Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 116

antioxidant activity Related Abstracts

116 Clove Essential Oil Improves Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Activity in Tilapia Fish Fillet Cooked by Grilling and Microwaving

Authors: E. Oskoueian, E. Maroufyan, E. Ramezani-Fard, M. Ebrahimi, Y. M. Goh

Abstract:

The fish meat plays an important role in the human health as it contains high quality protein. The tilapia fish considered as the third largest group of farmed fish. The oxidative deterioration of fish meat may occur during the cooking process. The proper cooking process and using natural antioxidant to prevent oxidation and enhance the quality of the tilapia fish fillet is necessary. Hence, this research was carried out to evaluate the potential of clove essential oil to prevent lipid peroxidation and enhance the antioxidant activity of tilapia fish fillet cooked using microwave and griller. The results showed that cooking using microwave significantly (p < 0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation and decreased the DPPH and ferric reducing activity power of the fish fillet as compared to grilling. The fortification of fish fillet using clove essential oil prevented from lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the fish fillet significantly (p < 0.05). Consequently, fortification of tilapia fish fillet using clove essential oil followed by cooking using griller to have high quality cooked fish meat is recommended.

Keywords: Fish, Lipid Peroxidation, antioxidant activity, fillet, fortification

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115 Tomato Peels Prevented Margarine and Soya/Sunflower Oils Oxidation

Authors: S. Zidani, A. Benakmoum, A. Mansouri, A. Ammouche

Abstract:

In this research paper, we studied the oxidative stability of table margarine and soya/sunflower oils rich in lycopene with tomato peel powder (TPP). For this 1%, 2%, and 3% (w/w) of TPP was added to oil used in margarine manufacture. Chromatic characteristics of margarine and soya/sunflower oil have been studied using 'Tristimulus Colorimetry' method. The main point of the research was to determine the antioxidant activity and the oxidative resistance of soya/sunflower and margarine with TPP (peroxide index, TBA index, and rancimat test). The sensory and textural properties, overall acceptability of margarine and oil were good, indicating that TPP could be added to oil to produce a margarine enriched in lycopene with excellent stability oxidative.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, tomato peel powder, lycopene, table margarine, soya/sunflower oils, stability oxidative

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114 Antioxidant Characteristics of Serbian Conifers

Authors: Milan Popović, Dubravka Štajner, Boris M. Popović, Saša Orlović, Ružica Ždero, Aleksandra Popović

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Many plants possess antioxidant ingredients that provides efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. Present article highlights an antioxidant capacity of Serbian conifer plants. Antioxidant activities of the crude extracts were assessed using different assays. In this study, quantities of phenolic compounds (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and proanthocyanidins), contents of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids), soluble proteins and proline were examined. MDA quantities and ability of extracts to remove reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) were also investigated. Furthermore, antioxidant activities of extracts against DPPH∙, ferric reducing antioxidant power, permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity were also determined. According to almost all used assays, antioxidant and scavenging capacities of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were superior compared to spruce. Presented results implicated that leaves of Douglas fir and silver fir possessed outstanding antioxidant characteristics that could diminish damage caused by oxygen radicals which are responsible for many of the bodily changes and susceptibility to different diseases.

Keywords: Lipid Peroxidation, antioxidant activity, conifers, reducing power

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113 The Use of an Extract from the Polish Variety of White Mulberry Leaves in Flat Bread of Paratha Type

Authors: Monika Przeor

Abstract:

The pace of life of modern society promotes the occurrence of affluence diseases. Functional food, which design and consumption by the consumer may be useful in the prevention of occurrence of different diseases, is becoming the alternative of food products available in the market. Design and determination of properties of flat bread of paratha type with the addition of an extract from the leaves of white mulberry became the overriding objective in the presented study. The centuries-old use of mulberry leaves in alternative medicine gave hope to obtain positive effects of the undertaken activity. In the designed product, stability, and content of polyphenols as well as their antioxidant properties were tested. Moreover, in the paper an aqueous extract of mulberry leaves obtained on semi-technical scale was described. It is rich in polyphenols, which results in its antioxidant activity. The addition of the extract significantly increased health-promoting qualities of paratha. The 3% extract addition to the dough turned out to be the most desired by the consumer group.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, mulberry leaves extract, flat bread, paratha

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112 Assessment of Some Biological Activities of Methanolic Crude Extract from Polygonum maritimum L.

Authors: Imad Abdelhamid El-Haci, Wissame Mazari, Fayçal Hassani, Fawzia Atik Bekkara

Abstract:

Much attention has been paid to the antioxidants, which are expected to prevent food and living systems from peroxidative damage. Incorporation of synthetic antioxidants in food products is under strict regulation due to the potential health hazards caused by such compounds. The use of plants as traditional health remedies is very popular and important for 80% of the world’s population in African, Asian, Latin America and Middle Eastern Countries. Their use is reported to have minimal side effects. In recent years, pharmaceutical companies have spent considerable time and money in developing therapeutics based upon natural products extracted from plants. In other part, due to the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains there is continual demand for new antibiotics. Chemical compounds from medicinal plant especially are targeted by many researches. In this light, genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae), comprising about 45 genera (300 species), is distributed worldwide, mostly in north temperate regions. They have been reported to have uses in traditional medicine, such as anti-inflammation, promoting blood circulation, dysentery, diuretic, haemorrhage and many other uses. In our study, Polygonum maritimum (from Algerian coast) was extracted with 80% methanol to obtain a crude extract. P. maritimum extract (PME) had a very high content of total phenol, which was 352.49 ± 18.03 mg/g dry weight, expressed as gallic acid equivalent. PME exhibited excellent antioxidant activity, as measured using DPPH and H2O2 scavenging assays. It also showed a high antibacterial activity against gram positive bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC 0,12 mg/mL.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, Polygonum maritimum, crude extract

