Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

acoustic emission Related Abstracts

15 Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Measurement by Means of Classic Method and Acoustic Emission

Authors: V. Mentl, V. Koula, P. Mazal, J. Volák


Nowadays, the acoustic emission is a widely recognized method of material damage investigation, mainly in cases of cracks initiation and growth observation and evaluation. This is highly important in structures, e.g. pressure vessels, large steam turbine rotors etc., applied both in classic and nuclear power plants. Nevertheless, the acoustic emission signals must be correlated with the real crack progress to be able to evaluate the cracks and their growth by this non-destructive technique alone in real situations and to reach reliable results when the assessment of the structures' safety and reliability is performed and also when the remaining lifetime should be evaluated. The main aim of this study was to propose a methodology for evaluation of the early manifestations of the fatigue cracks and their growth and thus to quantify the material damage by acoustic emission parameters. Specimens made of several steels used in the power producing industry were subjected to fatigue loading in the low- and high-cycle regimes. This study presents results of the crack growth rate measurement obtained by the classic compliance change method and the acoustic emission signal analysis. The experiments were realized in cooperation between laboratories of Brno University of Technology and West Bohemia University in Pilsen within the solution of the project of the Czech Ministry of Industry and Commerce: "A diagnostic complex for the detection of pressure media and material defects in pressure components of nuclear and classic power plants" and the project “New Technologies for Mechanical Engineering”.

Keywords: Fatigue, Material Damage, crack growth rate, acoustic emission

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14 Effect of Carbon Amount of Dual-Phase Steels on Deformation Behavior Using Acoustic Emission

Authors: Ramin Khamedi, Isa Ahmadi


In this study acoustic emission (AE) signals obtained during deformation and fracture of two types of ferrite-martensite dual phase steels (DPS) specimens have been analyzed in frequency domain. For this reason two low carbon steels with various amounts of carbon were chosen, and intercritically heat treated. In the introduced method, identifying the mechanisms of failure in the various phases of DPS is done. For this aim, AE monitoring has been used during tensile test of several DPS with various volume fraction of the martensite (VM) and attempted to relate the AE signals and failure mechanisms in these steels. Different signals, which referred to 2-3 micro-mechanisms of failure due to amount of carbon and also VM have been seen. By Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) of signals in distinct locations, an excellent relationship between peak frequencies in these areas and micro-mechanisms of failure were seen. The results were verified by microscopic observations (SEM).

Keywords: deformation, fracture, Failure, acoustic emission, dual phase steels

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13 Acoustic Emission for Tool-Chip Interface Monitoring during Orthogonal Cutting

Authors: D. O. Ramadan, R. S. Dwyer-Joyce


The measurement of the interface conditions in a cutting tool contact is essential information for performance monitoring and control. This interface provides the path for the heat flux to the cutting tool. This elevate in the cutting tool temperature leads to motivate the mechanism of tool wear, thus affect the life of the cutting tool and the productivity. This zone is representative by the tool-chip interface. Therefore, understanding and monitoring this interface is considered an important issue in machining. In this paper, an acoustic emission (AE) technique was used to find the correlation between AE parameters and the tool-chip interface. For this reason, a response surface design (RSD) has been used to analyse and optimize the machining parameters. The experiment design was based on the face centered, central composite design (CCD) in the Minitab environment. According to this design, a series of orthogonal cutting experiments for different cutting conditions were conducted on a Triumph 2500 lathe machine to study the sensitivity of the acoustic emission (AE) signal to change in tool-chip contact length. The cutting parameters investigated were the cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed and the experiments were performed for 6082-T6 aluminium tube. All the orthogonal cutting experiments were conducted unlubricated. The tool-chip contact area was investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results obtained in this paper indicate that there is a strong dependence of the root mean square (RMS) on the cutting speed, where the RMS increases with increasing the cutting speed. A dependence on the tool-chip contact length has been also observed. However there was no effect observed of changing the cutting depth and feed on the RMS. These dependencies have been clarified in terms of the strain and temperature in the primary and secondary shear zones, also the tool-chip sticking and sliding phenomenon and the effect of these mechanical variables on dislocation activity at high strain rates. In conclusion, the acoustic emission technique has the potential to monitor in situ the tool-chip interface in turning and consequently could indicate the approaching end of life of a cutting tool.

