Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

AIDS Related Abstracts

19 Sexual Behaviors and Condom Attitude among Injecting Drug Users in Hai Phong, Vietnam: Qualitative Findings

Authors: Tanvir Ahmed, Thanh N. Long, Phan T. Huong, Donald E. Stewart

Abstract:

This paper presents views on condom use and the contexts of safe and unsafe sexual practices with different sexual partners and their relationships among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Hai Phong, Vietnam. Fifteen IDUs participated and two local interviewers conducted qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews in September-October, 2012 in Vietnamese language. Data were analyzed thematically. Non-protective condom attitudes include negotiate or convince Female Sex Workers (FSW); not realizing risk, importance or necessity; partner doesn’t like, and having extra money/drug from clients. On the other hand, self-awareness, family-consciousness, suspicion of STI presence, fear of getting HIV, and client negotiation sometimes resulted in a safe-sex practice. A thematic diagram was developed to present the relationship (strong/weak) between condom attitude and sexual practice (safe/unsafe) by partner types. The experiences and views reflected in the qualitative information emphasize the heightened need for safe-sex education especially among young IDUs (male/female) highlighting sexual transmission risk.

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, injecting drug user, risk behaviors, Vietnam

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18 Validating the Home Experiences of Children that Negatively Impact Their Right to Education in South Africa: The Case of HIV/AIDS Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) Living in the Amatole District

Authors: Tatenda Manomano, Moreblessing Memory Ndonga

Abstract:

In South Africa and the world over, despite an array of commendable policies to protect the rights of children, the situation on the ground indicates that HIV/AIDS continues to pose increasing challenges on the children’s’ right to education due to the death of their parents. This study sought to validate the home experiences of children that negatively impact on their right to education in South Africa with a case of HIV/AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs) in Amatole District. The study utilized a qualitative research method in collecting the feelings, views and attitudes of these children to establish the children’s home experiences. An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used to steer the one-on-one in-depth interviews with children from Parkside Primary School, Langa-Liphumile High School and one anonymous school in East London, Eastern Cape Province. 5 learners were purposively selected from each school and subjected to a one-on-one interview with the researcher. The researcher purposively selected one teacher per school, 2 members each from 3 community based organizations (CBOs) who were also subjected to a one-on-one in-depth interview. The findings indicated these negative experiences of the OVCs in their homes such as; attendance to a school was poor; academic performance was low; enrollment in schools was very low and abuse of these children was high. These researchers recommend for psychosocial support for these children to be placed in the schools; integration of HIV/AIDS programmes to target especially the OVCs; social workers should ensure that they regularly do home visits to these OVCs to establish whether the home circumstances these children are still conducive for them. It is hoped that the findings from this paper will be an asset that other researchers, policy makers, the government and NGOs/CBOs will take into consideration for the benefit of OVCs.

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, orphaned and vulnerable children (OVCs), home experiences

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17 Awareness of Students and Teachers towards AIDS and AIDS Education

Authors: Anjan Saikia

Abstract:

1000 school going adolescents and 200 teachers from 16 schools of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts of Assam were surveyed to assess and compare their awareness regarding HIV/AIDS and AIDS Education. An awareness test was administered containing 38 items for adolescents and 40 items for teachers in the test. Observations revealed that the majority of school-going adolescents are poor in their HIV/AIDS and AIDS education awareness. It shows that the school going adolescents of Tinsukia district are better in HIV/AIDS and AIDS education awareness than the school going adolescents of Dibrugarh district while comparing the sex and district wise variables.

Keywords: AIDS, Adolescents, awareness, ADS education

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16 Telephone Health Service to Improve the Quality of Life of the People Living with AIDS in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta, Naveen Kumar Pandey, Binod Kumar Deo

Abstract:

Quality of Life (QOL) is an important component in the evaluation of the well-being of People Living with AIDS (PLWA). This study assessed the effectiveness of education intervention programme in improving the QOL of PLWA on ART attaining the ART-clinics at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Nepal. A pre-experimental research design was used to conduct the study among the PLWA on ART at BPKIHS from June to August 2013 involving 60 PLWA on pre-test randomly. The mean age of the respondents was 36.70 ± 9.92, and majority of them (80%) were of age group of 25-50 years and Male (56.7%). After education intervention programme there is significant change in the QOL in all the four domains i.e. Physical (p=0.008), Psychological (p=0.019), Social (p=0.046) and Environmental (p=0.032) using student t-test at 0.05 level of significance. There is significant (p= 0.016) difference in the mean QOL scores of pre-test and post-test. High QOL scores in post-test after education intervention programme may reflective of the effectiveness of planned education interventions programme.

