Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Aging Related Abstracts

47 Computational Methods in Official Statistics with an Example on Calculating and Predicting Diabetes Mellitus [DM] Prevalence in Different Age Groups within Australia in Future Years, in Light of the Aging Population

Authors: D. Hilton

Abstract:

An analysis of the Australian Diabetes Screening Study estimated undiagnosed diabetes mellitus [DM] prevalence in a high risk general practice based cohort. DM prevalence varied from 9.4% to 18.1% depending upon the diagnostic criteria utilised with age being a highly significant risk factor. Utilising the gold standard oral glucose tolerance test, the prevalence of DM was 22-23% in those aged >= 70 years and <15% in those aged 40-59 years. Opportunistic screening in Australian general practice potentially can identify many persons with undiagnosed type 2 DM. An Australian Bureau of Statistics document published three years ago, reported the highest rate of DM in men aged 65-74 years [19%] whereas the rate for women was highest in those over 75 years [13%]. If you consider that the Australian Bureau of Statistics report in 2007 found that 13% of the population was over 65 years of age and that this will increase to 23-25% by 2056 with a further projected increase to 25-28% by 2101, obviously this information has to be factored into the equation when age related diabetes prevalence predictions are calculated. This 10-15% proportional increase of elderly persons within the population demographics has dramatic implications for the estimated number of elderly persons with DM in these age groupings. Computational methodology showing the age related demographic changes reported in these official statistical documents will be done showing estimates for 2056 and 2101 for different age groups. This has relevance for future diabetes prevalence rates and shows that along with many countries worldwide Australia is facing an increasing pandemic. In contrast Japan is expected to have a decrease in the next twenty years in the number of persons with diabetes.

Keywords: Aging, diabetes mellitus, Epidemiological Methods, Prevalence

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46 Thermo-Mechanical Treatments of Cu-Ti Alloys

Authors: M. M. Morgham, A. A. Hameda, N. A. Zriba, H. A. Jawan

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the effect of cold work condition on the microstructure of Cu-1.5wt%Ti, and Cu-3.5wt%Ti and hence mechanical properties. The samples under investigation were machined and solution heat treated. X-ray diffraction technique is used to identify the different phases present after cold deformation by compression and also different heat treatment and also measuring the relative quantities of phases present. Metallographic examination is used to study the microstructure of the samples. The hardness measurements were used to indicate the change in mechanical properties. The results are compared with the mechanical properties obtained by previous workers. Experiments on cold compression followed by aging of Cu-Ti alloys have indicated that the most effective hardening of the material results from continuous precipitation of very fine particles within the matrix. These particles were reported to be β`-type, Cu4Ti phase. The β`-β transformation and particles coarsening within the matrix as well as a long grain boundaries were responsible for the averaging of Cu-1.5wt%Ti and Cu-3.5wt%Ti alloys. It is well know that plate like particles are β – type, Cu3Ti phase. Discontinuous precipitation was found to start at the grain boundaries and expand into grain interior. At the higher aging temperature a classic widmanstätten morphology forms giving rise to a coarse microstructure comprised of α and the equilibrium phase β. Those results were confirmed by X-ray analysis, which found that a few percent of Cu3Ti, β precipitates are formed during aging at high temperature for long time for both Cu- Ti alloys (i.e. Cu-1.5wt%Ti and Cu-3.5wt%Ti).

Keywords: Aging, Precipitation, Hardness, metallographic

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45 Protection against the Hazards of Stress on Health in Older Adults through Mindfulness

Authors: Cindy de Frias, Erum Whyne

Abstract:

Objectives: The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (aged 50–85 years) were recruited from Dallas, Texas. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of self-reported health status (i.e., SF-36v2: mental and physical health composites), life stress (using the Elder’s Life Stress Inventory [ELSI]), and trait mindfulness (i.e., Mindful Attention Awareness Scale). Results: Hierarchical regressions (covarying for age, gender, and education) showed that life stress was inversely related to physical and mental health. Mindfulness was positively related to mental health. The negative effect of life stress on mental health was weakened for those individuals with greater trait mindfulness. Discussion: The results suggest that mindfulness is a powerful, adaptive strategy that may protect middle-aged and older adults from the well-known harmful effects of stress on healthy aging.

Keywords: Aging, Health, stress, Mindfulness

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44 Well-Being of Elderly with Nanonutrients

Authors: Naqvi Shraddha Rathi

Abstract:

During the aging process, physical frailty may develop. A more sedentary lifestyle, a reduction in metabolic cell mass and, consequently, lower energy expenditure and dietary intake are important contributors to the progression of frailty. A decline in intake is in turn associated with the risk of developing a suboptimal nutritional state or multiple micro nutrient deficiencies.The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nano scale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of ∼1–100 nm.