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111 Study of the in vivo and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Roots of the Barks of Zizyphus lotus

Authors: Yahia Mouloud, Benbia Souhila, Lekbir Adel, Djemai Zoughlache Soumia, Meslem Meriem, Maouchi Madiha, Bahi Ahlem

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Natural extracts is known for their contents of biologically active molecules. In this context, we attempted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract prepared from the bark of the roots of Zizyphus lotus. The quantitative analysis based on the dosage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins provided following values: 0.39 ± 0.007 ug EAG/mg of extract for phenolic compounds, 0.05 ± 0.02ug EQ/mg extract for flavonoids and 0.0025 ± 7.071 E-4 ECT ug/mg extract for tannins. The study of the antioxidant activity by the DPPH test in vitro showed a powerful antiradical power with an IC50 = 8,8 ug/ml. For the DPPH test in vivo we used two rats lots, one lot with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the methanol extract and a control lot. We found a significant difference in antiradical activity with p < 0.05.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, DPPH, Zizyphus lotus, tannins

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110 Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from Liquorices (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and Its Application in El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets (Sesames and Folia)

Authors: Mervet A. El-sherif, Ginat M El-sherif, Kadry H Tolba

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine, identify and investigate the effects of natural antioxidants of licorice and carob. Besides, their effects as powder and antioxidant extracts addition on refined sunflower oil stability as natural antioxidants were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents as total phenols, total carotenoids and total tannins were 353.93mg/100g (gallic acid), 10.62mg/100g (carotenoids) and 83.33mg/100g (tannic acid), respectively in licorice, while in carob, it was 186.07, 18.66 and 106.67, respectively. Polyphenol compounds of the studied licorice and carob extracts were determined and identified by HPLC. The stability of refined sunflower oil (which determined by peroxide value and Rancimat) was increased with increasing the level of polyphenols extracts addition. Also, our study shows the effect of addition of these polyphenols extracts to El-mewled El-nabawy sweets fortified by full cream milk powder (sesames and folia). We found that, licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts were delayed the rancidity of sesame and peanut significantly. That encourages using licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts as a good natural antioxidants source instead of synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: Applications, Natural Antioxidants, antioxidant activity, licorice, carob

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109 Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content of Aqueous Acetone and Ethanol Extract of Edible Parts of Moringa oleifera and Sesbania grandiflora

Authors: Perumal Siddhuraju, Arumugam Abirami, Gunasekaran Nagarani, Marimuthu Sangeethapriya

Abstract:

Aqueous ethanol and aqueous acetone extracts of Moringa oleifera (outer pericarp of immature fruit and flower) and Sesbania grandiflora white variety (flower and leaf) were examined for radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities. Ethanol extract of S. grandiflora (flower and leaf) and acetone extract of M. oleifera (outer pericarp of immature fruit and flower) contained relatively higher levels of total dietary phenolics than the other extracts. The antioxidant potential of the extracts were assessed by employing different in vitro assays such as reducing power assay, DPPH˙, ABTS˙+ and ˙OH radical scavenging capacities, antihemolytic assay by hydrogen peroxide induced method and metal chelating ability. Though all the extracts exhibited dose dependent reducing power activity, acetone extract of all the samples were found to have more hydrogen donating ability in DPPH˙ (2.3% - 65.03%) and hydroxyl radical scavenging systems (21.6% - 77.4%) than the ethanol extracts. The potential of multiple antioxidant activity was evident as it possessed antihemolytic activity (43.2 % to 68.0 %) and metal ion chelating potency (45.16 - 104.26 mg EDTA/g sample). The result indicate that acetone extract of M. oleifera (OPIF and flower) and S. grandiflora (flower and leaf) endowed with polyphenols, could be utilized as natural antioxidants/nutraceuticals.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Moringa oleifera, polyphenolics, Sesbania grandiflora, underutilized vegetables

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108 Effect of Different Ozone Doses on Antioxidant Activity in Different Tomato Tissues and at Different Stages of Ripening

Authors: Shalluf Milad

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Tomatoes are widely produced and consumed due to their nutritional content and versatility. However, the tomato is a soft fruit liable to damage and flavour deterioration. Hence, the main challenge for the tomato producing industry is to prevent the high loss incurred during harvest, handling and transportation of the crops. The objective of this study was to investigate the overall nutritional implication of controlled storage of tomatoes using ozone on the basic nutritional components of tomatoes. This investigation was also designed to focus on the effect of different ozone doses on the basic components (antioxidant activity). Green, yellow and red stages of ripeness (elegance tomatoes), were harvested at different dates for each experiment. The tomatoes were cleaned and placed inside the glass reactors and ozonated at 0.25, 0.50 and 1 mg O3/g tomatoes and clean air respectively for 5 days at 15°C ± 2 and 90-95 % relative humidity respectively. The fruits were analysed for total antioxidant activity. Analysis of the fruits clearly showed that antioxidant activity in the pericarp tissue was the lowest (P<0.001) compared with the pulp tissue of tomatoes during storage in the red stage of maturity, after being treated with ozone in the atmosphere of storage in a dose of 1.00 mgO3/g tomatoes. It can be concluded from this study that the use of ozone in the atmospheres of storage and handling of fresh products maintains the important compounds of these products while maintaining the nutritional value and health quality.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, ozone, post-harvest treatment, controlled atmosphere storage, tomatoes