Keywords: AIDS, Telephone, Health Service, Nepal

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15 Stigmatising AIDS: A Content Analysis on HIV/AIDS-Related News Articles Published in Three Major Philippine Broadsheet

Authors: L. Dinco John Christian, C. Ramos Camille, C. Reyes Maria Eloisa

Abstract:

HIV/AIDS has been dubbed as one of the most stigmatised diseases of the recent century. Nelson Mandela pointed out that PLWHA (People Living With HIV/AIDS) are not killed by the disease, but by the stigma surrounding it. Despite the numerous studies on HIV/AIDS Stigmatisation globally, little is known about how evident and how powerful the media can be in framing the views of the readers when it comes to print in the Philippine context. This study dealt with a quantitative content analysis of HIV/AIDS-related news articles published by the top three broadsheets such as Philippine Daily Inquirer, Manila Bulletin and the Philippine Star in the span of one year. The HIV/AIDS-related news articles were collected and subjected to coding according to their tones, stigmatising statements/terminologies and news prominence. An analysis of the results had supported the researchers’ objectives (1) that there are different tones of HIV/AIDS-related news articles, (2) that there is a significant relation between the Stigmatizing Statements/Terminologies and the tone and that the (3) technical properties of HIV/AIDS related news articles determine the news prominence. Results revealed that despite the fact that the broadsheets were overtly reporting HIV/AIDS in Anti-Stigma-toned articles, they were covertly suggesting Stigma by the use of Stigmatising statements/terminologies present in it rather than plainly disseminating current medical knowledge about the transmission and treatments of the disease; the technical properties of the HIV/AIDS related news articles determined its prominence.

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Content Analysis, Newspaper

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14 Mapping of Risks and Opportunities for Adolescents Girls’ Sexual and Reproductive Health in Peri-Urban Setting in Mwanza, Tanzania

Authors: Soori Nnko, Zaina Mchome, John Dusabe, Angela Obasi

Abstract:

In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls living in urban and periurban settings are among the groups at increased risk of getting sexually transmitted infections. One of the challenges to improve uptake of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services among adolescents is linked to little appreciation about their vulnerability and the knowledge on availability of the SRH services. Objective: This study assesses adolescents’ perceptions on risks for SRH problems and the availability of services to prevent against SRH problems. Methodology: The study was conducted in March 2011 in Mwanza region, Tanzania. Data collection techniques included 18 Participatory Group Discussions and 17 In-depth Interviews with adolescents and young mothers aged 15-20 years. Results: Adolescents indicated that risk places included their homes, bushes, commercial centers, roadsides as well as school settings. Risk for having unprotected sex varied depending on where you are, and the time of the day. For example, collection of firewood in the bushes or water from the wells exposed girls to men who forced or lured them to have sex. The girls reported to encounter motorcyclists who offered the ride in exchange for sex. Girls also knew myriads places to seek SRH services, including public and private clinics, drug shops and traditional healers. Despite being aware of risky environment, and places to seek the services, access to SRH services were limited due to the stigma and negative attitude of community regarding adolescents’ utilization of SRH services. Conclusion: Adolescents are exposed to various risky environments, yet due to social stigma they have difficult to access the available SRH services.

Keywords: AIDS, Risk, Sexual and Reproductive Health, Opportunities, Interventions, adolescent girls, sub Saharan africa

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13 Awareness about HIV-Infection among HIV-Infected Individuals Attending Medical Moscow Center, Russia

Authors: Marina Nosik, Irina Rymanova, Sergei Sevostyanihin, Natalya Sergeeva, Alexander Sobkin

Abstract:

This paper presents results of the survey regarding the awareness about HIV/AIDS among HIV-infected individuals. A questionnaire covering various aspects of HIV-infection was conducted among 110 HIV-infected individuals who attended the G.A. Zaharyan Moscow Tuberculosis Clinic, Department for the treatment of TB patients with HIV. The questionnaire included questions about modes of HIV transmission and preventive measures against HIV/AIDS, as well as questions about age, gender, education, and employment status. The survey revealed that the respondents in the whole had a good knowledge regarding modes of HIV transmission and preventive measures against HIV/AIDS: about 83,6% male respondents and 85,7% female respondents gave accurate answers regarding the HIV-infection. However, the overwhelming majority of the study participants, that is, 88,5% men and 98% women, was quite ignorant about the risk of acquiring HIV through saliva and toothbrush of HIV-infected individual. Though that risk is rather insignificant, it is still biologically possible. And this gap in knowledge needs to be filled. As the study showed another point of concern was the fact, that despite the knowledge of HIV transmission risk through unprotected sex about 40% percent of HIV-positive men and 25% of HIV-positive women did not insist on using condoms with their sexual partners. These findings indicate that there are still some aspects about HIV-infection which needed to be clarified and explained through more detailed and specific educational programmes.