Keywords: Aging, Micronutrients, cells frailty, biochemical reactivity

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43 Functional Vision of Older People in Galician Nursing Homes

Authors: C. Vázquez, L. M. Gigirey, C. P. del Oro, S. Seoane

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Early detection of visual problems plays a key role in the aging process. However, although vision problems are common among older people, the percentage of aging people who perform regular optometric exams is low. In fact, uncorrected refractive errors are one of the main causes of visual impairment in this group of the population. Purpose: To evaluate functional vision of older residents in order to show the urgent need of visual screening programs in Galician nursing homes. Methodology: We examined 364 older adults aged 65 years and over. To measure vision of the daily living, we tested distance and near presenting visual acuity (binocular visual acuity with habitual correction if warn, directional E-Snellen) Presenting near vision was tested at the usual working distance. We defined visual impairment (distance and near) as a presenting visual acuity less than 0.3. Exclusion criteria included immobilized residents unable to reach the USC Dual Sensory Loss Unit for visual screening. Association between categorical variables was performed using chi-square tests. We used Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and the variance analysis to determine differences between groups of interest. Results: 23,1% of participants have visual impairment for distance vision and 16,4% for near vision. The percentage of residents with far and near visual impairment reaches 8,2%. As expected, prevalence of visual impairment increases with age. No differences exist with regard to the level of functional vision between gender. Differences exist between age group respect to distance vision, but not in case of near vision. Conclusion: prevalence of visual impairment is high among the older people tested in this pilot study. This means a high percentage of older people with limitations in their daily life activities. It is necessary to develop an effective vision screening program for early detection of vision problems in Galician nursing homes.

Keywords: Aging, nursing homes, functional vision, elders

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42 Functional Vision of Older People with Cognitive Impairment Living in Galician Nursing Homes

Authors: C. Vázquez, L. M. Gigirey, C. P. del Oro, S. Seoane

Abstract:

Poor vision is common among older people, and several studies show connections between visual impairment and cognitive function. 15 older adult live in Galician Government nursing homes, and cognitive decline is one of the main reasons of admission. Objectives: (1) To evaluate functional far and near vision of older people with cognitive impairment. (2) To determine connections between visual and cognitive state of “our” residents. Methodology: A total of 364 older adults (aged 65 years or more) underwent a visual and cognitive screening. We tested presenting visual acuity (binocular visual acuity with habitual correction if warn) for distance and near vision (E-Snellen, usual working distance for near vision). Binocular presenting visual acuity less than 0.3 was used as cut point for diagnosis of visual impairment. Exclusion criteria included immobilized residents unable to reach the USC Dual Sensory Loss Unit for visual screening. To screen cognition we employed the mini-mental examination test (Spanish version). Analysis of categorical variables was performed using chi-square tests. We utilized Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and the variance analysis to determine differences between groups of interest (SPSS 19.0 version). Results: the percentage of residents with cognitive decline reaches 32.2% Prevalence of visual impairment for distance and near vision increases among those subjects with cognitive impairment respect those with normal cognition. Shift correlation exists between distance visual acuity and mini-mental test (age and sex controlled), and moderate association was found in case of near vision (p<0.01). Conclusion: First results shows that people with cognitive impairment have poor functional distance and near vision than those with normal cognition. Next step will be to analyse the individual contribution of distance and near vision loss on cognition.

Keywords: Cognition, Aging, nursing homes, Visual Impairment

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41 Characterization of CuO Incorporated CMOS Dielectric for Fast Switching System

Authors: Norhayati Soin, Nissar Mohammad Karim

Abstract:

To ensure fast switching in high-K incorporated Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, the results on the basis of d (NBTI) by incorporating SiO2 dielectric with aged samples of CuO sol-gels have been reported. Precursor ageing has been carried out for 4 days. The minimum obtained refractive index is 1.0099 which was found after 3 hours of adhesive UV curing. Obtaining a low refractive index exhibits a low dielectric constant and hence a faster system.

Keywords: Aging, sol-gel, refractive index, precursor aging

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40 Cellular Energy Metabolism Decreases with Age in the Trophocytes and Oenocytes of Honeybees (Apis Mellifera)

Authors: Chin-Yuan Hsu, Yu-Lung Chuang

Abstract:

The expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules and cellular energy-regulated molecules decreased with age in the trophocytes and oenocytes of honeybees (Apis mellifera), but those of cellular energy-metabolized molecules is unknown. In this study, the expression, concentration, and activity of cellular energy-metabolized molecules were assayed in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old worker bees by using the techniques of cell and biochemistry. The results showed that (i) the •-hydroxylacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) activity/citrate synthase (CS) activity ratio, non-esterified fatty acids concentrations, the expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, and the expression of phosphorylated eIF4E binding protein 1 decreased with age; (ii) fat and glycogen accumulation increased with age; and (iii) the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity/citrate synthase (CS) activity ratio was not correlated with age. These finding indicated that •-oxidation (HOAD/CS) and protein synthsis decreased with age. Glycolysis (PDH/CS) was unchanged with age. The most likely reason is that sugars are the vital food of worker bees. Taken together these data reveal that young workers have higher cellular energy metabolism than old workers and that aging results in a decline in the cellular energy metabolism in worker honeybees.

Keywords: Energy, Metabolism, Aging, honeybee

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39 Mitochondrial Energy Utilization is Unchanged with Age in the Trophocytes and Oenocytes of Queen Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

Authors: Chin-Yuan Hsu, Chia-Ying Yen

Abstract:

The lifespans of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera) are much longer than those of worker bees. The expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules decreased with age in the trophocytes and oenocytes of worker bees, but they are unknown in queen bees. In this study, the expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules were evaluated in the trophocytes and oenocytes of young and old queen bees by biochemical techniques. The results showed that mitochondrial density and mitochondrial membrane potential; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels; the NAD+/NADH ratio; and relative expression of NADH dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase normalized against mitochondrial density were not significantly different between young and old queen bees. These findings reveal that mitochondrial energy utilization maintains a young status in the trophocytes and oenocytes of old queen bees and that trophocytes and oenocytes have aging-delaying mechanisms and can be used to study cellular longevity.