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107 Hypotensive, Free Radical Scavenging and Anti-Lipid Peroxidation Activities of Crataegus azarolus L. Leaves Extracts Growing in Algeria

Authors: Amel Bouaziz, Seddik Khennouf, Mussa Abu Zarga, Shtayway Abdalla, Saliha Djidel, Assia Bentahar, Saliha Dahamna, Smain Amira

Abstract:

The present study aimed to evaluate the hypotensive and the in vitro antioxidant activities of Crataegus azarolus L. (Rosaceae), a plant widely used as natural remedy for hypertension in folk medicine. The antioxidant potential of methanolic extract (ME)and its three fractions of Chloroform (CHE), ethyl acetate (EAE)and water (AqE) have been investigated using several assays, including the DPPH scavenging, ABTS scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was performed by the β-carotene bleaching assay, ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarburic acid method. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were estimated using Folin-Chiocalteu reagent and AlCl3, respectively. EAE extract showed the highest polyphenolic and flavonoids contents (396,04±1.20 mg GAE/g of dry extract and 32,73 ± 0.03mg QE/g of dry extract) respectively. Similarly, this extract possessed the highest scavenging activity for DPPH radical (IC 50 = 0,006±0,0001mg /ml), ABTS radical (IC50=0.0035±0,0007 mg/ml) and hydroxyl radical(IC 50=0,283± 0.01 mg/ml). In addition, the EAE exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in the inhibition of linoleic acid/ß-carotene coupled oxidation (89,21%), lipid peroxidation in the ferric thiocyanate(FTC) method (90.13%), and thio-barbituric acid (TBA) method (74.23%). Intravenous administration of Me and EAE decreased mean arterial blood pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in anesthetized rats dose-dependently, at the dose range of 0.4 to 12 mg/kg. The mean arterial blood pressure dropped by 27.58 and 39.37% for ME and EAE, respectively. In conclusion, The present study supported the significant potential to use C. azarolus by-products as a source of natural antioxidants and provides scientific justification for its traditional uses as cardio-protective and anti-hypertensive remedy.

Keywords: Hypertension, polyphenols, Free Radicals, Flavonoids, antioxidant activity, Crataegus azarolus, peroxidation

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106 Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Matricaria pubscens Extracts: A Wild Space of North African Pharmacopeia

Authors: Abdelouahab Dehimati, Fatiha Bedjou

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This study focused on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of four extracts from the plant Matricaria pubscens (Asteraceae) harvest in the region of Ghardaia, the northern Sahara of Algeria. The different extracts were analyzed for their content of phenolic compounds and their biological activities. The ethanol extract expresses a better extraction yield (44.22%). We have first performed the quantitative colorimetric methods for total polyphenols. Wherein the aqueous extract shows the highest total polyphenol content and total flavonoid (216.66±2.58 mg Eq GA/g and 111.04±0.49 mg Eq Q/g E, respectively) and ethanol extract 50% total tannins content (68.88±2.72 mg Eq AT/g E). The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of extracts of Matricaria pubscens by the arbitrary value IC50. The ethanol 50% extract is expressed strong activity with an IC50 14.19±1.25 mg/m against the DPPH radical and 11.66±0.53 mg/ml against the ABTS radical). In addition, the aqueous extract showed strong reducing power with an IC50 (48.61±1.14 mg/ml). However, the results obtained by the reducing power of phosphomolybdat the test are calculated by the iron maximum absorbance where ethanol extract 50% gives an absorbance of about 1.641 ± 0.01nm. Otherwise, methanol 70% and butanol 80% extracts gave a very large chelating effect of iron with an IC50 (38.38±0.01 μg/ml and 38.58±0.04 μg/ml respectively). By the method of disc Diffuson, the results of the antimicrobial activity are achieved butanolic extract 80% shows high activity towards MRSA (MIC: 3.51mg/ml; BMC>100 mg/ml). Their shares, the extracts were the most active for the antifungal test, the butanol 80% extract was the most active against A. niger (MIC: 12.5 mg/ml; FMC>100 mg/ml). These preliminary results could be used to justify the traditional use of this plant and their phenolic compounds could be exploited for therapeutic purposes, such as antioxidants and antimicrobial effects.

