Temporal Variation of Shorebirds Population in Two Different Mudflats Areas
A study was conducted to determine the diversity and abundance of shorebird species habituating the mudflat area of Jeram Beach and Remis Beach, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Direct observation technique (using binoculars and video camera) was applied to record the presence of bird species in the sampling sites from August 2013 until July 2014. A total of 32 species of shorebird were recorded during both migratory and non-migratory seasons. Of these, eleven species (48%) are migrants, six species (26%) have both migrant and resident populations, four species (17%) are vagrants and two species (9%) are residents. The compositions of the birds differed significantly in all months (χ2 = 84.35, p < 0.001). There is a significant difference in avian abundance between migratory and non-migratory seasons (Mann-Whitney, t = 2.39, p = 0.036). The avian abundance were differed significantly in Jeram and Remis Beaches during migratory periods (t = 4.39, p = 0.001) but not during non-migratory periods (t = 0.78, p = 0.456). Shorebird diversity was also affected by tidal cycle. There is a significance difference between high tide and low tide (Mann-Whitney, t = 78.0, p < 0.005). Frequency of disturbance also affected the shorebird distribution (Mann-Whitney, t = 57.0, p = 0.0134). Therefore, this study concluded that tides and disturbances are two factors that affecting temporal distribution of shorebird in mudflats area.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1096958Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1807
 C.R. Velasquez. “Managing artificial saltpans as a waterbirds habitat: species responses to water level manipulation”. Colonial Waterbirds, vol.15, no.1, pp. 43-55, 1992.
 J.A. Masero, M. Perez-Gonzalez, M. Basadre, and M. Otero Saavedra. “Food supply for waders (Aves: Charadrii) in an estuarine area in the Bay of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula),” Acta Oecologia., vol. 204, pp. 429-434, 1999.
 K.R. Dyer, M.C. Christe, and E.W. Wright. “The classification if mudflats,” Cont. Shelf Res., vol. 20, pp. 1061-1078, 2000.
 M.L. Stutz, and O.H. Pilkey. “Global distribution and morphology of deltaic barrier island systems,” J. Coast. Res., vol. 36, pp. 694-707, 2002.
 J.D. Goss-Custard, and N. Verboven. “Disturbance and feeding shorebirds on the Exe estuary,” Wader Study Group Bulletin, vol. 68, pp. 59-66, 1993.
 J. Spencer. “Migratory shorebird ecology in the Hunter estuary, South- Eastern Australia,” Australian Catholic University, Sydney, New South Wales, PhD Thesis, 2010.
 J. Van de Kam, B.J. Ens, T. Piersma, and L. Zwarts. “Shorebirds: an illustrated behavioural ecology,” Utrecht, Netherland: KNNV Publishers, 2004, pp. 1-368.
 Y. Zharikov, and G.A. Skilleter. “A relationship between prey density and territory size in non-breeding Eastern Curlews Numenius madagascariensis,” Ibis, vol. 146, pp. 518-521, 2004.
 J.D. Goss-Custard. “The energetics of prey selection by Redshank, Tringa totanus (L.), in relation to prey density,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 46, pp. 1-19, 1977.
 D.M. Bryant. “Effects of prey density and site character on estuary usage by overwintering waders (Charadrii),” Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, vol. 9, pp. 369-384, 1979.
 R.M. Lomoljo. “Diversity of migratory shorebirds and their habitat characteristics in Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak, Malaysia,” University Putra Malaysia,” University Putra Malaysia, PhD Thesis, 2011.
 G.H. Pyke, H.R. Pulliam and E.L. Charnov. “Optimal foraging: A selective review of theory and tests,” The Quarterly Review of Biology, vol. 2, pp. 137-154, 1977.
 P.G. Finn. “Habitat selection, foraging ecology and conservation of Eastern Curlews on their non-breeding grounds,” Griffith University, PhD Thesis, 2010.
 A. Barbosa. “Foraging habitat use in a Mediterranean Estuary by Dunlin, Calidris alpina,” Journal of Coastal Research, vol. 12, pp. 996-999, 1996.
 H. Rippe, and V. Dierschke. “Picking out the plum jobs: feeding ecology of curlews Numenius arquata in a Baltic Sea wind flat,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 159, Pp. 239-247, 1997.
 J.A. Van Gils, A. Dekinga, and T. Piersma. “Foraging in a tidally structured environment by red knots (Calidris canutus): ideal, but not free,” Ecology, vol. 87, pp. 1189-1202, 2006.
 S.J. de Vlas, E.J. Bunskoeke, B.J. Ens, and J.B. Hukscher. “Tidal changes in the choice of Nereis diversicolor or Macoma balthica as main prey species in the diet of the Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus,” Ardea, vol. 84A, pp. 106-116, 1996.
 A. Luis, J.D. Goss-Custard and M.H. Moreira. “A method for assessing the quality of roosts used by waders during high tide,” Wader Study Group Bulletin, vol. 96, pp 71-73, 2001.
 J. Burger, M.A. Howe, D.C. Hahn and Chase, J. “Effects of tide cycle on habitat selection and habitat partitioning by migrating shorebirds,” The Auk, vol. 94, pp. 743-758, 1977.