Keywords: Aging, Longevity, mitochondrial energy, queen bees

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38 The Effect of Aging of ZnO, AZO, and GZO films on the Microstructure and Photoelectric Property

Authors: Zue-Chin Chang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films. The AZO film had the best electrical properties; it had the lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-4 cm, the best sheet resistance of 2.2 × 10-1 Ω/square, and the highest carrier concentration of 4.3 × 1020 cm-3, as compared to the ZnO and GZO films.

Keywords: Aging, Microstructure, Films, photoelectric property

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37 Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Mycelial Polysaccharides from Calocybe indica in Hyperlipidemic Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet

Authors: Govindan Sudha, Mathumitha Subramaniam, Alamelu Govindasamy, Sasikala Gunasekaran

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The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Hypsizygus ulmarius polysaccharides (HUP) on reducing oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity in D-galactose induced aging mice. Mice were subcutaneously injected with D-galactose (150 mg/kg per day) for 6 weeks and were administered HUP simultaneously. Aged mice receiving vitamin E (100 mg/kg) served as positive control. Chronic administration of D-galactose significantly impaired cognitive performance oxidative defence and mitochondrial enzymes activities as compared to control group. The results showed that HUP (200 and 400 mg/kg) treatment significantly improved the learning and memory ability in Morris water maze test. Biochemical examination revealed that HUP significantly increased the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), mitochondrial enzymes-NADH dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), Na+K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ATPase activities, elevated the lowered total anti-oxidation capability (TAOC), glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and decreased the raised acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxide (HPO), protein carbonyls (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels in brain of aging mice induced by D-gal in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, present study highlights the potential role of HUP against D-galactose induced cognitive impairment, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. In vitro studies on the effect of HUP on scavenging DPPH, ABTS, DMPD, OH radicals, reducing power, B-carotene bleaching and lipid peroxidation inhibition confirmed the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of HUP. The results suggest that HUP possesses anti-aging efficacy and may have potential in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: Aging, Antioxidants, mushroom, neurotoxicity

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36 New Roles of Telomerase and Telomere-Associated Proteins in the Regulation of Telomere Length

Authors: Fan Zhang, Qin Yang, Juan Du, Chongkui Sun, Krishna Kota, Yun-Ling Zheng

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Telomeres are specialized structures at chromosome ends consisting of tandem repetitive DNA sequences [(TTAGGG)n in humans] and associated proteins, which are necessary for telomere function. Telomere lengths are tightly regulated within a narrow range in normal human somatic cells, the basis of cellular senescence and aging. Previous studies have extensively focused on how short telomeres are extended and have demonstrated that telomerase plays a central role in telomere maintenance through elongating the short telomeres. However, the molecular mechanisms of regulating excessively long telomeres are unknown. Here, we found that telomerase enzymatic component hTERT plays a dual role in the regulation of telomeres length. We analyzed single telomere alterations at each chromosomal end led to the discoveries that hTERT shortens excessively long telomeres and elongates short telomeres simultaneously, thus maintaining the optimal telomere length at each chromosomal end for an efficient protection. The hTERT-mediated telomere shortening removes large segments of telomere DNA rapidly without inducing telomere dysfunction foci or affecting cell proliferation, thus it is mechanistically distinct from rapid telomere deletion. We found that expression of hTERT generates telomeric circular DNA, suggesting that telomere homologous recombination may be involved in this telomere shortening process. Moreover, the hTERT-mediated telomere shortening is required its enzymatic activity, but telomerase RNA component hTR is not involved in it. Furthermore, shelterin protein TPP1 interacts with hTERT and recruits it on telomeres to mediate telomere shortening. In addition, telomere-associated proteins, DKC1 and TCAB1 also play roles in this process. This novel hTERT-mediated telomere shortening mechanism not only exists in cancer cells, but also in primary human cells. Thus, the hTERT-mediated telomere shortening is expected to shift the paradigm on current molecular models of telomere length maintenance, with wide-reaching consequences in cancer and aging fields.

Keywords: Aging, Telomeres, telomerase, hTERT, human cells

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35 Cognitive Performance and Everyday Functionality in Healthy Greek Seniors