Keywords: Mic, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, Matricaria pubscens, antimicrobial activity, IC50

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105 α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity of Some Tunisian Aromatic and Medicinal Plants

Authors: Hamdi Belfeki, Belgacem Chandoul, Mnasser Hassouna, Mondher Mejri

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Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of eight Tunisian aromatic and medicinal plants (TAMP) were characterized by studying their composition in polyphenols and also their antiradical and antioxidant capacities. In absence and in the presence of the various extracts, α-amylase from Bacillus subtlis activity, was measured in order to detect a potential inhibition. The total contents of polyphenols and flavonoid vary in function of TAMP and the mobile phase used for the extraction (distilled water or ethanol). The ethanolic extracts showed the most significant antiradical and antioxidant activities. Only the extracts from Coriandrum sativum showed a significant inhibiting effect on the α-amylase activity. This inhibiting capacity could be correlated with the chemical profile of the two extracts, due to the fact that they have the greatest amount of total flavonoid. The ethanolic extract has the most important antioxidant and anti-radicalizing activities among the sixteen extracts studied. The inhibition kinetics of the two coriander extracts were evaluated by pre-incubation method, using Lineweaver-Burk’s equation, obtained by linearization of Michaeilis-Menten’s expression. The results showed that both extracts exercised a competitive inhibition mechanism.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, inhibition, α-amylase, aromatic and medicinal plants

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104 In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Methanol Extracts of Tamus communis L. from Algeria

Authors: S. Boumerfeg, L. Arrar, A. Baghiani, F. Belkhiri, N. Charef, S. Khennouf

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The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of methanolic extracts from roots of Tamus communis L. (TCRE), which is a plant used in traditional medicine in Algeria. The antioxidant potential of pattern was evaluated using tow complementary techniques, inhibition of free radical DPPH and the test of β-Carotene/linoleic acid. The antioxidant test indicates that non-polar fractions of TCRE (chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions) were more active than the polar fractions. Among these fractions, the chloroform extract appear in the DPPH test an IC50 of (18.89 µg/ml) comparable to that of BHT (18.6 µg/ml). This fraction was able to inhibiting the oxidation of β-Carotene with a percentage of inhibition (89.84 %). In antibacterial test, non-polar fractions showed antibacterial activity very important compared with the polar fractions. These fractions have inhibited the growth of four from nine bacterial strains, causing zones of inhibition from 08 to 23 mm of diameter.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, Tamus communis L, polar fractions

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103 Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Vegetal Extracts of Six Aromatic and Medicinal Plants of Algerian Flora and Their Uses in Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

Authors: Ziani Borhane Eddine Cherif, Hazzi Mohamed, Mouhouche Fazia

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The vegetal extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants start to have much of interest like potential sources of natural bioactive molecules. Many features are conferred by the nature of the chemical function of their major constituents (phenol, alcohol, aldehyde, cetone). This biopotential lets us to focalize on the study of three main biological activities, the antioxidant, antibiotic and insecticidal activities of six Algerian aromatic plants in the aim of making in evidence by the chromatographic analysis (CPG and CG/SM) the phytochemical compounds implicating in this effects. The contents of Oxygenated monoterpenes represented the most prominent group of constituents in the majority of plants. However, the α-Terpineol (28,3%), Carvacrol (47,3%), pulégone (39,5%), Chrysanthenone (27,4%), Thymol 23,9%, γ-Terpinene 23,9% and 2-Undecanone(94%) were the main components. The antioxyding activity of the Essential oils and no-volatils extracts was evaluated in vitro using four tests: inhibition of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical-scavenging activity (ABTS•+), the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays and the reducing power. The measures of the IC50 of these natural compounds revealed potent activity (between 254.64-462.76mg.l-1), almost similar to that of BHT, BHA, Tocopherol and Ascorbic acid (126,4-369,1 mg.l-1) and so far than the Trolox one (IC50= 2,82mg.l-1). Furthermore, three ethanol extracts were found to be remarkably effective toward DPPH and ABTS inhibition, compared to chemical antioxidant BHA and BHT (IC = 9.8±0.1 and 28±0.7 mg.l-1, respectively); for reducing power test it has also exhibited high activity. The study on the insecticidal activity effect by contact, inhalation, fecundity and fertility of Callosobruchus maculatus and Tribolium confusum showed a strong potential biocide reaching 95-100% mortality only after 24 hours. The antibiotic activity of our essential oils were evaluated by a qualitative study (aromatogramme) and quantitative (MIC, MBC and CML) on four bacteria (Gram+ and Gram-) and one strain of pathogenic yeast, the results of these tests showed very interesting action than that induced by the same reference antibiotics (Gentamycin, and Nystatin Ceftatidine) such that the inhibition diameters and MIC values for tested microorganisms were in the range of 23–58 mm and 0.015–0.25%(v/v) respectively.

Keywords: Aromatic Plants, essential oils, Bioactive Molecules, antioxidant activity, no-volatils extracts, insecticidal activity, antibiotic activity

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102 The Effect of Addition of White Mulberry Fruits on the Antioxidant Activity of the New Developed Bioactive Bread

Authors: Kobus-Cisowska Joanna, Flaczyk Ewa, Gramza-Michalowska Anna, Kmiecik Dominik, Przeor Monika, Marcinkowska Agata and Korczak Józef

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Cereal products, including mainly bread is a staple food known from the beginning of history throughout the world. It is now believed that there is no replacement of the basic food. Bread, due to the high content of starch is the energy source for the proper functioning of our body. It also contains proteins, fats, vitamins, especially of the B group and vitamin E, a number of minerals, and fiber. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of new developed bread premixes with mulberry fruits for people with anemia, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. From the finished product-bread, aqueous and methanol extracts was prepared, which in next step were analyzed to assess the activity of the radical DPPH test, ABTS, chelating activity, the ability to reduce metals. Extracts were prepared from bread were acquired with premixes directly after production and stored for three months. The resulting trial breads effect by different mechanisms of antioxidant. They showed the ability to scavenge radicals ABTS and DPPH and chelating activity. Methanol extracts showed significantly greater antioxidant activity in comparison with aqueous extracts, and the largest effect was estimated for sample of bread for anemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The greatest ability to scavenging ABTS radicals showed breads for anemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, while smaller for anemia and control sample. It was shown that the methanol extracts of the breads samples showed no ability to chelate iron (II). These properties are observed only in the aqueous extracts. The greatest ability attempt had anemia while the lowest control sample. Financial supported by the UE Project no POIG 01.01.02-00-061/09.

