of refugees (Palestinian amongst others) have resulted in spatial after-effects that cannot be easily overlooked. For instance, Palestine refugee camps have turned by time into socioeconomic centers of gravity and cores of spatial evolution. Yet, such a position is not instantaneous. Amongst various reasons, it can be related, according to this paper, to a distinctive institutional climate that has been co-produced, by the refugees, host community, humanitarian actors and the state. This paper aims to investigate the evolution of urban and spatial regulations in Jordan between 1948 and 1995, more specifically, state-regulations, community regulations and refugee-self-regulation that all dynamically interacted that period within a humanitarian mold. The paper aims to unpack the relations between refugee camps and their environs to further to explore the agency of such floating population in establishing rooting networks that extended time and place boundaries. The paper’s argument stems from the fact that the spatial configuration of urban systems is not only an outcome of a historical evolutionary process but is also a result of complex dynamics amongst actors. The paper aspires to further understand the post-emergency strategies, which were historically applied in Jordan and can be employed to handle more recent geopolitical challenges such as the Syrian refugee crisis. The research operationalizes Russeifa City and Marka refugee camp in Jordan as a case study. Russeifa, is a city in Zarqa Governorate in Jordan, and is part of a larger metropolitan area (together with the capital Amman and Zarqa governorate), of which acts as a home for more than half of Jordan’s businesses. Marka Camp is one of the six "emergency" Palestine refugee camps erected in 1968 to shelter 15,000 Palestine refugees and displaced persons who left the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Nowadays, the camp shelters more than 50,000 refugees in the same area of land. Methodological framework: The paper traces the evolution of the refugee-camp regulations in Jordan, in relation to the horizontal and vertical growth of Marka camp and its surroundings. Consequently, the main methods employed are historical and mental tracing, interviews, in addition to using available aerial and archival photos.

Keywords: Displacement, Refugee Camps, Socio-spatial Agency, Transient Settlements

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1165 Adaptive Architecture and Urbanism - A Study of Coastal Cities, Climate Change Problems, Effects, Risks And Opportunities for Making Sustainable Habitat

Authors: Santosh Kumar Ketham

Abstract:

Climate change creating most dramatic and destructive consequences, the result is global warming and sea-level rise, flooding coastal cities around the world forming vulnerable situations affecting in multiple ways: environment, economy, social and political. The aim and goal of the research is to develop cities on water. Taking the problem as an opportunity to bring science, engineering, policies and design together to make a resilient and sustainable floating community on water considering existing/new technologies of floating. The quest is to make sustainable habitat on water to live, work, learn and play.  To make sustainable energy generation and storage alongside maintaining balance of land and marine to conserve Ecosystem. The research would serve as a model for sustainable neighbourhoods designed in a modular way and thus can easily extend or re-arranged, to adapt for future socioeconomic realities.  This research paper studies primarily on climate change problems, effects, risks and opportunities. It does so, through analysing existing case studies, books and writings published on coastal cities and understanding its various aspects for making sustainable habitat.

Keywords: floating cities, flexible modular typologies, rising sea levels, sustainable architecture and urbanism

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1164 Reimaging Archetype of Mosque: A Case Study on Contemporary Mosque Architecture in Bangladesh

Authors: Sabrina Rahman

Abstract:

The Mosque is Islam’s most symbolic structure, as well as the expression of collective identity. From the explicit words of our Prophet, 'The earth has been created for me as a masjid and a place of purity, and whatever man from my Ummah finds himself in need of prayer, let him pray' (anywhere)! it is obvious that a devout Muslim does not require a defined space or structure for divine worship since the whole earth is his prayer house. Yet we see that from time immemorial man throughout the Muslim world has painstakingly erected innumerable mosques. However, mosque design spans time, crosses boundaries, and expresses cultures. It is a cultural manifestation as much as one based on a regional building tradition or a certain interpretation of religion. The trend to express physical signs of religion is not new. Physical forms seem to convey symbolic messages. However, in recent times physical forms of mosque architecture are dominantly demising from mosque architecture projects in Bangladesh. Dome & minaret, the most prominent symbol of the mosque, is replacing by contextual and contemporary improvisation rather than subcontinental mosque architecture practice of early fellows. Thus the recent mosque projects of the last 15 years established the contemporary architectural realm in their design. Contextually, spiritual lighting, the serenity of space, tranquility of outdoor spaces, the texture of materials is widely establishing a new genre of Muslim prayer space. A case study based research will lead to specify its significant factors of modernism. Based on the findings, the paper presents evidence of recent projects as well as a guideline for the future image of contemporary Mosque architecture in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Modernism, Symbolism, Contemporary Architecture, prayer space

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1163 Life-Saving Design Strategies for Nursing Homes and Long-Term Care Facilities

Authors: Jason M. Hegenauer, Nicholas Fucci

Abstract:

In the late 1990s, a major deinstitutionalization movement of elderly patients took place, since which, the design of long-term care facilities has not been adequately analyzed in the United States. Over the course of the last 25 years, major innovations in construction methods, technology, and medicine have been developed, drastically changing the landscape of healthcare architecture. In light of recent events, and the expected increase in elderly populations with the aging of the baby-boomer generation, it is evident that reconsideration of these facilities is essential for the proper care of aging populations. The global response has been effective in stifling this pandemic; however, widespread disease still poses an imminent threat to the human race. Having witnessed the devastation Covid-19 has reaped throughout nursing homes and long-term care facilities, it is evident that the current strategies for protecting our most vulnerable populations are not enough. Light renovation of existing facilities and previously overlooked considerations for new construction projects can drastically lower the risk at nursing homes and long-term care facilities. A reconfigured entry sequence supplements several of the features which have been long-standing essentials of the design of these facilities. This research focuses on several aspects identified as needing improvement, including indoor environment quality, security measures incorporated into healthcare architecture and design, and architectural mitigation strategies for sick building syndrome. The results of this study have been compiled as 'best practices' for the design of future healthcare construction projects focused on the health, safety, and quality of life of the residents of these facilities. These design strategies, which can easily be implemented through renovation of existing facilities and new construction projects, minimize risk of infection and spread of disease while allowing routine functions to continue with minimal impact, should the need for future lockdowns arise. Through the current lockdown procedures, which were implemented during the Covid-19 pandemic, isolation of residents has caused great unrest and worry for family members and friends as they are cut off from their loved ones. At this time, data is still being reported, leaving infection and death rates inconclusive; however, recent projections in some states list long-term care facility deaths as high as 60% of all deaths in the state. The population of these facilities consists of residents who are elderly, immunocompromised, and have underlying chronic medical conditions. According to the Centers for Disease Control, these populations are particularly susceptible to infection and serious illness. The obligation to protect our most vulnerable population cannot be overlooked, and the harsh measures recently taken as a response to the Covid-19 pandemic prove that the design strategies currently utilized for doing so are inadequate.

Keywords: Building Security, Sick Building Syndrome, renovation, indoor environment quality, healthcare architecture and design, new construction

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1162 Philosophy, Geometry, and Purpose in Islamic and Gothic Architecture as Two Religious-Based Styles

Authors: Pedram Nafisi Poor, Parisa Javid

Abstract:

Religion and Divinity have always been important matters to humans therefore they had significant effects on different aspects of life including art and architecture. Numerous works of art are related to religion whether supporting or denying it. The appearance of new religions or the thoughts of religious scholars made major changes and created different styles of art throughout history. Nowadays two most popular religions are Islam and Christianity. This popularity has an old background starting from the birth of Jesus to the arrival of Mohammad. Since the early years of appearance, these two have been the most discussed and most popular religions of all time. Besides, they had the most effects on arts and architecture. Islam changed Iranian and Arabian architecture and they applied it in different places around the world. From the appearance of Islam at 622 AD to this day Islamic architecture has been evolving but one of the most important periods for this style was between 1501 AD to 1736 AD in Iran which is the focal point of this paper in terms of Islamic architecture. Christianity, on the other hand, changed European architecture especially between 1150 AD to 1450 AD or so-called "Gothic" era, which begins at Medieval time and reaches its peak at International gothic ages. At both of these periods, designing buildings based on spiritual concepts and divine statements reached its peak, and architects were considering God and religion as their center of attention. This article presents a general philosophy of these two styles to comprehend the idea behind each one followed by an analysis of their geometry and architectural aspects derived from the best examples, all to understand the purpose of each style and to realize, which one was more successful in reaching their purpose. Subsequently, a comprehensive and literature review of each building is provided including 3d visualizations to help achieve the goal of the article. These studies can support diverse inquiries about both Islamic and Gothic architecture and can be used as a resource to support studies and researches towards designing based on religion or for divine purposes.

Keywords: Islamic, Architecture, Religion, Gothic

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1161 Urban Development from the Perspective of Lou Gang Polder System: Taihu Lake, Huzhou as an Example

Authors: Wei Bin Shen

Abstract:

Lou Gang world irrigation project heritage in Taihu Lake is a systematic irrigation project integrating water conservancy, ecology and culture. Through the methods of historical documents and field investigation, this paper deeply analyzes the formation history, connotation and value of Lou Gang polder system: Lou Gang heritage, describes in detail the relationship between Lou Gang polder system in Taihu Lake and the development and evolution of Huzhou City, and initially explores the protection and Utilization Strategies of Lou Gang water conservancy cultural heritage resources in Taihu Lake from the current situation.

Keywords: Lou Gang, protection strategy, urban evolution, waterconservancyculturalheritage

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1160 Impact of Butt Joints on Flexural Properties of Nail Laminated Timber

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Bagheri, Tianying Ma, Meng Gong

Abstract:

Nail laminated timber (NLT) is widely used for constructing timber bridge decks in North America. Butt joints usually exist due to the length limits of lumber, leading to concerns about the decrease of structural performance of NLT. This study aimed at investigating the provisions incorporated in Canadian highway bridge design code on the use of but joints in wooden bridge decks. Three and five layers NLT specimens with various configurations were tested under 3-point bending test. It was found that the standard equation is capable of predicting the bending stiffness reduction due to butt joints and 1-m band limit in which, one but joint in every three adjacent lamination is allowed, sounds reasonable. The strength reduction also followed a pattern similar to stiffness reduction. Also reinforcement of the butt joint through nails and steel side plates was attempted. It was found that nail reinforcement recovers the stiffness slightly. In contrast, reinforcing the butt joint through steel side plate improved the flexural performance significantly when compared to the nail reinforcement.

Keywords: reinforcement, butt joint, Bending stiffness, nail laminated timber

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1159 Platform Urbanism: Planning towards Hyper-Personalisation

Authors: Provides Ng

Abstract:

Platform economy is a peer-to-peer model of distributing resources facilitated by community-based digital platforms. In recent years, digital platforms are rapidly reconfiguring the public realm using hyper-personalisation techniques. This paper aims at investigating how urban planning can leapfrog into the digital age to help relieve the rising tension of the global issue of labour flow; it discusses the means to transfer techniques of hyper-personalisation into urban planning for plasticity using platform technologies. This research first denotes the limitations of the current system of urban residency, where the system maintains itself on the circulation of documents, which are data on paper. Then, this paper tabulates how some of the institutions around the world, both public and private, digitise data, and streamline communications between a network of systems and citizens using platform technologies. Subsequently, this paper proposes ways in which hyper-personalisation can be utilised to form a digital planning platform. Finally, this paper concludes by reviewing how the proposed strategy may help to open up new ways of thinking about how we affiliate ourselves with cities.