Authors: George Pavlidis, Ana Vivas

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The demographic change into an aging population has stimulated the examination of seniors’ mental health and ability to live independently. The corresponding literature depicts the relation between cognitive decline and everyday functionality with aging, focusing largely in individuals that are reaching or have bridged the threshold of various forms of neuropathology and disability. In this context, recent meta-analysis depicts a moderate relation between cognitive performance and everyday functionality in AD sufferers. However, there has not been an analogous effort for the examination of this relation in the healthy spectrum of aging (i.e, in samples that are not challenged from a neurodegenerative disease). There is a consensus that the assessment tools designed to detect neuropathology with those that assess cognitive performance in healthy adults are distinct, thus their universal use in cognitively challenged and in healthy adults is not always valid. The same accounts for the assessment of everyday functionality. In addition, it is argued that everyday functionality should be examined with cultural adjusted assessment tools, since many vital everyday tasks are heterotypical among distinct cultures. Therefore, this study was set out to examine the relation between cognitive performance and everyday functionality a) in the healthy spectrum of aging and b) by adjusting the everyday functionality tools EPT and OTDL-R in the Greek cultural context. In Greece, 107 cognitively healthy seniors ( Mage = 62.24) completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and everyday functionality tests. Both were carefully chosen to be sensitive in fluctuations of performance in the healthy spectrum of cognitive performance and everyday functionality. The everyday functionality assessment tools were modified to reflect the local cultural context (i.e., EPT-G and OTDL-G). The results depicted that performance in all everyday functionality measures decline with age (.197 < r > .509). Statistically significant correlations emerged between cognitive performance and everyday functionality assessments that range from r =0.202 to r=0.510. A series of independent regression analysis including the scores of cognitive assessments has yield statistical significant models that explained 20.9 < AR2 > 32.4 of the variance in everyday functionality scored indexes. All everyday functionality measures were independently predicted by the TMT B-A index, and indicator of executive function. Stepwise regression analyses depicted that TMT B-A and age were statistically significant independent predictors of EPT-G and OTDL-G. It was concluded that everyday functionality is declining with age and that cognitive performance and everyday functional may be related in the healthy spectrum of aging. Age seems not to be the sole contributing factor in everyday functionality decline, rather executive control as well. Moreover, it was concluded that the EPT-G and OTDL-G are valuable tools to assess everyday functionality in Greek seniors that are not cognitively challenged, especially for research purposes. Future research should examine the contributing factors of a better cognitive vitality especially in executive control, as vital for the maintenance of independent living capacity with aging.

Keywords: Cognition, Aging, Cognitive Decline, Greece, Healthy Aging, everyday functionality

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34 Developing Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for Falls Detection

Authors: Nantakrit Yodpijit, Teppakorn Sittiwanchai

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The number of older adults is rising rapidly. The world’s population becomes aging. Falls is one of common and major health problems in the elderly. Falls may lead to acute and chronic injuries and deaths. The fall-prone individuals are at greater risk for decreased quality of life, lowered productivity and poverty, social problems, and additional health problems. A number of studies on falls prevention using fall detection system have been conducted. Many available technologies for fall detection system are laboratory-based and can incur substantial costs for falls prevention. The utilization of alternative technologies can potentially reduce costs. This paper presents the new design and development of a wearable-based fall detection system using an Accelerometer and Gyroscope as motion sensors for the detection of body orientation and movement. Algorithms are developed to differentiate between Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and falls by comparing Threshold-based values with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Results indicate the possibility of using the new threshold-based method with neural network algorithm to reduce the number of false positive (false alarm) and improve the accuracy of fall detection system.

Keywords: Aging, Algorithm, artificial neural networks (ANN), fall detection system, motion sensorsthreshold

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33 Psychological and Emotional Functioning of Elderly in Pakistan a Comparison in Punjab and Gilgit-Baltistan

Authors: Saira BATOOL, Rukhsana Kausar, Najma Najam, Rabia Hussain Kanwal, Anum Javed

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In Pakistan, elderly population though increasing but it has been neglected by the researchers and policy makers which resulted in compromised quality of life of the ageing population. Two regions, Punjab and Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) were selected for comparison as Lahore and Multan (Punjab) are highly urbanized, large cities whereas Gilgit and Skardu are remote and mountain bounded valleys in GB. This study focuses on psychological and emotional functioning of elderly and a series of measures translated and adapted in Urdu language was used to assess quality of life, psychological and mental well-being, actual and perceived social support, attachment patterns, forgiveness, affects, geriatric depression, and emotional disturbance patterns (depression, anxiety, and stress) in elderly. A gender-equated sample of 201 elderly participants, 93 from GB (60 from Gilgit, 33 from Skardu) and 108 from Punjab (61 from Lahore, 47 from Multan) with over 60 years age was collected from the multiethnic community of Punjab and GB through purposive convenient sampling technique. Findings revealed that elderly from Multan have better psychological and emotional functioning, higher levels of social support, tendency to forgive, better mental wellbeing and quality of life and lower levels of stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and attachment avoidance and anxiety related to partner as compared to the elderly from Lahore. Furthermore, both elderly male of Gilgit & Skardu have adequate mental well-being including subjective well-being and psychological functioning which showed positive aspects of mental health but elderly female are more attached to their home and neighbourhood which shows their social and environmental mastery. Gilgiti elderly male reported more degree of positive affect such as enthusiasm, active, alertness, excitement and strong whereas among elderly from Skardu shows more negative affect i.e. aversive mood states, irritability, hostility, and general distress. The need of psychosocial therapy and family counseling for the elderly in urban areas has been identified, which can facilitate in reducing or preventing the depressive and stressful tendencies. The findings are expected to have implications for improving quality of life of the elderly, designing interventions, support system and rehabilitation services to help them. However, findings may attract attention of policy makers and researchers as currently this is the most neglected population in Pakistan.