Keywords: monitoring, acoustic emission, tool-chip interface, orthogonal cutting

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12 Innovative Acoustic Emission Techniques for Concrete Health Monitoring

Authors: Rahmat Ali, Abid A. Shah, Beenish Khan, Aftabullah


This research is an attempt to investigate the wide range of events using acoustic emission (AE) sensors of the concrete cubes subjected to different stress condition loading and unloading of concrete cubes. A total of 27 specimens were prepared and tested including 18 cubic (6”x6”x6”) and nine cylindrical (4”x8”) specimens were molded from three batches of concrete using w/c of 0.40, 0.50, and 0.60. The compressive strength of concrete was determined from concrete cylinder specimens. The deterioration of concrete was evaluated using the occurrence of felicity and Kaiser effects at each stress condition. It was found that acoustic emission hits usually exceeded when damage increases. Additionally, the correlation between AE techniques and the load applied were determined by plotting the normalized values. The influence of w/c on sensitivity of the AE technique in detecting concrete damages was also investigated.

Keywords: Sensors, Concrete, acoustic emission, felicity ratio

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11 Laser Ultrasonic Diagnostics and Acoustic Emission Technique for Examination of Rock Specimens under Uniaxial Compression

Authors: Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Vladimir A. Makarov, Dmitry V. Morozov, Ivan E. Sas


Laboratory studies of the stress-strain behavior of rocks specimens were conducted by using acoustic emission and laser-ultrasonic diagnostics. The sensitivity of the techniques allowed changes in the internal structure of the specimens under uniaxial compressive load to be examined at micro- and macro scales. It was shown that microcracks appear in geologic materials when the stress level reaches about 50% of breaking strength. Also, the characteristic stress of the main crack formation was registered in the process of single-stage compression of rocks. On the base of laser-ultrasonic echoscopy, 2D visualization of the internal structure of rocky soil specimens was realized, and the microcracks arising during uniaxial compression were registered.

Keywords: Geomaterial, acoustic emission, laser ultrasound, uniaxial compression

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10 The Effectiveness of Energy Index Technique in Bearing Condition Monitoring

Authors: Faisal AlShammari, Abdulmajid Addali, Mosab Alrashed, Taihiret Alhashan


The application of acoustic emission techniques is gaining popularity, as it can monitor the condition of gears and bearings and detect early symptoms of a defect in the form of pitting, wear, and flaking of surfaces. Early detection of these defects is essential as it helps to avoid major failures and the associated catastrophic consequences. Signal processing techniques are required for early defect detection – in this article, a time domain technique called the Energy Index (EI) is used. This article presents an investigation into the Energy Index’s effectiveness to detect early-stage defect initiation and deterioration, and compares it with the common r.m.s. index, Kurtosis, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test. It is concluded that EI is a more effective technique for monitoring defect initiation and development than other statistical parameters.

Keywords: Signal Processing, kurtosis, acoustic emission, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

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9 Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Surface Roughness in Ultra High Precision Grinding of Borosilicate-Crown Glass

Authors: Khaled Abou-El-Hossein, Goodness Onwuka


The increase in the demand for precision optics, coupled with the absence of much research output in the ultra high precision grinding of precision optics as compared to the ultrahigh precision diamond turning of optical metals has fostered the need for more research in the ultra high precision grinding of an optical lens. Furthermore, the increase in the stringent demands for nanometric surface finishes through lapping, polishing and grinding processes necessary for the use of borosilicate-crown glass in the automotive and optics industries has created the demand to effectively monitor the surface roughness during the production process. Acoustic emission phenomenon has been proven as useful monitoring technique in several manufacturing processes ranging from monitoring of bearing production to tool wear estimation. This paper introduces a rare and unique approach with the application of acoustic emission technique to monitor the surface roughness of borosilicate-crown glass during an ultra high precision grinding process. This research was carried out on a 4-axes Nanoform 250 ultrahigh precision lathe machine using an ultra high precision grinding spindle to machine the flat surface of the borosilicate-crown glass with the tip of the grinding wheel. A careful selection of parameters and design of experiment was implemented using Box-Behnken method to vary the wheel speed, feed rate and depth of cut at three levels with a 3-center point design. Furthermore, the average surface roughness was measured using Taylor Hobson PGI Dimension XL optical profilometer, and an acoustic emission data acquisition device from National Instruments was utilized to acquire the signals while the data acquisition codes were designed with National Instrument LabVIEW software for acquisition at a sampling rate of 2 million samples per second. The results show that the raw and root mean square amplitude values of the acoustic signals increased with a corresponding increase in the measured average surface roughness values for the different parameter combinations. Therefore, this research concludes that acoustic emission monitoring technique is a potential technique for monitoring the surface roughness in the ultra high precision grinding of borosilicate-crown glass.

