Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Absorption Related Publications

12 Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector

Authors: Ammar Ben Brahim, Abir Hmida, Nihel Chekir

Abstract:

In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m² of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.

Keywords: Absorption, Solar Collector, Ammonia, vacuum tube, cold room

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11 Optical Fiber Data Throughput in a Quantum Communication System

Authors: Arash Kosari, Ali Araghi

Abstract:

A mathematical model for an optical-fiber communication channel is developed which results in an expression that calculates the throughput and loss of the corresponding link. The data are assumed to be transmitted by using of separate photons with different polarizations. The derived model also shows the dependency of data throughput with length of the channel and depolarization factor. It is observed that absorption of photons affects the throughput in a more intensive way in comparison with that of depolarization. Apart from that, the probability of depolarization and the absorption of radiated photons are obtained.

Keywords: Optical Fiber, Absorption, data throughput, depolarization

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10 A Comparative Study of the Modeling and Quality Control of the Propylene-Propane Classical Distillation and Distillation Column with Heat Pump

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, Cao Minh Ahn

Abstract:

The paper presents the research evolution in the propylene – propane distillation process, especially for the distillation columns equipped with heat pump. The paper is structured in three parts: separation of the propylene-propane mixture, steady state process modeling, and quality control systems. The first part is dedicated to state of art of the two distillation processes. The second part continues the author’s researches of the steady state process modeling. There has been elaborated a software simulation instrument that may be used to dynamic simulation of the process and to design the quality control systems. The last part presents the research of the control systems, especially for quality control systems.

Keywords: Distillation, Absorption, Heat pump, unisim design

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9 Investigation about Structural and Optical Properties of Bulk and Thin Film of 1H-CaAlSi by Density Functional Method

Authors: M. Babaeipour, M. Vejdanihemmat

Abstract:

Optical properties of bulk and thin film of 1H-CaAlSi for two directions (1,0,0) and (0,0,1) were studied. The calculations are carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method using full potential. GGA approximation was used to calculate exchange-correlation energy. The calculations are performed by WIEN2k package. The results showed that the absorption edge is shifted backward 0.82eV in the thin film than the bulk for both directions. The static values of the real part of dielectric function for four cases were obtained. The static values of the refractive index for four cases are calculated too. The reflectivity graphs have shown an intensive difference between the reflectivity of the thin film and the bulk in the ultraviolet region.

Keywords: Optical, Absorption, thin film, bulk

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8 Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Using a New O-Element Design Which Replaces the Venturi Scrubber

Authors: P. Lestinsky, D. Jecha, V. Brummer, P. Stehlik

Abstract:

Scrubbing by a liquid spraying is one of the most effective processes used for removal of fine particles and soluble gas pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, HF) from the flue gas. There are many configurations of scrubbers designed to provide contact between the liquid and gas stream for effectively capturing particles or soluble gas pollutants, such as spray plates, packed bed towers, jet scrubbers, cyclones, vortex and venturi scrubbers. The primary function of venturi scrubber is the capture of fine particles as well as HCl, HF or SO2 removal with effect of the flue gas temperature decrease before input to the absorption column. In this paper, sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas was captured using new design replacing venturi scrubber (1st degree of wet scrubbing). The flue gas was prepared by the combustion of the carbon disulfide solution in toluene (1:1 vol.) in the flame in the reactor. Such prepared flue gas with temperature around 150°C was processed in designed laboratory O-element scrubber. Water was used as absorbent liquid. The efficiency of SO2 removal, pressure drop and temperature drop were measured on our experimental device. The dependence of these variables on liquid-gas ratio was observed. The average temperature drop was in the range from 150°C to 40°C. The pressure drop was increased with increasing of a liquid-gas ratio, but no too much as for the common venturi scrubber designs. The efficiency of SO2 removal was up to 70 %. The pressure drop of our new designed wet scrubber is similar to commonly used venturi scrubbers; nevertheless the influence of amount of the liquid on pressure drop is not so significant.