Keywords: Psychological, Aging, Quality of Life, Emotional, Elderly

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32 Effects of Aging on Ultra: Triathlon Performance

Authors: Bulus Kpame, Richard S. Jatau, Kankanala Venkateswarlu

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The purpose of this critical review is to find out what is known and what is unknown about the effects of aging on endurance performance, especially on ultra- triathlon performance. It has been shown that among master’s athlete’s peak levels of performance decreased by 50% by age 50 it has also been clearly revealed that age associated atrophy, weakness and fatigability cannot be halted, although year round athletic training can slow down this age associated decline. Studies have further revealed that 30% to 50% decrease in skeletal muscle mass between ages 40 and 80 years, which is accompanied by an equal or even greater decline in strength and power and an increase in muscle weakness and fatigability. Studies on ultra- triathlon athletes revealed that 30 to 39 year old showed fastest time, with athletes in younger and older age groups were slower. It appears that the length of the endurance performance appears to influence age related endurance performance decline in short distance triathlons. A significant decline seems to start at the age of 40 to 50 years, whereas in long distance triathlons this decline seems to start after the age of 65 years. However, it is not clear whether this decline is related in any way to the training methods used, the duration of training, or the frequency of training. It’s also not clear whether the triathlon athletes experience more injuries due to long hours of training. It’s also not clear whether these athletes used performance enhancing drugs to enhance their performance. It’s not also clear whiles there has been tremendous increase in the number of athletes specializing in triathlon. On the basis of our experience and available research evidence we have provided answers to some of these questions. We concluded that aging associated decline in ultra–endurance performance is inevitable although it can be slowed down.

Keywords: Endurance, Aging, Triathlon, atrophy

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31 Does Exercise Training Moderate the Effects of Ageing on Health

Authors: Bulus Kpame, Kankanala Venkateswarlu, Elizabeth A. Haruna

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The interaction of health and athletic performance with biologic aging has been an interesting and intriguing area for research. There has been a general acknowledgement of its importance to major public health and elite performance outcomes. There are many questions unanswered about the mechanisms of effects and dose-response changes. An attempt has been made in this paper to highlight potentially positive effects of regular training on the aging process and its effects on health. Age associated decline in health and performance results from the combination of the aging process itself, inactive lifestyle and primary diseases. An attempt is made in this paper to critically review what is known and what is unknown about evidence based changes, common to disuse and aging. Mechanisms responsible for the slowing decline in muscle mass and muscle force (sarcopenia) down of age – associated, weakness and fatigability due to year round athletic training have been discussed. It is in this regard we have attempted to share our views on advances made so far in understanding the impact of aging on health. We also attempted to explain how the biological effects of aging are minimized during appropriate year round athletic training. On the basis of available research evidence it was concluded that exercise training significantly slow down the deleterious effects of aging on health.

Keywords: Aging, Plyometric Training, atrophy, sarcopenia

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30 Constructing Optimized Criteria of Objective Assessment Indicators among Elderly Frailty

Authors: Shu-Ching Chiu, Shu-Fang Chang

Abstract:

The World Health Organization (WHO) has been actively developing intervention programs to deal with geriatric frailty. In its White Paper on Healthcare Policy 2020, the Department of Health, Bureau of Health Promotion proposed that active aging and the prevention of disability are essential for elderly people to maintain good health. The paper recommended five main policies relevant to this objective, one of which is the prevention of frailty and disability. Scholars have proposed a number of different criteria to diagnose and assess frailty; no consistent or normative standard of measurement is currently available. In addition, many methods of assessment are recursive, which can easily result in recall bias. Due to the relationship between frailty and physical fitness with regard to co-morbidity, it is important that academics optimize the criteria used to assess frailty by objectively evaluating the physical fitness of senior citizens. This study used a review of the literature to identify fitness indicators suitable for measuring frailty in the elderly. This study recommends that measurement criteria be integrated to produce an optimized predictive value for frailty score. Healthcare professionals could use this data to detect frailty at an early stage and provide appropriate care to prevent further debilitation and increase longevity.

Keywords: Healthcare, Aging, Physical Fitness, frailty, optimized criteria

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29 Target and Biomarker Identification Platform to Design New Drugs against Aging and Age-Related Diseases

Authors: Peter Fedichev

Abstract:

We studied fundamental aspects of aging to develop a mathematical model of gene regulatory network. We show that aging manifests itself as an inherent instability of gene network leading to exponential accumulation of regulatory errors with age. To validate our approach we studied age-dependent omic data such as transcriptomes, metabolomes etc. of different model organisms and humans. We build a computational platform based on our model to identify the targets and biomarkers of aging to design new drugs against aging and age-related diseases. As biomarkers of aging, we choose the rate of aging and the biological age since they completely determine the state of the organism. Since rate of aging rapidly changes in response to an external stress, this kind of biomarker can be useful as a tool for quantitative efficacy assessment of drugs, their combinations, dose optimization, chronic toxicity estimate, personalized therapies selection, clinical endpoints achievement (within clinical research), and death risk assessments. According to our model, we propose a method for targets identification for further interventions against aging and age-related diseases. Being a biotech company, we offer a complete pipeline to develop an anti-aging drug-candidate.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Aging, Longevity, senescence

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28 Semantic Processing in Chinese: Category Effects, Task Effects and Age Effects

Authors: Yi-Hsiu Lai

Abstract:

The present study aimed to elucidate the nature of semantic processing in Chinese. Language and cognition related to the issue of aging are examined from the perspective of picture naming and category fluency tasks. Twenty Chinese-speaking adults (ranging from 25 to 45 years old) and twenty Chinese-speaking seniors (ranging from 65 to 75 years old) in Taiwan participated in this study. Each of them individually completed two tasks: a picture naming task and a category fluency task. Instruments for the naming task were sixty black-and-white pictures: thirty-five object and twenty-five action pictures. Category fluency task also consisted of two semantic categories – objects (or nouns) and actions (or verbs). Participants were asked to report as many items within a category as possible in one minute. Scores of action fluency and of object fluency were a summation of correct responses in these two categories. Category effects (actions vs. objects) and age effects were examined in these tasks. Objects were further divided into two major types: living objects and non-living objects. Actions were also categorized into two major types: action verbs and process verbs. Reaction time to each picture/question was additionally calculated and analyzed. Results of the category fluency task indicated that the content of information in Chinese seniors was comparatively deteriorated, thus producing smaller number of semantic-lexical items. Significant group difference was also found in the results of reaction time. Category Effect was significant for both Chinese adults and seniors in the semantic fluency task. Findings in the present study helped characterize the nature of semantic processing in Chinese-speaking adults and seniors and contributed to the issue of language and aging.