Keywords:

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1158 Paratransit as Tool for Peri-Urban Connectivity: A Comparative Case Study of Indore and Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Sumit Rahangdale

Abstract:

This research paper is a comparative study of two BRTS cities of Madhya Pradesh (INDIA), Bhopal and Indore. Indore is the largest and most populous city of Madhya Pradesh, with heavy traffic, while Bhopal though being the capital of Madhya Pradesh is comparatively less developed and shows less traffic The cities show similarity in case of peri-urban nature, but variation is observed in transportation fare, where Indore has been able to reduce it but Bhopal couldn’t, one of the reason for it is the para-transit services. Indore can be considered as a successful model due to the low fares and can be implemented in other parts of the city. The research paper tries to identify relation of para-transit services with the peri-urban connectivity and provide a solution for the Bhopal case study.

Keywords: paratransit, demand-supply-fare relationship, mobility and accessibility, peri-urban connectivity

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1157 The Influence of Human Movement on the Formation of Adaptive Architecture

Authors: Rania Raouf Sedky

Abstract:

Adaptive architecture relates to buildings specifically designed to adapt to their residents and their environments. To design a biologically adaptive system, we can observe how living creatures in nature constantly adapt to different external and internal stimuli to be a great inspiration. The issue is not just how to create a system that is capable of change but also how to find the quality of change and determine the incentive to adapt. The research examines the possibilities of transforming spaces using the human body as an active tool. The research also aims to design and build an effective dynamic structural system that can be applied on an architectural scale and integrate them all into the creation of a new adaptive system that allows us to conceive a new way to design, build and experience architecture in a dynamic manner. The main objective was to address the possibility of a reciprocal transformation between the user and the architectural element so that the architecture can adapt to the user, as the user adapts to architecture. The motivation is the desire to deal with the psychological benefits of an environment that can respond and thus empathize with human emotions through its ability to adapt to the user. Adaptive affiliations of kinematic structures have been discussed in architectural research for more than a decade, and these issues have proven their effectiveness in developing kinematic structures, responsive and adaptive, and their contribution to 'smart architecture'. A wide range of strategies have been used in building complex kinetic and robotic systems mechanisms to achieve convertibility and adaptability in engineering and architecture. One of the main contributions of this research is to explore how the physical environment can change its shape to accommodate different spatial displays based on the movement of the user’s body. The main focus is on the relationship between materials, shape, and interactive control systems. The intention is to develop a scenario where the user can move, and the structure interacts without any physical contact. The soft form of shifting language and interaction control technology will provide new possibilities for enriching human-environmental interactions. How can we imagine a space in which to construct and understand its users through physical gestures, visual expressions, and response accordingly? How can we imagine a space whose interaction depends not only on preprogrammed operations but on real-time feedback from its users? The research also raises some important questions for the future. What would be the appropriate structure to show physical interaction with the dynamic world? This study concludes with a strong belief in the future of responsive motor structures. We imagine that they are developing the current structure and that they will radically change the way spaces are tested. These structures have obvious advantages in terms of energy performance and the ability to adapt to the needs of users. The research highlights the interface between remote sensing and a responsive environment to explore the possibility of an interactive architecture that adapts to and responds to user movements. This study ends with a strong belief in the future of responsive motor structures. We envision that it will improve the current structure and that it will bring a fundamental change to the way in which spaces are tested.

Keywords: Adaptive Architecture, Interactive Architecture, tensegrity, responsive architecture

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1156 Planning for Cities in Transition: Urban Conservation and Urban Development in Potchefstroom, South Africa as a Case Study

Authors: Fortune Mangara

Abstract:

The world is undergoing the largest wave of urban growth in history due to rapid urbanization. Africa’s fast rate of urbanization is being driven by several factors such as population growth and migration. Urbanization results in development pressure on existing infrastructure, and numerous existing buildings are being destroyed in the process. Many of these buildings are built by environmental heritage resources which are part of the city's heritage and are therefore valuable. Many built environment heritage resources are currently being destroyed due to development pressure, while others are facing the risk of destruction or abandonment. There are different approaches that inform urban development and urban conservation. The modernist and post-modernist dichotomy has played an influencing role on how development or conservation of built environment heritage resources are approached. The fragmented nature of historical urban conservation paradigms and theories are also reflected in the evolution of policy and legislation that guide urban development and conservation of built heritage resources. Urban development and conservation have a long history of being guided by separated policies and legislation. However, recent international and South African policy and legislation had started to acknowledge the importance of integrating urban development and urban conservation. Spatial planning guides urban development and can be used as an integrative tool. With the aforementioned in mind, the main research question that guides this study is: What role does spatial planning play in the coexistence of urban development and urban conservation in a city in transition? The main purpose of this research is to use spatial planning as a tool for integrating urban conservation and urban development with reference to built environmental heritage resources. A qualitative research methodology is going to be employed in which a singular case study will be used as the research design. A qualitative document analysis will be used to collect data. Potchefstroom is going to be used as a case study as it is the oldest town in the North West province therefore is rich in built environmental heritage resources.

