Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

alkalinity Related Abstracts

4 The Assessment Groundwater Geochemistry of Some Wells in Rafsanjan Plain, Southeast of Iran

Authors: Milad Mirzaei Aminiyan, Abdolreza Akhgar, Farzad Mirzaei Aminiyan


Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Pistachio is a main crop that accounts for a considerable portion of Iranian agricultural exports. Give that pistachio tree is a tolerant type of tree to saline and alkaline soil and water conditions, but groundwater and irrigation water quality play important roles in main production this crop. For this purpose, 94 well water samples were taken from 25 wells and samples were analyzed. The results showed give that region’s geological, climatic characteristics, statistical analysis, and based on dominant cations and anions in well water samples (piper diagram); four main types of water were found: Na-Cl, K-Cl, Na-SO4, and K-SO4. It seems that most wells in terms of water quality (salinity and alkalinity) and based on Wilcox diagram have critical status. The analysis suggested that more than eighty-seven percentage of the well water samples have high values of EC that these values are higher than into critical limit EC value for irrigation water, which may be due to the sandy soils in this area. Most groundwater were relatively unsuitable for irrigation but it could be used by application of correct management such as removing and reducing the ion concentrations of Cl‾, SO42‾, Na+ and total hardness in groundwater and also the concentrated deep groundwater was required treatment to reduce the salinity and sodium hazard. Given that irrigation water quality in this area was relatively unsuitable for most agriculture production but pistachio tree was adapted to this area conditions. The integrated management of groundwater for irrigation is the way to solve water quality issues not only in Rafsanjan area, but also in other arid and semi-arid areas.

Keywords: Salinity, Groundwater Quality, irrigation water quality, alkalinity, Rafsanjan plain, pistachio

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3 Green Revolution and Reckless Use of Water and Its Implication on Climate Change Leading to Desertification: Situation of Karnataka, India

Authors: Arun Das


One of the basic objectives of Independent India five decades ago was to meet the increasing demand for food to its growing population. Self-sufficiency was accomplished towards food production and it was attained through launching green revolution program. The green revolution repercussions were not realized at that moment. Many projects were undertaken. Especially, major and minor irrigation projects were executed to harness the river water in the dry land regions of Karnataka. In the elevated topographical lands, extraction of underground water was a solace given by the government to protect the interest of the dry land farmers whose land did not come under the command area. Free borewell digging, pump sets, and electricity were provided. Thus, the self-sufficiency was achieved. Contrary to this, the Continuous long-term extraction of water for agriculture from bore well and in the irrigated tracks has lead to two-way effect such as soil leeching (Alkalinity and Salinity), secondly, depleted underground water to incredible deeps has pushed the natural process to an un-reparable damage which in turn the nature lost to support even a tiny plants like grass to grow, discouraging human and animal habitation, Both the process is silently turning southwestern, central, northeastern and north western regions of Karnataka into desert. The grave situation of Karnataka green revolution is addressed in this paper to alert reckless use of water and also some of the suggestions are recommended based on the ground information.

Keywords: Water, Desertification, green revolution, Salinity, alkalinity

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2 Co-Smoldered Digestate Ash as Additive for Anaerobic Digestion of Berry Fruit Waste: Stability and Enhanced Production Rate

Authors: Arinze Ezieke, Antonio Serrano, William Clarke, Denys Villa-Gomez


Berry cultivation results in discharge of high organic strength putrescible solid waste which potentially contributes to environmental degradation, making it imperative to assess options for its complete management. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be an ideal option when the target is energy generation; however, due to berry fruit characteristics high carbohydrate composition, the technology could be limited by its high alkalinity requirement which suggests dosing of additives such as buffers and trace elements supplement. Overcoming this limitation in an economically viable way could entail replacement of synthetic additives with recycled by-product waste. Consequently, ash from co-smouldering of high COD characteristic AD digestate and coco-coir could be a promising material to be used to enhance the AD of berry fruit waste, given its characteristic high pH, alkalinity and metal concentrations which is typical of synthetic additives. Therefore, the aim of the research was to evaluate the stability and process performance from the AD of BFW when ash from co-smoldered digestate and coir are supplemented as alkalinity and trace elements (TEs) source. Series of batch experiments were performed to ascertain the necessity for alkalinity addition and to see whether the alkalinity and metals in the co-smouldered digestate ash can provide the necessary buffer and TEs for AD of berry fruit waste. Triplicate assays were performed in batch systems following I/S of 2 (in VS), using serum bottles (160 mL) sealed and placed in a heated room (35±0.5 °C), after creating anaerobic conditions. Control experiment contained inoculum and substrates only, and inoculum, substrate and NaHCO3 for optimal total alkalinity concentration and TEs assays, respectively. Total alkalinity concentration refers to alkalinity of inoculum and the additives. The alkalinity and TE potential of the ash were evaluated by supplementing ash (22.574 g/kg) of equivalent total alkalinity concentration to that of the pre-determined optimal from NaHCO3, and by dosing ash (0.012 – 7.574 g/kg) of varying concentrations of specific essential TEs (Co, Fe, Ni, Se), respectively. The result showed a stable process at all examined conditions. Supplementation of 745 mg/L CaCO3 NaHCO3 resulted to an optimum TAC of 2000 mg/L CaCO3. Equivalent ash supplementation of 22.574 g/kg allowed the achievement of this pre-determined optimum total alkalinity concentration, resulting to a stable process with a 92% increase in the methane production rate (323 versus 168 mL CH4/ (gVS.d)), but a 36% reduction in the cumulative methane production (103 versus 161 mL CH4/gVS). Addition of ashes at incremental dosage as TEs source resulted to a reduction in the Cumulative methane production, with the highest dosage of 7.574 g/kg having the highest effect of -23.5%; however, the seemingly immediate bioavailability of TE at this high dosage allowed for a +15% increase in the methane production rate. With an increased methane production rate, the results demonstrated that the ash at high dosages could be an effective supplementary material for either a buffered or none buffered berry fruit waste AD system.

Keywords: Trace Elements, Anaerobic Digestion, alkalinity, co-smoldered digestate ash

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1 Effect of Alkalinity of Water on the Aggregation of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Fedda Y. Alzoubi, Ihsan A. Aljarrah


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in different applications, especially in biomedical applications. Samples of different alkaline water were prepared in order to study the effect of alkalinity of water on the optical properties, size, and morphology of colloidal AgNPs prepared according to the chemical reduction method using the prepared water samples. Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer, Zeta-sizer, and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been utilized to carry out this study. Absorption spectra AgNPs in different alkaline water show a surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at the wavelength of 420 nm. The position of this peak is sensitive to the shape of the particles, and in our case, it indicates that the particles are spherical. As the alkalinity increases, the intensity of the SPR peak decreases, indicating the aggregation of particles. Zeta-sizer measurements show that the average diameter for AgNPs in pure water is found to be 53.51 nm, and this value increases as the alkalinity increases. Zeta potential values of samples show that the negatively coated particles are stable in the solution. SEM images insure the spherical shape of the prepared nanoparticles and show that as the alkalinity increases the particles aggregate into larger particles.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, aggregation, Colloid, alkalinity

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