Keywords: Modeling, Absorption, desulphurization, flue gas

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7 Effect of Chlorophyll Concentration Variations from Extract of Papaya Leaves on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

Authors: Eka Maulana, Sholeh Hadi Pramono, Dody Fanditya, M. Julius

Abstract:

In this paper, extract of papaya leaves are used as a natural dye and combined by variations of solvent concentration applied on DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell). Indonesian geographic located on the equator line occasions the magnitude of the potential to develop organic solar cells made from extracts of chlorophyll as a substitute for inorganic materials or synthetic dye on DSSC material. Dye serves as absorbing photons which are then converted into electrical energy. A conductive coated glass layer called TCO (Transparent Conductive Oxide) is used as a substrate of electrode. TiO2 nanoparticles as binding dye molecules, redox couple iodide/ tri-iodide as the electrolyte and carbon as the counter electrode in the DSSC are used. TiO2 nanoparticles, organic dyes, electrolytes, and counter electrode are arranged and combined with the layered structure of the photo-catalyst absorption layer. Dye absorption measurements using a spectrophotometer at 400-800 nm light spectrum produces a total amount of chlorophyll 80.076 mg/l. The test cell at 7 watt LED light with 5000 lux luminescence was obtained Voc and Isc of 235.5 mV and 14 μA, respectively.

Keywords: Absorption, chlorophyll, DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell), natural dye

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6 Improving the Dissolution Rate of Folic Acid via the Antisolvent Vapour Precipitation

Authors: X. D. Chen, J. Y. Tan, L. C. Lum, M. G. Lee, S. Mansouri, K. Hapgood, M. W. Woo

Abstract:

Folic acid (FA) is known to be an important supplement to prevent neural tube defect (NTD) in pregnant women. Similar to some commercial formulations, sodium bicarbonate solution is used as a solvent for FA. This work uses the antisolvent vapour precipitation (AVP), incorporating ethanol vapour as the convective drying medium in place of air to produce branch-like micro-structure FA particles. Interestingly, the dissolution rate of the resultant particle is 2-3 times better than the particle produce from conventional air drying due to the higher surface area of particles produced. The higher dissolution rate could possibly improve the delivery and absorption of FA in human body. This application could potentially be extended to other commercial products, particularly in less soluble drugs to improve its solubility.

Keywords: Absorption, dissolution rate, folic acid, antisolvent vapour precipitation

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5 Simulation of Co2 Capture Process

Authors: K. Movagharnejad, M. Akbari

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide capture process has been simulated and studied under different process conditions. It has been shown that several process parameters such as lean amine temperature, number of adsorber stages, number of stripper stages and stripper pressure affect different process conditions and outputs such as carbon dioxide removal and reboiler duty. It may be concluded that the simulation of carbon dioxide capture process can help to estimate the best process conditions.

Keywords: Carbon dioxide capture, Absorption, Process Simulation, Desorption

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4 Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds into Polydimethylsiloxane: Phase Equilibrium Computation at Infinite Dilution

Authors: Edison Muzenda, Corina M Mateescu

Abstract:

Group contribution methods such as the UNIFAC are very useful to researchers and engineers involved in synthesis, feasibility studies, design and optimization of separation processes. They can be applied successfully to predict phase equilibrium and excess properties in the development of chemical and separation processes. The main focus of this work was to investigate the possibility of absorbing selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using three selected UNIFAC group contribution methods. Absorption followed by subsequent stripping is the predominant available abatement technology of VOCs from flue gases prior to their release into the atmosphere. The original, modified and effective UNIFAC models were used in this work. The thirteen selected VOCs that have been considered in this research are: pentane, hexane, heptanes, trimethylamine, toluene, xylene, cyclohexane, butyl acetate, diethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethyl methyl ketone and isobutyl methyl ketone. The computation was done for solute VOC concentration of 8.55x10-8 which is well in the infinite dilution region. The results obtained in this study compare very well with those published in literature obtained through both measurements and predictions. The phase equilibrium obtained in this study show that PDMS is a good absorbent for the removal of VOCs from contaminated air streams through physical absorption.