Keywords: Urban development, Spatial planning, Document Analysis, Urban Conservation, built environmental heritage resources

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1155 Role of Symbolism in the Journey towards Spirituality: A Case Study of Mosque Architecture in Bahrain

Authors: Ayesha Agha Shah

Abstract:

The purpose of a mosque or a place of worship is to build a spiritual relation with God. If the sense of spirituality is not achieved, then sacred architecture appears to be lacking depth. Form and space play a significant role to enhance the architectural quality to impart a divine feel to a place. To achieve this divine feeling, form and space, and unity of opposites, either abstract or symbolic can be employed. It is challenging to imbue the emptiness of a space with qualitative experience. Mosque architecture mostly entails traditional forms and design typology. This approach for Muslim worship produces distinct landmarks in the urban neighborhoods of Muslim societies, while creating a great sense of spirituality. The universal symbolic characters in the mosque architecture had prototype geometrical forms for a long time in history. However, modern mosques have deviated from this approach to employ different built elements and symbolism, which are often hard to be identified as related to mosques or even as Islamic. This research aims to explore the sense of spirituality in modern mosques and questions whether the modification of geometrical features produce spirituality in the same manner. The research also seeks to investigate the role of ‘geometry’ in the modern mosque architecture. The research employs the analytical study of some modern mosque examples in the Kingdom of Bahrain, reflecting on the geometry and symbolism adopted in the new mosque architecture design. It buttresses the analysis by the engagement of people’s perceptions derived using a survey of opinions. The research expects to see the significance of geometrical architectural elements in the mosque designs. It will find answers to the questions such as; what is the role of the form of the mosque, interior spaces and the effect of the modified symbolic features in the modern mosque design? How can the symbolic geometry, forms and spaces of a mosque invite a believer to leave the worldly environment behind and move towards spirituality?

Keywords: Geometry, Symbolism, Spirituality, Mosque Architecture

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1154 A Dynamic Approach for Evaluating the Climate Change Risks on Building Performance

Authors: X. Lu, T. Lu, S. Javadi

Abstract:

A simple dynamic approach is presented for analyzing thermal and moisture dynamics of buildings, which is of particular relevance to understanding climate change impacts on buildings, including assessment of risks and applications of resilience strategies. With the goal to demonstrate the proposed modeling methodology, to verify the model, and to show that wooden materials provide a mechanism that can facilitate the reduction of moisture risks and be more resilient to global warming, a wooden church equipped with high precision measurement systems was taken as a test building for full-scale time-series measurements. Sensitivity analyses indicate a high degree of accuracy in the model prediction regarding the indoor environment. The model is then applied to a future projection of climate indoors aiming to identify significant environmental factors, the changing temperature and humidity, and effective response to the climate change impacts. The paper suggests that wooden building materials offer an effective and resilient response to anticipated future climate changes.

Keywords: Buildings, forecast, dynamic model, climate change impact, wooden structure

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1153 Post-Disaster Recovery and Impacts on Construction Resources: Case Studies of Queensland Catastrophic Events

Authors: Scott A. Abbott

Abstract:

This paper examines the increase in the occurrence of natural disasters worldwide and the need to support vulnerable communities in post-disaster recovery. Preparation and implementation of post-disaster recovery projects need to be improved to allow communities to recover infrastructure, housing, economically and socially following a catastrophe. With the continual rise in catastrophic events worldwide due to climate change, impacts on construction resources affect the ability for post-disaster recovery to be undertaken. This research focuses on case studies of catastrophic events in Queensland, Australia, to contribute to the body of knowledge and gain valuable insights on lessons learned from past events and how they have been managed. The aim of this research is to adopt qualitative data using semi-structured interviews from participants predominantly from the insurance sector to understand barriers that have previously and currently exist in post-disaster recovery. Existing literature was reviewed to reveal gaps in knowledge that needed to be tested. Qualitative data was collected and summarised from field research with the results analysed and discussed. Barriers that impacted post-disaster recovery included time, cost, and resource capability and capacity. Causal themes that impacted time and cost were identified as decision making, pre-planning, and preparedness, as well as effective communication across stakeholders. The research study applied a qualitative approach to the existing literature and case studies across Queensland, Australia, to identify existing and new barriers that impact post-disaster recovery. It was recommended to implement effective procurement strategies to assist in cost control; implement pre-planning and preparedness strategies across funder, contractor, and local governments; more effective and timely decision making to reduce time and cost impacts.

Keywords: Disaster Recovery, Cost, resources, Time, construction recovery

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1152 Management Effects on Different Sustainable Agricultural with Diverse Topography

Authors: Alexandra Krvchenko, Kusay Wheib

Abstract:

Crop yields are influenced by many factors, including natural ones, such as soil and environmental characteristics of the agricultural land, as well as manmade ones, such as management applications. One of the factors that frequently affect crop yields in undulating Midwest landscapes is topography, which controls the movement of water and nutrients necessary for plant life. The main objective of this study is to examine how field topography influences performance of different management practices in undulated terrain of southwest Michigan. A total of 26 agricultural fields, ranging in size from 1.1 to 7.4 ha, from the Scale-Up at Kellogg Biological Station were included in the study. The two studied factors were crop species with three levels, i.e., corn (Zea mays L.) soybean (Glycine max L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and management practice with three levels, i.e., conventional, low input, and organic managements. They were compared under three contrasting topographical settings, namely, summit (includes summits and shoulders), slope (includes backslopes), and depression (includes footslope and toeslope). Yield data of years 2007 through 2012 was processed, cleaned, and filtered, average yield then was calculated for each field, topographic setting, and year. Topography parameters, including terrain, slope, curvature, flow direction and wetness index were computed under ArcGIS environment for each topographic class of each field to seek their effects on yield. Results showed that topographical depressions produced greatest yields in most studied fields, while managements with chemical inputs, both low input and conventional, resulted in higher yields than the organic management.

