Use of Plant Antimicrobials for Food Preservation
Spoilage occurs in plant produce due to the action of field and storage microorganisms. The conditions of storage can also cause physiological spoilage. Various methods exist to ensure that these food substances maintain their quality long after harvesting. However, many of these methods either fail to keep the plant for the required period or predispose the plant to other spoilage risks. The major shortcoming posed by the use of many antimicrobials is the chemical residues it deposits in the food substance. The use of plants in preservation has been in use for a long period, though little understood then, it served its purposes. A better understanding of the roles of these plant parts in increasing the shelf life of farm produce has helped in the creation of more effective and safer means of pest and microbial control. This can be extended to plants that have not been used for these purposes initially. Microbial sources should also be investigated as these have provided cheaper sources of secondary metabolites.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1089156Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3609
 M. O. Ofor, 2011. "Traditional method of preservation and storage of farm produce in Africa” New York Science Journal, vol. 4, No. 3 pp 58 -62, 2011.
 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Handling and Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables by Combined Methods for Rural Areas. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin, vol. 149, 2003.
 B. N. Makwaia, "Sun-drying of Fruits, Vegetables, Spices, Tubers and other Perishable Products in Tanzania” In: Expert Consultation on Planning the Development of Sun-Drying Techniques In Africa. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1985.
 O. C Aworh, "Assuring food security through food processing and preservation”, Food Security, vol 1. No. 2, pp 56-62, 2005.
 H. Förster, G. F. Driever, D. C. Thompson, and J. E. Adaskaveg, "Postharvest decay management for stone fruit crops in California using the "reduced-risk” fungicides fludioxonil and fenhexamid”, Plant Dis, vol. 91, pp 209–215, 2007.
 A. M. Gatto, A. Ippolito, V. Linsalata, N. A. Cascarano, F. Nigro, S. Vanadia, and D. Di Venere, 2011. "Activity of extracts from wild edible herbs against postharvest fungal diseases of fruit and vegetables”, Postharvest Biology and Technology. vol. 61, pp 72-82, 2011.
 N. N. Ragsdale, and H. D. Sisler, "Social and political implications of managing plant diseases with decreased availability of fungicides in the United States”, Annu. Rev. Phytopathol, vol. 32, pp 545–557, 1994.
 W. S. Conway, B. Leverentz, W. J. Janisiewicz, R. A. Saftner, and M. J. Camp, "Improving biocontrol using antagonist mixtures with heat and/or sodium bicarbonate to control postharvest decay of apple fruit”, Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol. 36, pp 235-244, 2005.
 A. Ippolito, L. Schena, I. Pentimone, F. Nigro, 2005. "Control of postharvest rots of sweet cherries by pre- and postharvest applications of Aureobasidium pullulans in combination with calcium chloride or sodium bicarbonate” Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol. 36, pp 245–252, 2005.
 J. L. Smilanick, M. F. Mansour, F. M. Gabler, and D. Sorenson, "Control of citrus postharvest green mold and sour rot by potassium sorbate combined with heat and fungicides”, Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol. 47, pp 226–238, 2008.
 E. Guenther, The Essential Oils. Vol. I. D. Van Nostrand Company Inc., New York, 1948.
 K. A. Hammer, C. F. Carson, and T. V. Riley 1999. "Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts”, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 86, pp 985-990, 1999.
 P. Magiatis, A.L. Skaltsounis, I. Chinou, S.A. Haroutounian, "Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of three greek Achillea species”, Z. Naturforsch, vol. 57, 287- 290, 2002.
 S. Burt, "Essential oils: their antimicrobial properties and potential applications in foods-a review”, Int. J. Food Microbiol, vol. 94, pp223-253, 2004
 K. Das, R.K.S. Tiwari, and D.K. Shrivastava, "Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agent: Current methods and future trends”, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 4, No. 2, pp 104 – 111, 2010.
 R, Croteau, T.M. Kutchan, and N.G. Lewis, Natural Products (Secondary Metabolites). Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. Buchanan, B., Gruissem, W. and Jones, R. (eds). American Society of Plant Biologists, 2000, p1250 – 1318.
 T.A. Geissman, Meeting of the Plant Phenolics Group of North America., 1963
 L. J. Nohynek, H. Alakomi, M. P. Kahkonen, M. Heinonen, I. M. Helander, K. Oksman-Caldentey, and R.H. Puupponen-Pimia, "Berry Phenolics: Antimicrobial properties and mechanisms of action against severe human pathogens”, Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 54, No. 1 pp 18 -32, 2006.
 A. Scalbert, "Antimicrobial properties of tannins” Phytochemistry, vol. 30, pp 3875–3883, 1991.
 N.V.R.R. Urs and J.M. Dunleavy, "Enhancement of The Bacterial Activity of the peroxidase system by phenolic compounds (Xanthomonas phaseoli var. sojensis, soybeans)” Phytopathology, vol. 65, pp 686 – 690, 1975.