Keywords: AIDS, Risk Behavior, HIV transmission risks, HIV misconceptions

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12 Detecting Overdispersion for Mortality AIDS in Zero-inflated Negative Binomial Death Rate (ZINBDR) Co-infection Patients in Kelantan

Authors: Nyi Nyi Naing, Mohd Asrul Affedi

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Overdispersion is present in count data, and basically when a phenomenon happened, a Negative Binomial (NB) is commonly used to replace a standard Poisson model. Analysis of count data event, such as mortality cases basically Poisson regression model is appropriate. Hence, the model is not appropriate when existing a zero values. The zero-inflated negative binomial model is appropriate. In this article, we modelled the mortality cases as a dependent variable by age categorical. The objective of this study to determine existing overdispersion in mortality data of AIDS co-infection patients in Kelantan.

Keywords: AIDS, overdispersion, negative binomial death rate, zero-inflation negative binomial death rate

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11 Effect of Yeast Selenium on CD4 T Cell and WAZ of HIV1 Positive Children in Nyamasaria in Kisumu Kenya

Authors: K. Waza, S. B. Otieno1, F. Were, A. Afullo

Abstract:

Background: Multi drug resistance HIV has emerged rendering the current conventional treatment of HIV ineffective. There is a need for new treatment regime which is cheap, effective and not prone to resistance development by HIV. Methods: In randomized clinical study of 68 HIV positive children 3 – 15 years to asses the efficacy of yeast selenium in HIV/AIDS patients, 50μ yeast selenium was administered to 34 children while in matched control of 34 were put on placebo. Blood samples and weight of the both groups which were taken every 3 months intervals up to 6 months, were analyzed by ELIZA for CD4T cells, the data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, WAZ scores were analyzed by Epi Info version 6. Results: No significant difference in age { χ2 (1, 62) =0.03, p =0.853}, cause of morbidity between test and controls {χ2 (1, 65) = 5.87, p= 0.015} and on condition of foster parents {χ2 ( 1,63) = 5.57, p= 0.0172} was observed. Children on selenium showed progressive improvement of WAZ and significant difference at six months {F (5,12) = =5.758, P=0.006}, and weight gain of up to 4.1 kilograms in six months, and significant CD4 T cell count increase t= -2.943, p<0.05 compared to matched controls t = -1.258 p> 0.05. CD4 T cell count increased among all age groups on test 3-5 years (+ 267.1),5-8 years (+200.3) 9-15 years (+71.2) cells/mm3 and in matched controls a decrease 3-5 years (-71), 5-8 years (-125) and 9-13 years (-10.1) cells/mm3 . No significant difference inCD4 T cell count between boys {F (2, 32) = 1.531 p= 0.232} and between boys {F (2, 49) = 1.040, p= 0.361} on test and between boys and girls {F (5, 81) = 1.379, p= 0.241} on test. Similarly no significant difference between boys and girls were observed {F (5, 86) = 1.168, p= 0.332}.In the test group there was significant positive correlation β =252.23 between weight for age (WAZ), and CD4 T Cell Count p=0.007, R2= 0.252, F< 0.05. In matched controls no significant correlation between weight gain and CD4 T cell count change was observed at six months p > 0.05. No positive correlation β =-138.23 was observed between CD4T Cell count, WAZ, p=0.934, R2 =0.0337 F >0.05. Majority (96.78%) of children on test either remained or progressed to WHO immunological stage I. Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that yeast Selenium is effective in slowing the progress of HIV 1 in children from WHO clinical stage I by improving CD4 T cell count and hence the immunity.