Keywords: polyphenols, Free Radicals, antioxidant activity, morus alba

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101 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Genista cephalantha Spach. (Fabaceae)

Authors: Chebbah Kaoutar, Marchioni Eric, Menad Ahmed, Mekkiou Ratiba, Sarri Djamel, Ameddah Souad, Boumaza Ouahiba, Seghiri Ramdane, Benayache Samir, Benayache Fadila

Abstract:

This study was designed to estabilish a preliminary phytochemical screening, evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid content according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and aluminum chloride method respectively and to determine qualitatively, using HPLC-UV method, the most important products present in ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts of the aerial parts of Genista cephalantha Spach. from East Algeria. The antioxidant activity of these extracts was spectrophotometrically tested by measuring their ability to scavenge a stable DPPH free radical and by β-Carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Evaluated extracts showed a good activity in both antioxidant system assays.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, Fabaceae, HPLC-DAD-UV, genista cephalantha

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100 Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Phenolic Extracts of Endemic Plants Marrubium deserti and Ammodaucus leucotrichus from Algeria

Authors: Yousfi Mohamed, Sifi Ibrahim, Benaddou Fatima Zohra

Abstract:

The Marrubium deserti and Ammodaucus leucotrichus L. an Algerian endemic species, has several applications in traditional medicine for example as a remedy for asthma and diabetes, and was found to have antibacterial properties. In this work, an antioxidant and antimicrobial activities was performed on phenolic extracts of Marrubium deserti, Ammodaucus leucotrichus plants. The yield of methanol maceration of these plants is 12.4% and 20.4% respectively. The content of total polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanin in methanolic extracts, are varied between 19.52±1.88 and 59.24±3.45 mg/g gallic acid equivalent, and 2.08±0.29 to 1.46±0.39 mg/g quercetin equivalent, and 0.395 to 1.934µmol/g respectively. The total chlorophylls and carotenoids were be ranged from 0.149±0.20 to 1.537±0.20 g/ml and 1.537±0.20 to 0.149 ± 0.20 g/ml, respectively. According to DPPH and FRAP test, the values of EC50 was shows a higher activity of Marrubium deserti than Ammodaucus leucotrichus with EC50 values (DPPH) were 34.53±0.71 μg/mL and 258.60±15.67 mg/ml respectively. The TEAC values of FRAP test was a highly superior for Marrubium deserti 209.66±0.26 mg Equivalent Trolox/g dry residue than Ammodaucus leucotrichus 45.88±2.93 mg Trolox Equivalent/g dry residue. The antimicrobial activity against nine strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus(+), Staphylococcus aureus (-), Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi), was showed that the tested extracts are a significant antibacterial activity with inhibition zones ranging from 10 to 50 mm. the value of CMI were ranging from 0.89 to 14.29 mg/ml.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, phenolic extract, Marrubium deserti, Ammodaucus leucotrichus

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99 Walnut (Juglans Regia) Extracts: Investigation of Antioxidant Effect, Total Phenols and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity

Authors: G. Arabaci, N. Saki, S. Nalbantoglu, M. Akin

Abstract:

Walnut has a great range of phenolic profile and it is used in Asia and Africa for treatment of many diseases and cancer. Phenolic compounds play a number of crucial roles in complex metabolism of plants and of also fruit trees. Consumption of certain phenolics in the food is considered beneficial for human nutrition. Phenolic compounds known as anti-radical inactivators with their high antioxidant activities and these activities play an important role in inhibition of multi-metal corrosion. Many common corrosion inhibitors that are still in use today are health hazards. Therefore, there is still an increased attention directed towards the development of environmentally compatible, nonpolluting corrosion inhibitors. The present study reports the total phenols content, antioxidant potentials and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the walnut (Juglans regia L.) produced in Turkey. The anti-tyrosinase activity was investigated for walnut at 2 h extraction time and all extracts exhibited tyrosinase activity. The results of this study suggested that walnut can be used as an excellent, easily accessible source of natural antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Juglans Regia, total phenols, tyrosinase activity

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98 Phytochemical Study and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids Isolated from Prunus persica L. Leaves

Authors: K. Fellah, H. Benmehdi, A. Amrouche, H. Malainine, F. Memmou, H. Dalile, W. Siata

Abstract:

This work aims to evaluate the antioxidant of flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Prunus persica L. A phytochemical screening allowed us to highlight the different phytochemicals present in the leaves of the studied plant. The selective extraction of flavonoids gave yields of 0.71, 1.5, and 4.8% for the fractions ethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n- butanol, respectively. The reading of the antioxidant activity of different extracts of flavonoids by HPLTC method revealed positive reaction (yellow spots) on the TLC plates sprayed with DPPH. Using the DPPH method, the fractions of flavonoids (bunanol, ethyl acetate and Diethyl ether) showed a potent scavenging activity with IC50 = 0.22; 0.27 and 0.76 mg / ml, respectively. Furthermore, our findings revealed the extracts under study exhibited higher reducing potential which depends upon extract concentration. These results obtained from this investigation confirm that the Prunus persica remains a major resource of bioactive molecules.