Keywords: surface roughness, acoustic emission, borosilicate-crown glass, ultra high precision grinding

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8 Physical and Mechanical Phenomena Associated with Rock Failure in Brazilian Disc Specimens

Authors: Hamid Reza Nejati, Amin Nazerigivi, Ahmad Reza Sayadi


Failure mechanism of rocks is one of the fundamental aspects to study rock engineering stability. Rock is a material that contains flaws, initial damage, micro-cracks, etc. Failure of rock structure is largely due to tensile stress and was influenced by various parameters. In the present study, the effect of brittleness and loading rate on the physical and mechanical phenomena produced in rock during loading sequences is considered. For this purpose, Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to monitor fracturing process of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness and sandstone samples under different loading rate. The results of experimental tests revealed that brittleness and loading rate have a significant effect on the mode and number of induced fracture in rocks. An increase in rock brittleness increases the frequency of induced cracks, and the number of tensile fracture decreases when loading rate increases.

Keywords: acoustic emission, brittleness, loading rate, tensile fracture, shear fracture

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7 In-situ Acoustic Emission Analysis of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Water Electrolyser

Authors: Y. Wu, M. Maier, I. Dedigama, J. Majasan, Q. Meyer, L. Castanheira, G. Hinds, P. R. Shearing, D. J. L. Brett


Increasing the efficiency of electrolyser technology is commonly seen as one of the main challenges on the way to the Hydrogen Economy. There is a significant lack of understanding of the different states of operation of polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysers (PEMWE) and how these influence the overall efficiency. This in particular means the two-phase flow through the membrane, gas diffusion layers (GDL) and flow channels. In order to increase the efficiency of PEMWE and facilitate their spread as commercial hydrogen production technology, new analytic approaches have to be found. Acoustic emission (AE) offers the possibility to analyse the processes within a PEMWE in a non-destructive, fast and cheap in-situ way. This work describes the generation and analysis of AE data coming from a PEM water electrolyser, for, to the best of our knowledge, the first time in literature. Different experiments are carried out. Each experiment is designed so that only specific physical processes occur and AE solely related to one process can be measured. Therefore, a range of experimental conditions is used to induce different flow regimes within flow channels and GDL. The resulting AE data is first separated into different events, which are defined by exceeding the noise threshold. Each acoustic event consists of a number of consequent peaks and ends when the wave diminishes under the noise threshold. For all these acoustic events the following key attributes are extracted: maximum peak amplitude, duration, number of peaks, peaks before the maximum, average intensity of a peak and time till the maximum is reached. Each event is then expressed as a vector containing the normalized values for all criteria. Principal Component Analysis is performed on the resulting data, which orders the criteria by the eigenvalues of their covariance matrix. This can be used as an easy way of determining which criteria convey the most information on the acoustic data. In the following, the data is ordered in the two- or three-dimensional space formed by the most relevant criteria axes. By finding spaces in the two- or three-dimensional space only occupied by acoustic events originating from one of the three experiments it is possible to relate physical processes to certain acoustic patterns. Due to the complex nature of the AE data modern machine learning techniques are needed to recognize these patterns in-situ. Using the AE data produced before allows to train a self-learning algorithm and develop an analytical tool to diagnose different operational states in a PEMWE. Combining this technique with the measurement of polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy allows for in-situ optimization and recognition of suboptimal states of operation.

Keywords: acoustic emission, gas diffusion layers, in-situ diagnosis, PEM water electrolyser

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6 Identification of Damage Mechanisms in Interlock Reinforced Composites Using a Pattern Recognition Approach of Acoustic Emission Data

Authors: Z. Aboura, M. Kharrat, G. Moreau


The latest advances in the weaving industry, combined with increasingly sophisticated means of materials processing, have made it possible to produce complex 3D composite structures. Mainly used in aeronautics, composite materials with 3D architecture offer better mechanical properties than 2D reinforced composites. Nevertheless, these materials require a good understanding of their behavior. Because of the complexity of such materials, the damage mechanisms are multiple, and the scenario of their appearance and evolution depends on the nature of the exerted solicitations. The AE technique is a well-established tool for discriminating between the damage mechanisms. Suitable sensors are used during the mechanical test to monitor the structural health of the material. Relevant AE-features are then extracted from the recorded signals, followed by a data analysis using pattern recognition techniques. In order to better understand the damage scenarios of interlock composite materials, a multi-instrumentation was set-up in this work for tracking damage initiation and development, especially in the vicinity of the first significant damage, called macro-damage. The deployed instrumentation includes video-microscopy, Digital Image Correlation, Acoustic Emission (AE) and micro-tomography. In this study, a multi-variable AE data analysis approach was developed for the discrimination between the different signal classes representing the different emission sources during testing. An unsupervised classification technique was adopted to perform AE data clustering without a priori knowledge. The multi-instrumentation and the clustered data served to label the different signal families and to build a learning database. This latter is useful to construct a supervised classifier that can be used for automatic recognition of the AE signals. Several materials with different ingredients were tested under various solicitations in order to feed and enrich the learning database. The methodology presented in this work was useful to refine the damage threshold for the new generation materials. The damage mechanisms around this threshold were highlighted. The obtained signal classes were assigned to the different mechanisms. The isolation of a 'noise' class makes it possible to discriminate between the signals emitted by damages without resorting to spatial filtering or increasing the AE detection threshold. The approach was validated on different material configurations. For the same material and the same type of solicitation, the identified classes are reproducible and little disturbed. The supervised classifier constructed based on the learning database was able to predict the labels of the classified signals.