Keywords: Sustainable Agriculture, Precision Agriculture, Yield, Topography

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1151 Energy Performance Gaps in Residences: An Analysis of the Variables That Cause Energy Gaps and Their Impact

Authors: Amrutha Kishor

Abstract:

Today, with the rising global warming and depletion of resources every industry is moving toward sustainability and energy efficiency. As part of this movement, it is nowadays obligatory for architects to play their part by creating energy predictions for their designs. But in a lot of cases, these predictions do not reflect the real quantities of energy in newly built buildings when operating. These can be described as ‘Energy Performance Gaps’. This study aims to determine the underlying reasons for these gaps. Seven houses designed by Allan Joyce Architects, UK from 1998 until 2019 were considered for this study. The data from the residents’ energy bills were cross-referenced with the predictions made with the software SefairaPro and from energy reports. Results indicated that the predictions did not match the actual energy usage. An account of how energy was used in these seven houses was made by means of personal interviews. The main factors considered in the study were occupancy patterns, heating systems and usage, lighting profile and usage, and appliances’ profile and usage. The study found that the main reasons for the creation of energy gaps were the discrepancies in occupant usage and patterns of energy consumption that are predicted as opposed to the actual ones. This study is particularly useful for energy-conscious architectural firms to fine-tune the approach to designing houses and analysing their energy performance. As the findings reveal that energy usage in homes varies based on the way residents use the space, it helps deduce the most efficient technological combinations. This information can be used to set guidelines for future policies and regulations related to energy consumption in homes. This study can also be used by the developers of simulation software to understand how architects use their product and drive improvements in its future versions.

Keywords: Environmental Design, Energy Efficient Design, architectural simulation, energy performance gaps

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1150 An Artificial Intelligence Framework to Forecast Air Quality

Authors: Richard Ren

Abstract:

Air pollution is a serious danger to international well-being and economies - it will kill an estimated 7 million people every year, costing world economies $2.6 trillion by 2060 due to sick days, healthcare costs, and reduced productivity. In the United States alone, 60,000 premature deaths are caused by poor air quality. For this reason, there is a crucial need to develop effective methods to forecast air quality, which can mitigate air pollution’s detrimental public health effects and associated costs by helping people plan ahead and avoid exposure. The goal of this study is to propose an artificial intelligence framework for predicting future air quality based on timing variables (i.e. season, weekday/weekend), future weather forecasts, as well as past pollutant and air quality measurements. The proposed framework utilizes multiple machine learning algorithms (logistic regression, random forest, neural network) with different specifications and averages the results of the three top-performing models to eliminate inaccuracies, weaknesses, and biases from any one individual model. Over time, the proposed framework uses new data to self-adjust model parameters and increase prediction accuracy. To demonstrate its applicability, a prototype of this framework was created to forecast air quality in Los Angeles, California using datasets from the RP4 weather data repository and EPA pollutant measurement data. The results showed good agreement between the framework’s predictions and real-life observations, with an overall 92% model accuracy. The combined model is able to predict more accurately than any of the individual models, and it is able to reliably forecast season-based variations in air quality levels. Top air quality predictor variables were identified through the measurement of mean decrease in accuracy. This study proposed and demonstrated the efficacy of a comprehensive air quality prediction framework leveraging multiple machine learning algorithms to overcome individual algorithm shortcomings. Future enhancements should focus on expanding and testing a greater variety of modeling techniques within the proposed framework, testing the framework in different locations, and developing a platform to automatically publish future predictions in the form of a web or mobile application. Accurate predictions from this artificial intelligence framework can in turn be used to save and improve lives by allowing individuals to protect their health and allowing governments to implement effective pollution control measures.Air pollution is a serious danger to international wellbeing and economies - it will kill an estimated 7 million people every year, costing world economies $2.6 trillion by 2060 due to sick days, healthcare costs, and reduced productivity. In the United States alone, 60,000 premature deaths are caused by poor air quality. For this reason, there is a crucial need to develop effective methods to forecast air quality, which can mitigate air pollution’s detrimental public health effects and associated costs by helping people plan ahead and avoid exposure. The goal of this study is to propose an artificial intelligence framework for predicting future air quality based on timing variables (i.e. season, weekday/weekend), future weather forecasts, as well as past pollutant and air quality measurements. The proposed framework utilizes multiple machine learning algorithms (logistic regression, random forest, neural network) with different specifications and averages the results of the three top-performing models to eliminate inaccuracies, weaknesses, and biases from any one individual model. Over time, the proposed framework uses new data to self-adjust model parameters and increase prediction accuracy. To demonstrate its applicability, a prototype of this framework was created to forecast air quality in Los Angeles, California using datasets from the RP4 weather data repository and EPA pollutant measurement data. The results showed good agreement between the framework’s predictions and real-life observations, with an overall 92% model accuracy. The combined model is able to predict more accurately than any of the individual models, and it is able to reliably forecast season-based variations in air quality levels. Top air quality predictor variables were identified through the measurement of mean decrease in accuracy. This study proposed and demonstrated the efficacy of a comprehensive air quality prediction framework leveraging multiple machine learning algorithms to overcome individual algorithm shortcomings. Future enhancements should focus on expanding and testing a greater variety of modeling techniques within the proposed framework, testing the framework in different locations, and developing a platform to automatically publish future predictions in the form of a web or mobile application. Accurate predictions from this artificial intelligence framework can in turn be used to save and improve lives by allowing individuals to protect their health and allowing governments to implement effective pollution control measures.Air pollution is a serious danger to international wellbeing and economies - it will kill an estimated 7 million people every year, costing world economies $2.6 trillion by 2060 due to sick days, healthcare costs, and reduced productivity. In the United States alone, 60,000 premature deaths are caused by poor air quality. For this reason, there is a crucial need to develop effective methods to forecast air quality, which can mitigate air pollution’s detrimental public health effects and associated costs by helping people plan ahead and avoid exposure. The goal of this study is to propose an artificial intelligence framework for predicting future air quality based on timing variables (i.e. season, weekday/weekend), future weather forecasts, as well as past pollutant and air quality measurements. The proposed framework utilizes multiple machine learning algorithms (logistic regression, random forest, neural network) with different specifications and averages the results of the three top-performing models to eliminate inaccuracies, weaknesses, and biases from any one individual model. Over time, the proposed framework uses new data to self-adjust model parameters and increase prediction accuracy. To demonstrate its applicability, a prototype of this framework was created to forecast air quality in Los Angeles, California using datasets from the RP4 weather data repository and EPA pollutant measurement data. The results showed good agreement between the framework’s predictions and real-life observations, with an overall 92% model accuracy. The combined model is able to predict more accurately than any of the individual models, and it is able to reliably forecast season-based variations in air quality levels. Top air quality predictor variables were identified through the measurement of mean decrease in accuracy. This study proposed and demonstrated the efficacy of a comprehensive air quality prediction framework leveraging multiple machine learning algorithms to overcome individual algorithm shortcomings. Future enhancements should focus on expanding and testing a greater variety of modeling techniques within the proposed framework, testing the framework in different locations, and developing a platform to automatically publish future predictions in the form of a web or mobile application. Accurate predictions from this artificial intelligence framework can in turn be used to save and improve lives by allowing individuals to protect their health and allowing governments to implement effective pollution control measures.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Air Pollution, Machine Learning Algorithms, air quality prediction