Keywords: Flavonoids, antioxidant activity, DPPH, Prunus persica L, phytochemical study, TLC bioautographic, FRAP

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97 Evaluation of the Inhibitory Activity of Natural Extracts From Spontaneous Plant on the Α-Amylase and Α–Glucosidase and Their Antioxidant Activities

Authors: Ihcen Khacheba, Amar Djeridane, Abdelkarim Kamli, Mohamed Yousfi

Abstract:

Plant materials constitute an important source of natural bioactive molecules. Thus plants have been used from antiquity as sources of medicament against various diseases. These properties are usually attributed to secondary metabolites that are the subject of a lot of research in this field. This is particularly the case of phenolic compounds plants that are widely renowned in therapeutics as anti-inflammatories, enzyme inhibitors, and antioxidants, particularly flavonoïds. With the aim of acquiring a better knowledge of the secondary metabolism of the vegetable kingdom in the region of Laghouat and of the discovering of new natural therapeutics, 10 extracts from 5 Saharan plant species were submitted to chemical screening.The analysis of the preceding biological targets led to the evaluation of the biological activity of the extracts of the species Genista Corsica. The first step, consists in extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds. The second step has been devoted to stugying the effects of phenolic compounds on the kinetics catalyzed by two enzymes belonging to the class of hydrolase (the α-amylase and α-glucosidase) responsible for the digestion of sugars and finally we evaluate the antiantioxidant potential. The analysis results of phenolic extracts show clearly a low content of phenolic compounds in investigated plants. Average total phenolics ranged from 0.0017 to 11.35 mg equivalent gallic acid/g of the crude extract. Whereas the total flavonoids content lie between 0.0015 and 10.,96 mg/g equivalent of rutin. The results of the kinetic study of enzymatic reactions show that the extracts have inhibitory effects on both enzymes, with IC50 values ranging from 95.03 µg/ml to 1033.53 µg/ml for the α-amylase and 279.99 µg/ml to 1215.43 µg/ml for α-glucosidase whose greatest inhibition was found for the acetone extract of June (IC50 = 95.03 µg/ml). The results the antioxidant activity determined by ABTS, DPPH, and phosphomolybdenum tests clearly showed a good antioxidant capacity comparatively to antioxidants taken as reference the biological potential of these plants and could find their use in medicine to replace synthetic products.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, α-amylase, phenolic extracts, inhibition effect, α-glucosidase

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96 Hexane Extract of Thymus serpyllum L.: GC-MS Profile, Antioxidant Potential and Anticancer Impact on HepG2 (Liver Carcinoma) Cell Line

Authors: Hapipah Mohd Ali, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Elham Rouhollahi, Salma Baig, Bakrudeen Ali Ahmad, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah Azizan

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Free radical damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to etiology of many chronic diseases, cancer being one of them. Recent studies have been successful in ROS targeted therapies via antioxidants using mouse models in cancer therapeutics. The present study was designed to scrutinize anticancer activity, antioxidant activity of 5 different extracts of Thymus serpyllum in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, HepG2, HCT-116, PC3, and A549. Identification of the phytochemicals present in the most active extract of Thymus serpyllum was conducted using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrophotometry and antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay. Anticancer impact of the extract in terms of IC50 was evaluated using MTT cell viability assay. Results revealed that the hexane extract showed the best anticancer activity in HepG2 (Liver Carcinoma Cell Line) with an IC50 value of 23 ± 0.14 µg/ml followed by 25 µg/ml in HCT-116 (Colon Cancer Cell Line), 30 µm/ml in MCF-7 (Breast Cancer Cell Line), 35 µg/ml in MDA-MB-231 (Breast Cancer Cell Line), 57 µg/ml in PC3 (Prostate Cancer Cell Line) and 60 µg/ml in A549 (Lung Carcinoma Cell Line). GC-MS profile of the hexane extract showed the presence of 31 compounds with carvacrol, thymol and thymoquione being the major compounds. Phenolics such as Vitamin E, terpinen-4-ol, borneol and phytol were also identified. Hence, here we present the first report on cytotoxicity of hexane extract of Thymus serpyllum extract in HepG2 cell line with a robust anticancer activity with an IC50 of 23 ± 0.14 µg/ml.