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, Damage Mechanisms, acoustic emission, classifier, first damage threshold, interlock composite materials

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5 Acoustic Emission Techniques in Monitoring Low-Speed Bearing Conditions

Authors: Faisal AlShammari, Abdulmajid Addali, Mosab Alrashed


It is widely acknowledged that bearing failures are the primary reason for breakdowns in rotating machinery. These failures are extremely costly, particularly in terms of lost production. Roller bearings are widely used in industrial machinery and need to be maintained in good condition to ensure the continuing efficiency, effectiveness, and profitability of the production process. The research presented here is an investigation of the use of acoustic emission (AE) to monitor bearing conditions at low speeds. Many machines, particularly large, expensive machines operate at speeds below 100 rpm, and such machines are important to the industry. However, the overwhelming proportion of studies have investigated the use of AE techniques for condition monitoring of higher-speed machines (typically several hundred rpm, or even higher). Few researchers have investigated the application of these techniques to low-speed machines ( < 100 rpm). This paper addressed this omission and has established which, of the available, AE techniques are suitable for the detection of incipient faults and measurement of fault growth in low-speed bearings. The first objective of this paper program was to assess the applicability of AE techniques to monitor low-speed bearings. It was found that the measured statistical parameters successfully monitored bearing conditions at low speeds (10-100 rpm). The second objective was to identify which commonly used statistical parameters derived from the AE signal (RMS, kurtosis, amplitude and counts) could identify the onset of a fault in the out race. It was found that these parameters effectually identify the presence of a small fault seeded into the outer races. Also, it is concluded that rotational speed has a strong influence on the measured AE parameters but that they are entirely independent of the load under such load and speed conditions.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Condition Monitoring, ndt, acoustic emission

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4 Regularities of Changes in the Fractal Dimension of Acoustic Emission Signals in the Stages Close to the Destruction of Structural Materials When Exposed to Low-Cycle Loaded

Authors: Phyo Wai Aung, Sysoev Oleg Evgenevich, Boris Necolavet Maryin


The article deals with theoretical problems of correlation of processes of microstructure changes of structural materials under cyclic loading and acoustic emission. The ways of the evolution of a microstructure under the influence of cyclic loading are shown depending on the structure of the initial crystal structure of the material. The spectra of the frequency characteristics of acoustic emission signals are experimentally obtained when testing titanium samples for cyclic loads. Changes in the fractal dimension of the acoustic emission signals in the selected frequency bands during the evolution of the microstructure of structural materials from the action of cyclic loads, as well as in the destruction of samples, are studied. The experimental samples were made of VT-20 structural material widely used in aircraft and rocket engineering. The article shows the striving of structural materials for synergistic stability and reduction of the fractal dimension of acoustic emission signals, in accordance with the degradation of the microstructure, which occurs as a result of fatigue processes from the action of low cycle loads. As a result of the research, the frequency range of acoustic emission signals of 100-270 kHz is determined, in which the fractal dimension of the signals, it is possible to most reliably predict the durability of structural materials.

Keywords: acoustic emission, fractal dimension, cyclic loadings, material structure changing

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3 Deformation Mechanisms of Mg-Based Composite Studied by Neutron Diffraction and Acoustic Emission

Authors: G. Farkas, K. Mathis, J. Pilch, P. Minarik


Deformation mechanisms in an Mg-Al-Ca alloy reinforced with short alumina fibres were studied by acoustic emission and in-situ neutron diffraction method. The fibres plane orientation with respect to the loading axis was found to be a key parameter, which influences the acting deformation processes, such as twinning or dislocation slip. In-situ neutron diffraction tests were measured at different temperatures from room temperature (RT) to 200°C. The measurement shows the lattice strain changes in the matrix and also in the reinforcement phase depending on macroscopic compressive deformation and stress. In case of parallel fibre plane orientation, the increment of compressive lattice strain is lower in the matrix and higher in the fibres in comparison to perpendicular fibre orientation. Furthermore, acoustic emission results indicate a larger twinning activity and more frequent fibre cracking in sample with perpendicular fibre plane orientation. Both types of mechanisms are more dominant at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: deformation mechanisms, Neutron Diffraction, acoustic emission, magnesium based composite