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1149 Information and Communication Technology in Architectural Education: The Challenges

Authors: Oluropo Stephen Ilesanmi, Oluwole Ayodele Alejo

Abstract:

Architectural education, beyond training the students to become architects, impacts in them the appreciation of the responsibilities relating to public health, safety, and welfare. Architecture is no longer a personal philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by individuals, rather, it has to consider everyday needs of the people and use technology to give a liveable environment. In the present age, architectural education must have to grapple with the recent integration of technology, in particular, facilities offered by information and communication technology. Electronic technologies have moved architecture from the drawing board to cyberspace. The world is now a global village in which new information and methods are easily and quickly available to people at different poles of the globe. It is the position of this paper that in order to remain relevant in the ever-competing forces within the building industry, architectural education must show the impetus to continue to draw from technological advancements associated with the use of computers.

Keywords: Education, Communication, Information, Architecture, Technology

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1148 Multi-Objective Discrete Optimization of External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems in Terms of Thermal and Embodied Energy Performance

Authors: Berfin Yildiz

Abstract:

These days, increasing global warming effects, limited amount of energy resources, etc., necessitates the awareness that must be present in every profession group. The architecture and construction sectors are responsible for both the embodied and operational energy of the materials. This responsibility has led designers to seek alternative solutions for energy-efficient material selection. The choice of energy-efficient material requires consideration of the entire life cycle, including the building's production, use, and disposal energy. The aim of this study is to investigate the method of material selection of external thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS). Embodied and in-use energy values of material alternatives were used for the evaluation in this study. The operational energy is calculated according to the u-value calculation method defined in the TS 825 (Thermal Insulation Requirements) standard for Turkey, and the embodied energy is calculated based on the manufacturer's Energy Performance Declaration (EPD). ETICS consists of a wall, adhesive, insulation, lining, mechanical, mesh, and exterior finishing materials. In this study, lining, mechanical, and mesh materials were ignored because EPD documents could not be obtained. The material selection problem is designed as a hypothetical volume area (5x5x3m) and defined as a multi-objective discrete optimization problem for external thermal insulation composite systems. Defining the problem as a discrete optimization problem is important in order to choose between materials of various thicknesses and sizes. Since production and use energy values, which are determined as optimization objectives in the study, are often conflicting values, material selection is defined as a multi-objective optimization problem, and it is aimed to obtain many solution alternatives by using Hypervolume (HypE) algorithm. The enrollment process started with 100 individuals and continued for 50 generations. According to the obtained results, it was observed that autoclaved aerated concrete and Ponce block as wall material, glass wool, as insulation material gave better results.

Keywords: Thermal Insulation, embodied energy, multi-objective discrete optimization, performative design

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1147 Examination of State of Repair of Buildings in Private Housing Estates in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State Nigeria

Authors: Umeora Chukwunonso Obiefuna

Abstract:

The private sector in housing provision continually take steps towards addressing part of the problem of cushioning the effect of the housing shortage in Nigeria by establishing housing estates since the government alone cannot provide housing for everyone. This research examined and reported findings from research conducted on the state of repair of buildings in private housing estates in Enugu metropolis, Enugu state Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to examine the physical conditions of the building fabrics and appraise the performance of infrastructural services provided in the buildings. The questionnaire was used as a research instrument to elicit data from respondents. Stratified sampling of the estates based on building type was adopted as a sampling method for this study. Findings from the research show that the state of repair of most buildings require minor repairs to make them fit for habitation and sound to ensure the well-being of the residents. In addition, four independent variables from the nine independent variables investigated significantly explained residual variation in the dependent variable - state of repair of the buildings in the study area. These variables are: Average Monthly Income of Residents (AMIR), Length of Stay of the Residents in the estates (LSY), Type of Wall Finishes on the buildings (TWF), and Time Taken to Respond to Resident’s complaints by the estate managers (TTRC). With this, the linear model was established for predicting the state of repair of buildings in private housing estates in the study area. This would assist in identifying variables that are lucid in predicting the state of repair of the buildings.