Keywords: Computation, Absorption, Volatile Organic Compounds, Infinite dilution, Feasibility studies

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3 Effect of CW Laser Annealing on Silicon Surface for Application of Power Device

Authors: Kensuke Akiyama, Satoru Kaneko, Takeshi Ozawa, Takeshi Ito, Manabu Yasui, Chihiro Kato, Satomi Tanaka, Yasuo Hirabayashi, Akira Matsuno, Takashi Nire, Hiroshi Funakubo, Mamoru Yoshimoto

Abstract:

As application of re-activation of backside on power device Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), laser annealing was employed to irradiate amorphous silicon substrate, and resistivities were measured using four point probe measurement. For annealing the amorphous silicon two lasers were used at wavelength of visible green (532 nm) together with Infrared (793 nm). While the green laser efficiently increased temperature at top surface the Infrared laser reached more deep inside and was effective for melting the top surface. A finite element method was employed to evaluate time dependent thermal distribution in silicon substrate.

Keywords: laser, Absorption, Finite Element Method, Silicon, recrystallization, resistivity, annealing, melting point, thermal distribution, latent heat of fusion

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2 Reactive Absorption of Hydrogen Sulfide in Aqueous Ferric Sulfate Solution

Authors: F. Gholami, M. Torabi Angaji, Z. Gholami, S. A. Razavi Alavi

Abstract:

Many commercial processes are available for the removal of H2S from gaseous streams. The desulfurization of gas streams using aqueous ferric sulfate solution as washing liquor is studied. Apart from sulfur, only H2O is generated in the process, and consequently, no waste treatment facilities are required. A distinct advantage of the process is that the reaction of H2S with is so rapid and complete that there remains no danger of discharging toxic waste gas. In this study, the reactive absorption of hydrogen sulfide into aqueous ferric sulfate solution has been studied and design calculations for equipments have been done and effective operation parameters on this process considered. Results show that high temperature and low pressure are suitable for absorption reaction. Variation of hydrogen sulfide concentration and Fe3+ concentration with time in absorption reaction shown that the reaction of ferric sulfate and hydrogen sulfide is first order with respect to the both reactant. At low Fe2(SO4)3 concentration the absorption rate of H2S increase with increasing the Fe2(SO4)3 concentration. At higher concentration a decrease in the absorption rate was found. At higher concentration of Fe2(SO4)3, the ionic strength and viscosity of solution increase remarkably resulting in a decrease of solubility, diffusivity and hence absorption rate.

Keywords: Absorption, H2S, reactive absorption, Fe2(SO4)3

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1 The Effect of Vibration on the Absorption of CO2 with Chemical Reaction in Aqueous Solution of Calcium Hydroxide

Authors: B. Sohbi, M. Emtir, M. Elgarni

Abstract:

An interesting method to produce calcium carbonate is based in a gas-liquid reaction between carbon dioxide and aqueous solutions of calcium hydroxide. The design parameters for gas-liquid phase are flow regime, individual mass transfer, gas-liquid specific interfacial area. Most studies on gas-liquid phase were devoted to the experimental determination of some of these parameters, and more specifically, of the mass transfer coefficient, kLa which depends fundamentally on the superficial gas velocity and on the physical properties of absorption phase. The principle investigation was directed to study the effect of the vibration on the mass transfer coefficient kLa in gas-liquid phase during absorption of CO2 in the in aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide. The vibration with a higher frequency increase the mass transfer coefficient kLa, but vibration with lower frequency didn-t improve it, the mass transfer coefficient kLa increase with increase the superficial gas velocity.

Keywords: Absorption, CO2, calcium hydroxide, mass transfer coefficient, Environment technology

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