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2 A Procedure for Post-Earthquake Damage Estimation Based on Detection of High-Frequency Transients

Authors: Aleksandar Zhelyazkov, Daniele Zonta, Helmut Wenzel, Peter Furtner


In the current research structural health monitoring is considered for addressing the critical issue of post-earthquake damage detection. A non-standard approach for damage detection via acoustic emission is presented - acoustic emissions are monitored in the low frequency range (up to 120 Hz). Such emissions are termed high-frequency transients. Further a damage indicator defined as the Time-Ratio Damage Indicator is introduced. The indicator relies on time-instance measurements of damage initiation and deformation peaks. Based on the time-instance measurements a procedure for estimation of the maximum drift ratio is proposed. Monitoring data is used from a shaking-table test of a full-scale reinforced concrete bridge pier. Damage of the experimental column is successfully detected and the proposed damage indicator is calculated.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, acoustic emission, shaking table test

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1 Application of Acoustic Emissions Related to Drought Can Elicit Antioxidant Responses and Capsaicinoids Content in Chili Pepper Plants

Authors: Laura Helena Caicedo Lopez, Luis Miguel Contreras Medina, Ramon Gerardo Guevara Gonzales, Juan E. Andrade


In this study, we evaluated the effect of three different hydric stress conditions: Low (LHS), medium (MHS), and high (HHS) on capsaicinoid content and enzyme regulation of C. annuum plants. Five main peaks were detected using a 2 Hz resolution vibrometer laser (Polytec-B&K). These peaks or “characteristic frequencies” were used as acoustic emissions (AEs) treatment, transforming these signals into audible sound with the frequency (Hz) content of each hydric stress. Capsaicinoids (CAPs) are the main, secondary metabolites of chili pepper plants and are known to increase during hydric stress conditions or short drought-periods. The AEs treatments were applied in two plant stages: the first one was in the pre-anthesis stage to evaluate the genes that encode the transcription of enzymes responsible for diverse metabolic activities of C. annuum plants. For example, the antioxidant responses such as peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD). Also, phenyl-alanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) involved in the biosynthesis of the phenylpropanoid compounds. The chalcone synthase (CHS) related to the natural defense mechanisms and species-specific aquaporin (CAPIP-1) that regulate the flow of water into and out of cells. The second stage was at 40 days after flowering (DAF) to evaluate the biochemical effect of AEs related to hydric stress on capsaicinoids production. These two experiments were conducted to identify the molecular responses of C. annuum plants to AE. Moreover, to define AEs could elicit any increase in the capsaicinoids content after a one-week exposition to AEs treatments. The results show that all AEs treatment signals (LHS, MHS, and HHS) were significantly different compared to the non-acoustic emission control (NAE). Also, the AEs induced the up-regulation of POD (~2.8, 2.9, and 3.6, respectively). The gene expression of another antioxidant response was particularly treatment-dependent. The HHS induced and overexpression of Mn-SOD (~0.23) and PAL (~0.33). As well, the MHS only induced an up-regulation of the CHs gene (~0.63). On the other hand, CAPIP-1 gene gas down-regulated by all AEs treatments LHS, MHS, and HHS ~ (-2.4, -0.43 and -6.4, respectively). Likewise, the down-regulation showed particularities depending on the treatment. LHS and MHS induced downregulation of the SOD gene ~ (-1.26 and -1.20 respectively) and PAL (-4.36 and 2.05, respectively). Correspondingly, the LHS and HHS showed the same tendency in the CHs gene, respectively ~ (-1.12 and -1.02, respectively). Regarding the elicitation effect of AE on the capsaicinoids content, additional treatment controls were included. A white noise treatment (WN) to prove the frequency-selectiveness of signals and a hydric stressed group (HS) to compare the CAPs content. Our findings suggest that WN and NAE did not present differences statically. Conversely, HS and all AEs treatments induced a significant increase of capsaicin (Cap) and dihydrocapsaicin (Dcap) after one-week of a treatment. Specifically, the HS plants showed an increase of 8.33 times compared to the NAE and WN treatments and 1.4 times higher than the MHS, which was the AEs treatment with a larger induction of Capsaicinoids among treatments (5.88) and compared to the controls.

Keywords: acoustic emission, elicitors, Capsaicinoids, hydric stress, plant signaling

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