Keywords: Building, repair, housing estate, private

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1146 The Role of Environmental Citizenship in Household Waste Management

Authors: Lizette Grobler

Abstract:

Although the notion of environmental citizenship has become an established concept linked to scholarship on sustainability internationally, it is not the case in South Africa. This literature review aims to investigate whether the concept is a viable construct in the South African household waste management context. This literature review firstly examines different approaches to environmental citizenship and the normative notions of environmental values, attitudes, and behaviour advocated by proponents of each tradition. Secondly, this paper deals with the application of environmental citizenship as a measure to address household waste. Thirdly, this paper interrogates the utilization of the concept in South African scholarly literature on waste management. The paper argues for the introduction of the concept as a potential approach to behavioural change in the household waste management context.

Keywords: household waste, environmental responsibility, environmental citizenship, ownership of waste

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1145 Community Perceptions towards Nature Conservation in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Daniel Angwenyi

Abstract:

Relationships between protected area managers and adjacent communities, as well as communities' attitudes, views and perceptions of these areas, are critical for the success of conservation efforts. It is, therefore, of utmost importance for protected area managers and administrators understand how local communities view these areas and their management, so that they can build sustainable working relationships. This paper is based on a survey of 375 semi-structured questionnaires administered to household heads, living at distances ranging from the edge of the reserves to 50 km away from the reserve boundary across Great Fish River, Mkambati, Hluleka, and Tsolwana in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The paper provides a longitudinal assessment of households’ knowledge on the role of reserves and how the reserves. In addition to households’ knowledge, the paper also provides an assessment of their attitudes towards the location and management, as well as views on the best way to manage the reserves. For 79% of community members reserves are important as they were seen to conserve biodiversity and valuable ecological systems necessary for sustaining life. Most (75%) respondents indicated that closely located reserves gave them opportunities to learn about nature conservation and to subsidize their incomes through tourism ventures. However, 58% had a problem with reserves’ staff, due to restrictions on resource use, which negatively impacted their livelihoods. Over half (51%) of the households were of the view that sustainable conservation can only be achieved through an integrated approach, where local communities’ and conservation needs are given equal weighting. Thus, it is concluded that reserve management should look at communities as active partners in the running of protected areas if sustainable conservation objectives are to be realised.

Keywords: Nature Conservation, Protected Areas, Local Communities, views, conservation knowledge

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1144 Energy Retrofitting Application Research to Achieve Energy Efficiency in Hot-Arid Climates in Residential Buildings: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. Felimban, A. Prieto, U. Knaack, T. Klein

Abstract:

This study aims to present an overview of recent research in building energy-retrofitting strategy applications and analyzing them within the context of hot arid climate regions which is in this case study represented by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The main goal of this research is to do an analytical study of recent research approaches to show where the primary gap in knowledge exists and outline which possible strategies are available that can be applied in future research. Also, the paper focuses on energy retrofitting strategies at a building envelop level. The study is limited to specific measures within the hot arid climate region. Scientific articles were carefully chosen as they met the expression criteria, such as retrofitting, energy-retrofitting, hot-arid, energy efficiency, residential buildings, which helped narrow the research scope. Then the papers were explored through descriptive analysis and justified results within the Saudi context in order to draw an overview of future opportunities from the field of study for the last two decades. The conclusions of the analysis of the recent research confirmed that the field of study had a research shortage on investigating actual applications and testing of newly introduced energy efficiency applications, lack of energy cost feasibility studies and there was also a lack of public awareness. In terms of research methods, it was found that simulation software was a major instrument used in energy retrofitting application research. The main knowledge gaps that were identified included the need for certain research regarding actual application testing; energy retrofitting strategies application feasibility; the lack of research on the importance of how strategies apply first followed by the user acceptance of developed scenarios.

Keywords:

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1143 Analysis of the Evolution of the Behavior of Land Users Linked to the Surge in the Prices of Cash Crops: Case of the Northeast Region of Madagascar

Authors: Zo Hasina Rabemananjara

Abstract:

The North-East of Madagascar is the pillar of Madagascar's foreign trade, providing 41% and 80% of world exports of cloves and vanilla, respectively, in 2016. For Madagascar, the north-eastern escarpment is home to the last massifs of humid forest in large scale of the island, surrounded by a small scale agricultural mosaic. In the sites where this study is taking place, located in the peripheral zones of protected areas, the production of rent aims to supply international markets. In fact, importers of the cash crops produced in these areas are located mainly in India, Singapore, France, Germany and the United States. Recently, the price of these products has increased significantly, especially from the year 2015. For vanilla, the price has skyrocketed, from an approximate price of 73 USD per kilo in 2015 to more than 250 USD per kilo in 2016. The value of clove exports increased sharply by 49.4% in 2017, largely to Singapore and India due to the sharp increase in exported volume (+47, 6%) in 2017. If the relationship between the rise in prices of rented products and the change in physical environments is known, the evolution of the behavior of land users linked to this aspect was not yet addressed by research. In fact, the consequence of this price increase in the organization of the use of space at the local level still raises questions. Hence, the research question is: to what extent does this improvement in the price of imported products affect user behavior linked to the local organization of access to the factor of soil production? To fully appreciate this change in behavior, surveys of 144 land user households were carried out, and group interviews were also carried out. The results of this research showed that the rise in the prices of annuity products from the year 2015 caused significant changes in the behavior of land users in the study sites. Young people, who have not been attracted to farming for a long time, have started to show interest in it since the period of rising vanilla and clove prices. They have set up their own fields of vanilla and clove cultivation. This revival of interest conferred an important value on the land and caused conflicts especially between family members because the acquisition of the cultivated land was done by inheritance or donation. This change in user behavior has also affected the farmers' life strategy since the latter have decided to abandon rain-fed rice farming, which has long been considered a guaranteed subsistence activity for cash crops. This research will contribute to nourishing scientific reflection on the management of land use and also to support political decision-makers in decision-making on spatial planning.