Keywords: Aging, semantic processing, Chinese, category effects

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27 A Study on Bilingual Semantic Processing: Category Effects and Age Effects

Authors: Lai Yi-Hsiu

Abstract:

The present study addressed the nature of bilingual semantic processing in Mandarin Chinese and Southern Min and examined category effects and age effects. Nineteen bilingual adults of Mandarin Chinese and Southern Min, nine monolingual seniors of Mandarin Chinese, and ten monolingual seniors of Southern Min in Taiwan individually completed two semantic tasks: Picture naming and category fluency tasks. The instruments for the naming task were sixty black-and-white pictures, including thirty-five object pictures and twenty-five action pictures. The category fluency task also consisted of two semantic categories – objects (or nouns) and actions (or verbs). The reaction time for each picture/question was additionally calculated and analyzed. Oral productions in Mandarin Chinese and in Southern Min were compared and discussed to examine the category effects and age effects. The results of the category fluency task indicated that the content of information of these seniors was comparatively deteriorated, and thus they produced a smaller number of semantic-lexical items. Significant group differences were also found in the reaction time results. Category effects were significant for both adults and seniors in the semantic fluency task. The findings of the present study will help characterize the nature of the bilingual semantic processing of adults and seniors, and contribute to the fields of contrastive and corpus linguistics.

Keywords: Aging, bilingual semantic processing, Mandarin Chinese, Southern Min

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26 Protective Role of Phycobiliproteins in ROS-Associated Physiological Anomalies

Authors: Jitendra Kumar, Ravi Raghav Sonani, Niraj Kumar Singh, Datta Madamwar

Abstract:

Phycobiliproteins (PBPs) are light harvesting proteins showing very strong absorbance and fluorescence in the visible range of the solar spectrum. Phycoerythrin (PE) and phycocyanin (PC) are majorly found PBPs in the cyanobacteria and red algae. In the present study, we have investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-averting capacity of purified PE and PC of cyanobacterial origin. Furthermore, the possibility - whether the ROS-averting potential of PBPs can be explored in the therapeutics of oxidative stress associated physiological anomalies including aging and neurodegenerative diseases. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as model organism in this study. PE and PC treatment moderated normal aging and associated physiological functionalities like pharyngeal pumping and locomotion of C. elegans. Moreover, PE-treatment enhanced the stress (oxidative and heat) tolerance upon PE and PC treatment. Specifically, PE treatment was also noted to moderate the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in transgenic C. elegans CL4176. However, PC-treatment curtailed the polyQ aggregation mediated proteotoxicity in C. elegans AM141 (Huntington disease model) under stressed (paraquat stress) as well as normal conditions. The effectiveness of PE and PC in expanding the lifespan of mutant C. elegans knockout for some up- (daf 16) and down- (daf-2 and age-1) stream regulators of insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) shows the independency of their effects from DAF-2–AGE-1–DAF-16 signalling pathway. In conclusion, the present report demonstrates the anti-aging and neuro-protective potential of cyanobacterial PE and PC.

Keywords: Aging, Alzheimer, Huntington, C. elegans, phycobiliproteins

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25 Mechanical Properties of Young and Senescence Fibroblast Cells Using Passive Microrheology

Authors: Samira Khalaji, Fenneke Klein Jan, Kay-E. Gottschalk, Eugenia Makrantonaki, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek

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Biological aging is a multi-dimensional process that takes place over a whole range of scales from the nanoscopic alterations within individual cells, over transformations in tissues and organs and to changes of the whole organism. On the single cell level, aging involves mutation of genes, differences in gene expression levels as well as altered posttranslational modifications of proteins. A variety of proteins is affected, including proteins of the cell cytoskeleton and migration machinery. Previous work quantified the expression of cytoskeleton proteins on the gene and protein levels in senescent and young fibroblasts. Their results show that senescent skin fibroblasts have an upregulated expression of the intermediate filament (IF) protein vimentin in contrast to actin and tubulin, which are downregulated. IFs play an important role in providing mechanical stability of cells. However, the mechanical properties of IFs depending on cellular senescence or age of the donor has not been studied so far. Hence, we employed passive microrheology on primary human dermal fibroblasts from female donors with age of 28 years (young) and 86 years (old) as model of in vivo aging and human normal dermal fibroblast from 11-year old male with CPD 17-35 (young) and CPD 58-59 (senescence) as a model of in vitro replicative senescence. In contrast to the expectations, our primary results show no significant differences in the viscoelastic properties of fibroblasts depending on age of the donor or cellular replicative senescence.