 C.A. Davis, and L.M. Smith. “Foraging strategies and niche dynamics of coexisting shorebirds at stopover sites in the southern Great Plains,” Auk, vol. 118, pp. 484-495, 2001
 K. Sampath, and K. Krishinamurthy. “Shorebirds of the salt ponds at the Great Vendaranyam Salt swamps, Tamilnadu, India,” Stilt, vol. 15, pp. 20-23, 1989.
 K.M. Riak, A. Ismail, A. Arshad, and A.R. Ismail. “Species composition and use of mudflat of Kapar, West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia by migratory shorebirds,” The Stilt, vol. 44, pp. 44-49, 2003.
 Z.W.D. Li and R. Ounsted. “The status of coastal waterbirds and wetlands in Southeast Asia: Results of waterbirds surveys in Malaysia (2004-2006) and Thailand and Myanmar (2006),” Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Wetland International, 2007, pp. 1-40.
 R. Nagarajan, and K. Thiyagesan. “Waterbirds and substrate quality of the Pichavaram wetlands, Southern India,” Ibis, vol. 138, pp. 710-721, 1996.
 J. Pandiyan, S. Asokan and R. Nagarajan. “Habitat utilization and assemblage patterns of migratory shorebirds at stop-over sites in Southern India,” Stilt, vol. 58, pp. 36-44, 2010.
 W.F. De Boer, and F.A. Longamane. “The exploitation of intertidal food resources in Inhaca Bay, Mozambique, by shorebirds and humans,” Biological Conservation, vol. 78, pp. 295-303, 1996.
 R.N. Conner, and J.G. Dickson. “Strip transect sampling and analysis for avian habitat studies,” Wildlife Society Bulletin, vol. 8, pp. 4-10, 1980.
 C.E. Shannon, and W. Weaver. “The mathematical theory of communication,” Urbana: The University of Illinois Press, 1949, pp 95- 113.
 T. Alerstam. “Bird migration,” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 420.
 O. Duriez, H. Weimerskirch and H. Fritz. “Regulation of chick provisioning in the thin-billed prion: an interannual comparison and manipulation of parents,” Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie, vol. 78, pp. 1275-1283, 2000.
 V. Kannan, and J. Pandiyan. “Shorebirds (Charadriidae) of Pulicat Lake, India with special reference to conservation,” World of Journal of Zoology, vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 178-191, 2012.
 D. Wedin, and D. Tilman. “Competition among grasses along a nitrogen gradient: initial conditions and mechanisms of competition,’. Ecol. Monogr., vol. 63, pp. 199-229, 1993.
 J.T. Forsman, R.L. Thomson, and J.L. Seppänen. “Mechanisms and fitness effects of interspecific information use between migrant and resident birds,” Behavioral Ecology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 888-894, 2007.
 B. Kalejta.“Aggressive behaviour of migrant and resident waders at the Berg River Estuary, South Africa,” Wader Study Group Bull., vol. 98, pp. 25-29, 2002.
 J.D. Goss-Custrad. “ Feeding dispersion in some overwintering wading birds,” in Social behaviour in birds and mammals, J.H. Crook, ed. London: Academic Press, 1970, pp. 3-35.
 L.A. Brennan, J.B. Buchanan, S.G. Herman and T.M. Johnson. “Interhabitat movements of wintering dunlins in western Washington,” Murrelet, vol. 66, pp. 11-66, 1985.
 J. Burger. “Abiotic factors affecting migrant shorebirds,” in shorebirds: migration and foraging behaviour, J. Burger and B.L. Olla, Ed. New York: Plenum Press, 1984, pp. 233-270.
 D. Hill, D. Hockin, D. Price, G. Tucker, R. Morris, and J. Treweek. “Bird disturbance: improving the quality and utility of disturbance research,” J. Appl. Ecol., vol 34, pp. 275-288, 1997.
 E.A. Barbee. “Effects of human disturbance on shorebird populations of Hatteras, Ocracoke, and North Core Bank Islands, North Carolina,” University of North Carolina, Wilmington, USA, PhD Thesis, 1994.
 N.M. Tarr, T.R. Simons, and K.H. Pollock. “An experimental Assessment of vehicle disturbance effects on migratory shorebirds,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 74, No. 8, pp. 1776-1783, 2010.
 S.G. Miller, R.L. Knight, and C.K. Miller. “Wildlife responses to pedestrians and dogs,” Wildlife Society Bulletin, vol. 29, pp. 124-132, 2001.
 A.C. Gray. “Impact of human disturbance on the behavior of sanderlings on the Georgia Cost,” Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia, USA, Thesis, 2006.
 A. Lord, J. Innes, J.R. Waas, and M.J. Whittingham. “Effects of human approaches to nests of northern New Zealand dotterels,” Biological Conservation, vol. 98, pp. 233-240, 2001.
 C. Pfister, B.A. Harrington, and M. Lavine. “The impact of human disturbance on shorebirds at a migration staging area,” Biological Conservation, vol. 60, pp. 115-126, 1992.