 R. Dixon, P. Dey, and C. Lamb, "Phytoalexins: Enzymology and molecular biology”, Advanced Enzymology, vol. 55 pp 1 – 69, 1983.
 R. N Bennett and R.M Wallsgrove, "Secondary metabolites in plant defence mechanisms”, New Phytologist, vol 127 pp 617 – 633, 1994.
 T. L. Mason and B.P. Wasserman, "Inactivation of red beet betaglucan synthase by native and oxidized phenolic compounds”, Phytochemistry vol. 26, pp 2197-2202, 1987.
 E.O Ajaiyeoba and D.A Fadare, "Antimicrobial potential of extracts and fractions of the African walnut – Tetracarpidium conophorum”, African Journal of Biotechnology, vol 5, pp 2322-2325, 2006.
 O. James and E.T. Friday, "Phytochemical composition, bioactivity and wound healing potential of Euphorbia heterophylla (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract”, International Journal on Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research, vol. 1, No. 1, pp 54-63, 2010.
 R.R. Pandey, R.C. Dubey, and S. Saini, 2010. "Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on essential oils of some aromatic plants”, African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 9, pp 4364-4368, 2010.
 D.F. Basri and S.H Fan, "The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Queercus infectoria as antibacterial agents”, Ind. J. Pharm, vol.37, pp 26 – 29, 2005.
 R. O’Kennedy, and R.D. Thornes, 1997. Suggested Modes of Action of Coumarins and some comments on their significance, 1997, In: Coumarins Biology, Applications and Mode of Action. O’Kennedy, R. and Thornes, R.D. (eds). 348pp. John Wiley and Sons.
 R.H. Cichewicz, and P. A. Thorpe, "The antimicrobial properties of chilli peppers (Capsicum species) and their uses in Mayan medicine”, J. Ethnopharmacol, vol. 52 pp 61–70, 1996.
 R. Jasmine, P.N. Selvakumar, and P. Daisy, 2011. "Investigating the mechanism of action of terpenoids and the effect of interfering substances on an Indian medicinal plant extract demonstrating antibacterial activity”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Studies and research, vol. 2, No. 2, pp 19-24, 2011.
 P.H.S. Ravikumar, H.K. Makari, and H. Gurumurthy, "In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of Thevetia peruviana”, vol. 6, No. 9, pp 2318-2322, 2007.
 D.R. Batish, H.P Singh, R.K. Kohli and S. Kaur, "Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural pesticide”, Forest Ecol. Manage, vol. 256, pp 2166-2174, 2008.
 J. Kanaani, and H. Ginsburg, "Effects of cinnamic acid derivatives on in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum and on the permeability of the membrane of malaria infected erythrocites” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol. 36, pp 1102–1108, 1992.
 J. Sikkema, J.A.M. de Bont and B. Poolman, "Mechanisms of membrane toxicity of hydrocarbons”, Microbiol. Rev, vol. 59, pp 201-222, 1995.
 B.K. Rana, U.B. Singh, and V. Taneja, "Antifungal activity and kinetics of inhibition by essential oil isolated from leaves of Aegle marmelos”, J. Ethnopharmacol, vol. 57, pp 29-34, 1997.
 L.G. Matasyoh, J.C. Matasyoh, F.N. Wachira, M.G. Kinyua, A.W.T. Muigai, T.K. Mukiama, ”Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. growing in Eastern Kenya”, African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 6, No. 6, pp 760-765, 2007.
 P.D. Yuvamoto and S. Said, "Germination, duplication cycle and septum formation are altered by caffeine, caffeic acid and cinnamic acid in Aspergillus nidulans”, Microbiology, vol. 76, pp 735–738, 2007.
 J. Phillipson, and M. O’Neill, "New leads to the treatment of protozoal infections based on natural product molecules”, Acta Pharm Nord, vol. 1, pp 131 – 144, 1987
 K.P. Chong, S. Rossall, and M. Atong, 2009 "In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Fungitoxicity of Syringic Acid, Caffeic Acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic Acid against Ganoderma Boninense”, Journal of Agricultural Science vol. 1, No. 2 pp15-20, 2009.
 O.C. Nwinyi, and B.A Abikoye, "Antifungal effects of pawpaw seed extracts and papain on post harvest Carica papaya L. fruit rot” African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 5, No. 12, pp 1531-1535, 2010.
 L. Lange, 1996. "Microbial metabolites – an infinite source of novel chemistry”, Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 68, No. 3, pp 745-748, 1996.
 S. Zwenger and C. Basu, 2008 "Plant Terpenoids: Application and future potentials”, Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Review, vol. 3 No. 1, pp 1 – 7.
 K.S. Lam, Discovery of novel metabolites from marine actinomycetes. Current opinion in Microbiology, vol. 9,pp 245-251, 2006.