Keywords: Aging, Mechanical Properties, cytoskeleton, fibroblast

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24 Adult Child Labour Migration and Elderly Parent Health: Recent Evidence from Indonesian Panel Data

Authors: Oleg Yerokhin, Alfiah Hasanah, Silvia Mendolia

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This paper explores the impacts of adult child migration on the health of elderly parents left behind. The maternal and children health are a priority of health-related policy in most low and middle-income country, and so there is lack of evidence on the health of older population particularly in Indonesia. With increasing life expectancy and limited access to social security and social services for the elderly in this country, the consequences of increasing number of out-migration of adult children to parent health are important to investigate. This study use Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS), the only large-scale continuing longitudinal socioeconomic and health survey that based on a sample of households representing about 83 percent of the Indonesian population in its first wave. Using four waves of IFLS including the recent wave of 2014, several indicators of the self-rated health status, interviewer-rated health status and days of illness are used to estimate the impact of labour out-migration of adult children on parent health status. Incorporate both individual fixed effects to control for unobservable factors in migrant and non-migrant households and the ordered response of self-rated health, this study apply the ordered logit of “Blow-up and Cluster” (BUC ) estimator. The result shows that labour out-migration of adult children significantly improves the self-rated health status of the elderly parent left behind. Findings of this study are consistent with the view that migration increases family resources and contribute to better health care and nutrition of the family left behind.

Keywords: Migration, Aging, self-rated health, panel data

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23 Well-Being and Helping Technology for Retired Population in Finland

Authors: L. Korpinen, R. Pääkkönen

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This study aimed to evaluate parameters influencing well-being and how to maintain well-being as long as possible after retirement. There is contradictory information on the health changes after retirement in Finland. This work is based on interviews, statistics, and literature evaluation of Finland. Most often, balance, multitasking reaction time, and adaptation of vision in dim and darks areas are worsened. Slowing is one characteristic that is difficult to measure properly. The most important is try to determine ways to manage daily activities and symptoms of disease after retirement. Medicine is advancing, problems are often also on the economic side. Information of technical aids is important. It is worth planning a retirement age.

Keywords: Wellness, Aging, retirement, working

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22 Effect of Exercise Training on Body Composition and Metabolic Profile in Older Adults during Cancer Treatment

Authors: Adeline Fontvieille, Hugo Parent-Roberge, Marie-France Langlois, Tamas Fulop, Michel Pavic, Eleonor Riesco

Abstract:

Introduction: Total lean body mass is reduced during cancer treatment. This loss is called cancer cachexia and is accompanied by a progressive loss of fat mass. In older adults, these body composition changes can have a larger impact on metabolic health, physical autonomy, and cancer survival. Although currently untreatable, exercise training could reduce these effects. Hence, the objective of this pilot study is to investigate if 12 weeks of exercise training during cancer treatment can mitigate the loss of muscle mass and fat mass in older adults. Methods: A total of 40 older adults (65-80 years) with an ongoing treatment for a curable cancer are currently recruited and randomised in two groups: 1) Combined training (EX, n=20) and 2) Control group (CON, n=20). All variables are measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention: Anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index), body composition (total fat mass, visceral adipose tissue, total and appendicular muscle mass; DXA), metabolic profile (HDL-C and LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose and insulin levels). Results: Preliminary analyses revealed no impact of exercise training on appendicular muscle mass (p=0,31) and fat mass (p=0,31). Furthermore, total body weight, waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, glucose and insulin levels remained unchanged (all p ≥ 0.79) after 12 weeks of training. However, statistical analyses revealed that triglyceride levels slightly increased (p=0.03), irrespective of the group. Conclusion: Preliminary analyses did not reveal any impact of aerobic and resistance exercise training on body composition in oncogeriatric patients. Furthermore, exercise training seems not efficient to prevent the cancer treatment-related triglyceride levels increase.

Keywords: Cancer, Aging, fat mass, metabolic profile, muscle mass, combined training

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21 The Effects of Qigong Exercise Intervention on the Cognitive Function in Aging Adults

Authors: W. C. Lin, D. Y. Fong, C. Y. Kuo, Y. T. Chiang

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Objectives: Qigong is an ancient Chinese practice in pursuit of a healthier body and a more peaceful mindset. It emphasizes on the restoration of vital energy (Qi) in body, mind, and spirit. The practice is the combination of gentle movements and mild breathing which help the doers reach the condition of tranquility. On account of the features of Qigong, first, we use cross-sectional methodology to compare the differences among the varied levels of Qigong practitioners on cognitive function with event-related potential (ERP) and electroencephalography (EEG). Second, we use the longitudinal methodology to explore the effects on the Qigong trainees for pretest and posttest on ERP and EEG. Current study adopts Attentional Network Test (ANT) task to examine the participants’ cognitive function, and aging-related researches demonstrated a declined tread on the cognition in older adults and exercise might ameliorate the deterioration. Qigong exercise integrates physical posture (muscle strength), breathing technique (aerobic ability) and focused intention (attention) that researchers hypothesize it might improve the cognitive function in aging adults. Method: Sixty participants were involved in this study, including 20 young adults (21.65±2.41 y) with normal physical activity (YA), 20 Qigong experts (60.69 ± 12.42 y) with over 7 years Qigong practice experience (QE), and 20 normal and healthy adults (52.90±12.37 y) with no Qigong practice experience as experimental group (EG). The EG participants took Qigong classes 2 times a week and 2 hours per time for 24 weeks with the purpose of examining the effect of Qigong intervention on cognitive function. ANT tasks (alert network, orient network, and executive control) were adopted to evaluate participants’ cognitive function via ERP’s P300 components and P300 amplitude topography. Results: Behavioral data: 1.The reaction time (RT) of YA is faster than the other two groups, and EG was faster than QE in the cue and flanker conditions of ANT task. 2. The RT of posttest was faster than pretest in EG in the cue and flanker conditions. 3. No difference among the three groups on orient, alert, and execute control networks. ERP data: 1. P300 amplitude detection in QE was larger than EG at Fz electrode in orient, alert, and execute control networks. 2. P300 amplitude in EG was larger at pretest than posttest on the orient network. 3. P300 Latency revealed no difference among the three groups in the three networks. Conclusion: Taken together these findings, they provide neuro-electrical evidence that older adults involved in Qigong practice may develop a more overall compensatory mechanism and also benefit the performance of behavior.