Keywords: Spatial planning, behavior of land users, North-eastern Madagascar, price of export products

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1142 Estimation of Soil Moisture at High Resolution through Integration of Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing and Applications in Drought Analyses

Authors: Yu Li, Donglian Sun, Paul Houser, Xiwu Zhan

Abstract:

California experienced severe drought conditions in the past years. In this study, the drought conditions in California are analyzed using soil moisture anomalies derived from integrated optical and microwave satellite observations along with auxiliary land surface data. Based on the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) classifications, three typical drought conditions were selected for the analysis: extreme drought conditions in 2007 and 2013, severe drought conditions in 2004 and 2009, and normal conditions in 2005 and 2006. Drought is defined as negative soil moisture anomaly. To estimate soil moisture at high spatial resolutions, three approaches are explored in this study: the universal triangle model that estimates soil moisture from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST); the basic model that estimates soil moisture under different conditions with auxiliary data like precipitation, soil texture, topography, and surface types; and the refined model that uses accumulated precipitation and its lagging effects. It is found that the basic model shows better agreements with the USDM classifications than the universal triangle model, while the refined model using precipitation accumulated from the previous summer to current time demonstrated the closest agreements with the USDM patterns.

Keywords: soil moisture, high resolution, regional drought, analysis and monitoring

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1141 Overview of Research Contexts about XR Technologies in Architectural Practice

Authors: Adeline Stals

Abstract:

The transformation of architectural design practices has been underway for almost forty years due to the development and democratization of computer technology. New and more efficient tools are constantly being proposed to architects, amplifying a technological wave that sometimes stimulates them, sometimes overwhelms them, depending essentially on their digital culture and the context (socio-economic, structural, organizational) in which they work on a daily basis. Our focus is on VR, AR, and MR technologies dedicated to architecture. The commercialization of affordable headsets like the Oculus Rift, the HTC Vive or more low-tech like the Google CardBoard, makes it more accessible to benefit from these technologies. In that regard, researchers report the growing interest of these tools for architects, given the new perspectives they open up in terms of workflow, representation, collaboration, and client’s involvement. However, studies rarely mention the consequences of the sample studied on results. Our research provides an overview of VR, AR, and MR researches among a corpus of papers selected from conferences and journals. A closer look at the sample of these research projects highlights the necessity to take into consideration the context of studies in order to develop tools truly dedicated to the real practices of specific architect profiles. This literature review formalizes milestones for future challenges to address. The methodology applied is based on a systematic review of two sources of publications. The first one is the Cumincad database, which regroups publications from conferences exclusively about digital in architecture. Additionally, the second part of the corpus is based on journal publications. Journals have been selected considering their ranking on Scimago. Among the journals in the predefined category ‘architecture’ and in Quartile 1 for 2018 (last update when consulted), we have retained the ones related to the architectural design process: Design Studies, CoDesign, Architectural Science Review, Frontiers of Architectural Research and Archnet-IJAR. Beside those journals, IJAC, not classified in the ‘architecture’ category, is selected by the author for its adequacy with architecture and computing. For all requests, the search terms were ‘virtual reality’, ‘augmented reality’, and ‘mixed reality’ in title and/or keywords for papers published between 2015 and 2019 (included). This frame time is defined considering the fast evolution of these technologies in the past few years. Accordingly, the systematic review covers 202 publications. The literature review on studies about XR technologies establishes the state of the art of the current situation. It highlights that studies are mostly based on experimental contexts with controlled conditions (pedagogical, e.g.) or on practices established in large architectural offices of international renown. However, few studies focus on the strategies and practices developed by offices of smaller size, which represent the largest part of the market. Indeed, a European survey studying the architectural profession in Europe in 2018 reveals that 99% of offices are composed of less than ten people, and 71% of only one person. The study also showed that the number of medium-sized offices is continuously decreasing in favour of smaller structures. In doing so, a frontier seems to remain between the worlds of research and practice, especially for the majority of small architectural practices having a modest use of technology. This paper constitutes a reference for the next step of the research and for further worldwide researches by facilitating their contextualization.

Keywords: Architectural Design, literature review, SME, XR technologies

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1140 Accessibility for the Disabled in Public Buildings: The Case of a Nigerian University

Authors: S. P. Akinbogun, P. Oloruntoyin

Abstract:

One of the millennium development goals is the reduction of illiteracy. The state of user friendliness of the educational buildings is expected to play a significant role in the quest, particularly among the physically challenged. This study considers the state of access of educational buildings to disabled on wheel chair and crutches. It draws context from one of the federal universities in Nigeria. The study is basically qualitative; data were collected through structured interview and observation to assess compliance with the prescribed accessibility standard of academic buildings in the Federal University of Technology Akure. The study found that narrow entrances and routes of buildings, raised steps at entrances of the buildings, and ramps were absent. This implies exclusion as it renders most of the buildings inaccessible to wheelchair users. Perhaps, it accounts for low enrolment of wheelchair users in the institution despite many of them in the city. The implication is a challenge in the achievement of the millennium development goal concerning the reduction in the level of illiteracy in the country. The study suggests that government should strictly ensure that public buildings should satisfy or retrofitted to meet disabled access before development approval. This should be followed with the issuance of certificate of compliance upon completion.

Keywords: Education, Accessibility, physically challenged, public building

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