Keywords: Anticancer Activity, antioxidant activity, Thymus serpyllum L, hexane extract, GC-MS profile, HepG2 cell line

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95 Biochemical and Pomological Variability among 14 Moroccan and Foreign Cultivars of Prunus dulcis

Authors: H. Hanine, H. H'ssaini, M. Ibno Alaoui, A. Nablousi, H. Zahir, S. Ennahli, H. Latrache, H. Zine Abidine

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Biochemical and pomological variability among 14 cultivars of Prunus dulcis planted in a germoplasm collection site in Morocco were evaluated. Almond samples from six local and eight foreign cultivars (France, Italy, Spain, and USA) were characterized. Biochemical and pomological data revealed significant genetic variability among the 14 cultivars; local cultivars exhibited higher total polyphenol content. Oil content ranged from 35 to 57% among cultivars; both Texas and Toundout genotypes recorded the highest oil content. Total protein concentration from select cultivars ranged from 50 mg/g in Ferraduel to 105 mg/g in Rizlane1 cultivars. Antioxidant activity of almond samples was examined by a DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging assay; the antioxidant activity varied significantly within the cultivars, with IC50 (the half-maximal inhibitory concentration) values ranging from 2.25 to 20 mg/ml. Autochthonous cultivars originated from the Oujda region exhibited higher tegument total polyphenol and amino acid content compared to others. The genotype Rizlane2 recorded the highest flavonoid content. Pomological traits revealed a large variability within the almond germplasms. The hierarchical clustering analysis of all the data regarding pomological traits distinguished two groups with some particular genotypes as distinct cultivars, and groups of cultivars as polyclone varieties. These results strongly exhibit a potential use of Moroccan-originated almonds as potential clones for future selection due to their nutritional values and pomological traits compared to well-established cultivars.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, DDPH, Moroccan almonds, Prunus dulcis

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94 Essential Oil Compounds and Antioxidant Activity for α-Thujene Rich Two Species of Artemisia

Authors: Reza Dehghani Bidgoli

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Although Artemisia species are one of the most important medicinal plants, there are a few reports on chemistry or activity of their essential oils because of low amounts of the oils in this genus. In this study, chemical composition of essential oils leaves and stems of Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia aucheri growing wild in Kashan rangelands, central Iran, have been analyzed using GC–MS technique. Analysis revealed 50 identified compounds, representing 96.55% of the oil and 23 identified compounds representing 97.83% of the oil on Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia aucheri respectively. The yield of essential oil extraction is very higher than those of previous reports. In both plants α-thujene is the main component in both of them, with an extra value, 74.42%, in aucheri species. Several compounds (some with significant compositions), were found in these varieties of Artemisia which are not recorded in previous literature. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated for the first time in this research work using β-carotene/linoleic acid assay and found to be surprisingly attributed directly to α-pinene contents in them.

Keywords: Essential Oil, antioxidant activity, artemisia aucheri, artemisia sieberi, α-thujene

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93 Impact of Gamma Irradiation on Biological Activities of Artemisia herba alba from Algeria

Authors: Abir Mohamed Mohamed Ibrahim, Amina Titouche, Mohamed Hazzit

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Phytotherapy is based on use of plant natural products holding the main sources of drugs with healing properties for the treatment of human, animal or vegetable diseases. With these aims, and to replace chemical preservatives in natural products, we are interested to use essential oils from Algerian endemic plants belonging to the Asteraceae family: Artemisia herba alba Asso, which was undergoes a hydro-distillation after its irradiation by Gamma rays at frequencies: 10, 20, and 30 KGray which gave respectively the following essential oil yields: 1.087%, 1.087%, 1.085%, compared with that of the untreated sample giving a yield of 1.27 %. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro of essential oil for A. herba alba has been assessed by two different methods: inhibition of DPPH radical and measurement of reducing power. The first method has not revealed a very big difference regardless of the dose of irradiation, the IC50 is about 4000 mg/l, the maximum of inhibition was around 49.4%, likewise, the test of reducing power awarded us a maximum reducing capacity was of 0.76%; both of results were registered by the specimen irradiated at 20 KGy, it has a more better antioxidant power than no irradiated sample but slightly. To combat Fusarium culmorum, causing the wilts and rots, we are focused on the antifungal screening of this aromatic plant. The results obtained, followed by measurements of Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC); showed promising inhibitory effect against pathogen tested. With a yield superior to l%, the essential oil has shown a remarkable efficiency on the stump, mainly for sample irradiate at 30KGray (MICs= 625 µg/ml; MICc= 1250 µg/ml) with MIC of 2%. These results demonstrate a good antifungal activity, to limit and even to stop the development of the pathogenic microorganism and also the positive effect of dose of irradiation to upgrade this capacity as well, to uphold the antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: Gamma Ray, antioxidant activity, antifungal activity, artemisia herba alba Asso, essential oil yield

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92 Phenolic Rich Dry Extracts and Their Antioxidant Activity

Authors: P. Viškelis, R. Raudonis, L. Raudonė, V. Janulis

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Pharmacological and clinical studies demonstrated that phenolic compounds particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids are responsible for a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are regarded as natural antioxidants that play an important role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Qualitatively prepared dry extracts possess high stability and concentration of bio active compounds, facility of standardization and quality control. The aim of this work was to determine the phenolic and antioxidant profiles of Hippophaë rhamnoides L., Betula pendula Roth., Tilia cordata Mill., Sorbus aucuparia L. leaves dry extracts and to identify markers of antioxidant activity. Extracts were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with FRAP post-column assay. Dry extracts are versatile forms possessing wide area of applications, final product ensure consistent phytochemical and functional properties. Seven flavonoids: rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin were identified in dry extract of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. leaves. Predominant compounds were flavonol glycosides which were chosen as markers for quantitative control of dry extracts. Chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, isorhamnetin were prevailing compounds in Betula pendula Roth. leaves extract, whereas strongest ferric reducing activity was determined for chlorogenic acid and hyperoside. Notable amounts of protocatechuic acid and flavonol glycosides, rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, isoquercitrin were identified in the chromatographic profile of Tilia cordata Mill. Neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids were significantly dominant compounds in antioxidant profile in dry extract of Sorbus aucuparia L. leaves. Predominant compounds of antioxidant profiles could be proposed as functional markers of quality of phenolic rich raw materials. Dry extracts could be further used for manufacturing of pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, phenolic, FRAP, dry extract