Keywords: Aging, Cognitive Function, Qigong, event-related potential (ERP)

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20 Study of Age-Dependent Changes of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Apoptotic Properties

Authors: Anahit Hakobjanyan, Zdenka Navratilova, Gabriela Strakova, Martin Petrek

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Aging has a suppressive influence on human immune cells. Apoptosis may play important role in age-dependent immunosuppression and lymphopenia. Prevention of apoptosis may be promoted by BCL2-dependent and BCL2-independent manner. BCL2 is an antiapoptotic factor that has an antioxidative role by locating the glutathione at mitochondria and repressing oxidative stress. STAT3 may suppress apoptosis in BCL2-independent manner and promote cell survival blocking cytochrome-c release and reducing ROS production. The aim of our study was to estimate the influence of aging on BCL2-dependent and BCL2-independent prevention of apoptosis via measurement of BCL2 and STAT3 mRNAs expressions. The study was done on Armenian population (2 groups: 37 healthy young (mean age±SE; min/max age, male/female: 37.6±1.1; 20/54, 15/22), 28 healthy aged (66.7±1.5; 57/85, 12/16)). mRNA expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) was determined by RT-PCR using PSMB2 as the reference gene. Statistical analysis was done with Graph-Pad Prism 5; P < 0.05 considered as significant. The expression of BCL2 mRNA was lower in aged group (0.199) compared with young ones (0.643)(p < 0.01). Decrease expression was also recorded for female and male subgroups (p < 0.01). The expression level of STAT3 mRNA was increased (young, 0.228; aged, 0.428) (p < 0.05) during aging (in the whole age group and male/female subgroups). Decreased level of BCL2 mRNA may indicate about the suppression of BCL2-dependent prevention of apoptosis during aging in peripheral blood leukocytes. At the same time increased the level of STAT3 may suggest about activation of BCL2-independent prevention of apoptosis during aging.

Keywords: Aging, apoptosis, STAT3, BCL2

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19 Special Single Mode Fiber Tests of Polarization Mode Dispersion Changes in a Harsh Environment

Authors: Matej Komanec, Stanislav Zvanovec, Jan Bohata, Jakub Jaros, David Hruby

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Even though there is a rapid development in new optical networks, still optical communication infrastructures remain composed of thousands of kilometers of aging optical cables. Many of them are located in a harsh environment which contributes to an increased attenuation or induced birefringence of the fibers leading to the increase of polarization mode dispersion (PMD). In this paper, we report experimental results from environmental optical cable tests and characterization in the climate chamber. We focused on the evaluation of optical network reliability in a harsh environment. For this purpose, a special thermal chamber was adopted, targeting to the large temperature changes between -60 °C and 160 C° with defined humidity. Single mode optical cable 230 meters long, having six tubes and a total number of 72 single mode optical fibers was spliced together forming one fiber link, which was afterward tested in the climate chamber. The main emphasis was put to the polarization mode dispersion (PMD) changes, which were evaluated by three different PMD measuring methods (general interferometry technique, scrambled state-of-polarization analysis and polarization optical time domain reflectometer) in order to fully validate obtained results. Moreover, attenuation and chromatic dispersion (CD), as well as the PMD, were monitored using 17 km long single mode optical cable. Results imply a strong PMD dependence on thermal changes, imposing the exceeding 200 % of its value during the exposure to extreme temperatures and experienced more than 20 dB insertion losses in the optical system. The derived statistic is provided in the paper together with an evaluation of such as optical system reliability, which could be a crucial tool for the optical network designers. The environmental tests are further taken in context to our previously published results from long-term monitoring of fundamental parameters within an optical cable placed in a harsh environment in a special outdoor testbed. Finally, we provide a correlation between short-term and long-term monitoring campaigns and statistics, which are necessary for optical network safety and reliability.

Keywords: Aging, Optical Fiber, polarization mode dispersion, harsh environment

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18 Seismic Fragility for Sliding Failure of Weir Structure Considering the Process of Concrete Aging

Authors: Ki Young Kim, Woo Young Jung, HoYoung Son

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This study investigated the change of weir structure performances when durability of concrete, which is the main material of weir structure, decreased due to their aging by mean of seismic fragility analysis. In the analysis, it was assumed that the elastic modulus of concrete was reduced by 10% in order to account for their aged deterioration. Additionally, the analysis of seismic fragility was based on Monte Carlo Simulation method combined with a 2D nonlinear finite element in ABAQUS platform with the consideration of deterioration of concrete. Finally, the comparison of seismic fragility of model pre- and post-deterioration was made to study the performance of weir. Results show that the probability of failure in moderate damage for deteriorated model was found to be larger than pre-deterioration model when peak ground acceleration (PGA) passed 0.4 g.

Keywords: Aging, Concrete, FEM, weir, fragility

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