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Selenium, WAZ

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10 Stabilization Control of the Nonlinear AIDS Model Based on the Theory of Polynomial Fuzzy Control Systems

Authors: Shahrokh Barati

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduced AIDS disease at first, then proposed dynamic model illustrate its progress, after expression of a short history of nonlinear modeling by polynomial phasing systems, we considered the stability conditions of the systems, which contained a huge amount of researches in order to modeling and control of AIDS in dynamic nonlinear form, in this approach using a frame work of control any polynomial phasing modeling system which have been generalized by part of phasing model of T-S, in order to control the system in better way, the stability conditions were achieved based on polynomial functions, then we focused to design the appropriate controller, firstly we considered the equilibrium points of system and their conditions and in order to examine changes in the parameters, we presented polynomial phase model that was the generalized approach rather than previous Takagi Sugeno models, then with using case we evaluated the equations in both open loop and close loop and with helping the controlling feedback, the close loop equations of system were calculated, to simulate nonlinear model of AIDS disease, we used polynomial phasing controller output that was capable to make the parameters of a nonlinear system to follow a sustainable reference model properly.

Keywords: AIDS, Fuzzy Control Systems, polynomial fuzzy, nonlinear AIDS model

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9 Induction of HIV-1 Resistance: The New Approaches Based on Gene Modification and Stem Cell Engineering

Authors: Alieh Farshbaf

Abstract:

Introduction: Current anti-retroviral drugs have some restrictions for treatment of HIV-1 infection. The efficacy of retroviral drugs is not same in different infected patients and the virus rebound from latent reservoirs after stopping them. Recently, the engineering of stem cells and gene therapy provide new approaches to eliminate some drug problems by induction of resistance to HIV-1. Literature review: Up to now, AIDS-restriction genes (ARGs) were suitable candidate for gene and cell therapies, such as cc-chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5). In this manner, CCR5 provide effective cure in Berlin and Boston patients by inducing of HIV-1 resistance with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. It is showed that Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) could induce HIV-1 resistance in stem cells of infected patients by homologous recombination or non-end joining mechanism and eliminate virus loading after returning the modified cells. Then, gene modification by HIV restriction factors, as TRIM5, introduced another gene candidate for HIV by interfering in infection process. These gene modifications/editing provided by stem cell futures that improve treatment in refractory disease such as HIV-1. Conclusion: Although stem cell transplantation has some complications, but in compare to retro-viral drugs demonstrated effective cure by elimination of virus loading. On the other hand, gene therapy is cost-effective for an infected patient than retroviral drugs payment in a person life-long. The results of umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation showed that gene and cell therapy will be applied easier than previous treatment of AIDS with high efficacy.

Keywords: Stem Cell, Cell Engineering, AIDS, gene modification

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8 Human Rights, Ethics, Medical Care and HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh: A Philosophical Investigation

Authors: Asm Habibullah Choudhury

Abstract:

Background: This study is an investigation into medical care, ethics, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the context of Bangladesh. The low prevalence of HIV and high prevalence of STDs in Bangladesh, in common with the global experience of HIV epidemics, has been characterized by tremendous stigmatization of those affected. Stigmatization has resulted in an extraordinary degree of unjust discrimination and in numerous human rights violations of PLWHA. Methodology: This will be a cross-sectional descriptive study and will be conducted at different points of Bangladesh. Result: PLWHA will be identified as many as possible and will be interviewed. Medical care providers will be interviewed to assess their attitude and will be observed for stigma while providing medical services. Some of the religious leaders, local influential people will be interviewed to assess their attitude towards PLWHA. Conclusion: If effective responses to HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are to be promoted in the region, work has to occur simultaneously on several fronts: Legal challenge, where necessary, to bring to account governments, employers, institutions and individuals. To create enabling environment in which PLWHA and their families, women, boys, and girls are able to access prevention and care services. Access to quality and comprehensive care. The fundamental objective, however, is to strive for action based on this understanding—action that will promote egalitarian and gender-progressive role models, and that will help guide the manner in which we interact with one another.

Keywords: Human Rights, HIV, AIDS, Bangladesh

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7 Relation between Tourism and Health: Case Study AIDS in Lebanon

Authors: Viana Hassan

Abstract:

Each year, 600 million tourists travelled abroad to practice several types of tourism. Nowadays, whatever is the type of tourism practiced it considered as a real public health problem which can contribute the spread of several diseases such as AIDS, H1N1, NDM1 With regard to HIV/AIDS, Lebanon is always considered as a low HIV prevalence country. However, the potential risks associated with the mobility of the population, migration and tourism. The total number of cases reported by the ministry of health since 1989 until the end of 2011 is of 1455 cases, with an average of 85 new cases per year over the last three years. The main reason of the increased number is Travel and migration which represent 50% of the risks reported by cumulative cases. Given the interest of this kind of epidemic it would be interesting to study the Evolution of HIV/ AIDS and its relation with travel and tourism The main aim of this research is to study in general the relation between tourism and health, more specific to understand the relation between Tourism and AIDS, the problem of the transmission of HIV in Lebanon, the ways of contamination and the countries in which these people are contaminated.