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91 Phytochemical Study and Biological Activity of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

Authors: Mekhaldi Abdelkader, Djibaoui Rachid, Hamoum Hakim, Bouzned Ahcen

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This study presents an attempt to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract and essential oils prepared from the leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The content of polyphenols in the methanolic extract of the leaves from Salvia officinalis extract was determined by spectrophoto- metrically, calculated as gallic acid and catechin equivalent. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenylpicryl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The plant essential oil and methanol extract were also subjected to screenings for the evaluation of their antioxidant activities using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. While the plant essential oil showed only weak antioxidant activities, its methanol extract was considerably active in DPPH (IC50= 37.29µg/ml) test. Appreciable total phenolic content (31.25mg/g) was also detected for the plant methanol extract as gallic acid equivalent in the Folin–Ciocalteu test. The plant was also screened for its antimicrobial activity and good to moderate inhibitions were recorded for its essential oil and methanol extract against most of the tested microorganisms. The present investigation revealed that this plant has rich source of antioxidant properties. It is for this reason that sage has found increasing application in food formulations.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, flavonoid, Salvia officinalis, polyphenol

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90 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila (Algeria)

Authors: F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia, Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal

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There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7%. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and three fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Essential Oil, Artemisia herba-alba, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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89 Geoclimatic Influences on the Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from the Fruit of Arbutus unedo L.

Authors: Khadidja Bouzid, Fouzia Benali Toumi, Mohamed Bouzouina

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We made a comparison between the total phenolic content, concentrations of flavonoids and antioxidant activity of four different extracts (butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, water) of Arbutus unedo L. fruit (Ericacea) of El Marsa and Terni area. The total phenolic content in the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 26.57 and 48.23 gallic acid equivalents mg/g of dry weight of extract. The concentrations of flavonoids in plant extracts varied from 17.98 to 56.84 catechin equivalents mg/g. The antioxidant activity was analyzed in vitro using the DPPH reagent; among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction from El Marsa area showed the highest antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Phenols, antioxidant activity, Arbutus unedo L, fruit flavonoids, Western Algeria

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88 A Comparative Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of in vivo and in vitro Raised Holarrhena antidysenterica Linn.

Authors: Gayatri Nahak, Satyajit Kanungo, Rajani Kanta Sahu

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Holarrhena antidysenterica Linn. (Apocynaceae) is a typical Indian medicinal plant popularly known as “Indrajav”. Traditionally the plant has been considered a popular remedy for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea, intestinal worms and the seeds of this plant are also used as an anti-diabetic remedy. In the present study axillary shoot multiplication, callus induction and shoot regeneration from callus culture were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. Then in vivo and in vitro grown healthy plants were selected for study of antioxidant activity through DPPH and OH methods. Significantly higher antioxidant activity and phenol contents were observed in vitro raised plant in comparison to in vivo plants. The findings indicated the greater amount of phenolic compounds leads to more potent radical scavenging effect as shown in in vitro raised plant in comparison to in vivo plants which showed the ability to utilize tissue culture techniques towards development of desired bioactive metabolites from in vitro culture as an alternative way to avoid using endangered plants in pharmaceutical purposes.

Keywords: in vivo, In vitro, antioxidant activity, Holarrhena antidysenterica

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87 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Terminalia arjuna Encapsulated Dairy Drink

Authors: Sawale Pravin Digambar, G. R. Patil, Shaik Abdul Hussain

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Terminalia arjuna (TA), an important medicinal plant in Indian System of Medicine, is specifically recognized for its recuperative effect on heart ailments. Alcoholic extract of TA (both free and encapsulated) was incorporated into milk to obtain functional dairy beverages. The respective beverages were appropriately flavored and optimized using response surface methodology to improve the sensory appeal. The beverages were evaluated for their compositional, anti-oxidative and various other physico-chemical aspects. Addition of herb (0.3%) extract to flavoured dairy drink (Drink 1) resulted in significantly lowered (p>0.05) HMF content and increased antioxidant activity, total phenol content as compared with control (Control 1). Subsequently, a significant (p>0.05) increase in acidity and sedimentation was also observed. Encapsulated herb (1.8%) incorporated drink (Drink 2) had significantly (P>0.05) enhanced HMF value and decreased antioxidant activity, phenol content as compared to herb added vanilla chocolate dairy drink (Drink 1). It can be concluded that addition of encapsulated TA extract and non-encapsulated TA extract to chocolate dairy drink at 0.3% concentration altered the functional properties vanilla chocolate dairy drink which could be related to the interaction of herb components such as polyphenol with milk protein or maltodextrin/ gum Arabic matrix.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Terminalia arjuna, encapsulate, physicochemical study

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