Keywords: Health, Tourism, AIDS, Lebanon

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6 Impact of HIV/AIDS on Food Security in Pala Sub-Location, Bondo District, Kenya

Authors: S. B. Otieno, Were Fred, E. W. Kabiru, K. Waza

Abstract:

Background: HIV/AIDS is leading to the loss of labor through sickness and subsequent death, this is leading to the neglect of farm and off-farm activities, with the subsequent loss of potential income and food security. The situation is sensitive to seasonal labour peaks in agriculture. This study was done to determine the impact of high HIV prevalence in farming systems and food security in Pala Bondo District, Kenya. Methods: In this study, 386 respondents were randomly chosen in Pala Sub-Location. The respondents and key informants were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: It was established that majority of respondents (67%) were between 18 and 35 years {χ2 = (1, N = 386) = 13.430, p = 0.000} (chimney effect). The study also established that 83.5% of respondents were married {χ2 = (1, N= 370) = 166.277 p = 0.000} and predominant occupation being farming and fishing (61%), while 52.8% of farm labour was by hand, 26% by oxen, and 4.9% mechanized. 73.2% of respondents only farm 0.25 to 2 acres, 48% mentioned lack of labour in land preparation {χ2 ((1,N = 321) = 113.146, p = 0.000), in planting {χ2 (1, N = 321) = 29.28, p = 0.000}. Majority of respondents lack food from January to June, during which 93% buy food. Conclusion: The high HIV prevalence in Pala has affected the farm labour leading to food insecurity.

Keywords: Food Security, HIV, AIDS, Labour

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5 Mathematics Model Approaching: Parameter Estimation of Transmission Dynamics of HIV and AIDS in Indonesia

Authors: Firman Riyudha, Endrik Mifta Shaiful

Abstract:

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the world's deadliest diseases caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that infects white blood cells and cause a decline in the immune system. AIDS quickly became a world epidemic disease that affects almost all countries. Therefore, mathematical modeling approach to the spread of HIV and AIDS is needed to anticipate the spread of HIV and AIDS which are widespread. The purpose of this study is to determine the parameter estimation on mathematical models of HIV transmission and AIDS using cumulative data of people with HIV and AIDS each year in Indonesia. In this model, there are parameters of r ∈ [0,1) which is the effectiveness of the treatment in patients with HIV. If the value of r is close to 1, the number of people with HIV and AIDS will decline toward zero. The estimation results indicate when the value of r is close to unity, there will be a significant decline in HIV patients, whereas in AIDS patients constantly decreases towards zero.

Keywords: Mathematical Models, HIV, AIDS, Parameter Estimation

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4 Development of Lipid Architectonics for Improving Efficacy and Ameliorating the Oral Bioavailability of Elvitegravir

Authors: Javed Ali, Sanjula Baboota, Bushra Nabi, Saleha Rehman

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of research undertaken is analytical method validation (HPLC method) of an anti-HIV drug Elvitegravir (EVG). Additionally carrying out the forced degradation studies of the drug under different stress conditions to determine its stability. It is envisaged in order to determine the suitable technique for drug estimation, which would be employed in further research. Furthermore, comparative pharmacokinetic profile of the drug from lipid architectonics and drug suspension would be obtained post oral administration. Method: Lipid Architectonics (LA) of EVR was formulated using probe sonication technique and optimized using QbD (Box-Behnken design). For the estimation of drug during further analysis HPLC method has been validation on the parameters (Linearity, Precision, Accuracy, Robustness) and Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) has been determined. Furthermore, HPLC quantification of forced degradation studies was carried out under different stress conditions (acid induced, base induced, oxidative, photolytic and thermal). For pharmacokinetic (PK) study, Albino Wistar rats were used weighing between 200-250g. Different formulations were given per oral route, and blood was collected at designated time intervals. A plasma concentration profile over time was plotted from which the following parameters were determined:

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, AIDS, HPLC, nanostructured lipid carriers, Elvitegravir

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3 Stigmatisation of People Living with HIV/AIDS as an Obstacle to Prevention of HIV

Authors: Vicent Lwanga

Abstract:

Background: Despite sensitization workshops that have been going on in rural areas in Kapchorwa District in Uganda to prevent stigmatization of People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), interview with PLWHA sows that they are still being stigmatized. This behavior of some people within the community possesses a serious danger to the successful prevention and control of HIV in our society. Evidence exists that some people still believe that eating, living together, and even discussing with PLWHA might make them infected, too, despite all persuasions against such attitude. Description: A face to face interview with some selected PLWHA in Kapchorwa, testified that stigmatization against those who have disclosed their status still lingers on. The interviews with the PLWHA reveals that people still believe that they are being bewitched and cursed by God for their sins, and as such, people keep away from them to avoid the wrath of God. Findings: The more the stigmatization against the PLWHA persists, the more difficult it will be to successfully prevent, control, and eradicate HIV in the society. This is because many PLWHA would prefer not to be identified if they are not shown love and care. Conclusion: A more continuous campaign to stop the stigmatization of PLWHA needs to be on-going. This could be done more effectively by Community-Based Organisations (CBOs) with workshops, print media, and seminars.

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Community, stigma

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2 Parent-Child Communication: Community Based HIV/AIDS Response Strategy among Young Persons

Authors: Vicent Lwanga

Abstract:

Issue: Communication between parent and child is important and necessary. Poor parenting and lack of openness and communication between parents and their children contribute to the increasing rate of HIV infection among young persons between the ages of 10-25. The young person, when left on their own are at the risk of misinformation from peers and from other sources. Description: Parent-Child Communication (PCC) was designed as a key component of a community-based HIV and AIDS intervention focused on young persons by Elderly Widows Orphans Family Support Organisation. Findings from the preliminary community-level process indicated that the lack of parent-child communication militates against young persons adopting and maintaining healthier sexual behaviors. An integrated youth strategy consisting of youth Peer Education/Facilitation and PCC was used to bridge this gap. The process involved an interactive parent-child forum, which allowed parents and children to meet and have open and frank discussions on the needs of young persons and the role of parents. This forum addressed all emerging issues from all parties and created better cordiality amongst them. Lessons Learnt: When young people feel unconnected to their parents, family, or home, they may become involved in activities that put their health at risk. Equally, when parents affirm the value of their children through open interaction, children are more likely to develop positive and healthy attitudes about themselves. Creating the opportunity for this interactive forum is paramount in any intervention program focused on young persons. Conclusion: HIV and AIDS-related programmes, especially those focusing on youth, should have PCC as an integral, essential component. Parents should be vehicles for information dissemination and need to be equipped with the capacity and skills to take on the onerous task of talking sexual reproductive health and sexuality with their children and wards.

Keywords: Communication, HIV, AIDS, Youth

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1 Contribution of Elderly Widows Orphans Family Support in reducing vulnerability among children affected by HIV in Kapchorwa District

Authors: Vicent Lwanga

Abstract:

Background: Elderly Widows Orphans Family Support, a Community Based Organization operating in Kapchorwa with the main focus of reducing economic and social vulnerability among children affected by HIV/AIDS. The survey on reducing vulnerability targeted HIV/AIDS affected households, which included 111 adults and 185 children. The broad objective of the study was to determine how the needs of the children affected by HIV/AIDS could be appropriately met by specifically examining the situation of children affected by HIV/AIDS and establishing their needs. Methodology: The survey applied a structured questionnaire. Parents whose consent for the interview of the children had been obtained then communicated to the selected child/children. If the child consented, an arrangement for the interview was made as regards the time and place of the interview. Lessons: Adult respondents included 22.2% males and 77.8% females. Child respondents were males, 49.5%, and females 50.5%. The majority of the households are from lower economic strata. 74.1% and 63.0% of males and females, respectively, indicated that their illness had affected their income-earning activities; some of the adults have lost their jobs due to AIDS. A fair number of the children are engaged in economic activity: some of those still in school worked after school for wages and looked after their siblings. The income earned was spent mostly on household needs and school fees — one-fifth of children linked parents` inability to do more of what they desired to their ill-health. Elderly Widows Orphans Family Support secured sponsors to educate 22 girls and 16 boys in the community. Income-generating projects like piggery and skill training are given to orphans. The specific vulnerability of HIV/AIDS orphan's needs is responded to now more than ever. Community organisations interventions such as financial support to orphans introduced to moderate the impact of the disease on orphans and families.

Keywords: AIDS, Children, Vulnerability, Needs

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