Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30526
Appraisal of Energy Efficiency of Urban Development Plans: The Fidelity Concept on Izmir-Balcova Case
Abstract:Design and land use are closely linked to the energy efficiency levels for an urban area. The current city planning practice does not involve an effective land useenergy evaluation in its 'blueprint' urban plans. The study proposed an appraisal method that can be embedded in GIS programs using five planning criteria as how far a planner can give away from the planning principles (criteria) for the most energy output s/he can obtain. The case of Balcova, a district in the Izmir Metropolitan area, is used conformingly for evaluating the proposed master plan and the geothermal energy (heating only) use for the concern district. If the land use design were proposed accordingly at-most energy efficiency (a 30% obtained), mainly increasing the density around the geothermal wells and also proposing more mixed use zones, we could have 17% distortion (infidelity to the main planning principles) from the original plan. The proposed method can be an effective tool for planners as simulation media, of which calculations can be made by GIS ready tools, to evaluate efficiency levels for different plan proposals, letting to know how much energy saving causes how much deviation from the other planning ideals. Lower energy uses can be possible for different land use proposals for various policy trials.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1329178Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1503
 B. Sadownik and M. Jackard, "Sustainable energy and urban form in China," Energy Policy, Vol. 29, pp. 55-65, 2001.
 U. Serpen, "Jeothermal Enerji Yasa Tasla─ƒ─▒ ile ─░lgili ├ûneriler," Turkey 9. Enerji Kongresi, 24-27 Sept., Istanbul, pp. 201-210, 2003.
 S. E. Owens, Energy, Planning and Urban Form, London: Pion Publ., 1986.
 M. J. Pasqualetti, "Planning for the development of site-spesific resources: the examples of geothermal energy," Applied Geography, Vol.38, N. 1, pp. 82-87, 1986.
 General Directorate of Mineral Research and Explotation, The Report of Geothermal Conservation Zone, Ankara: MTA publ, 2008.
 M. Toksoy, F. Kutluay, C. Canakci, "Jeotermal Enerji Bölge Is─▒tma Sistemlerinde ─░┼ƒletme: Balcova ├ûrnegi," in Jeotermal Enerji, M. Toksoy, Ed. Izmir: Makine M├╝h. Odas─▒, 2001, pp. 287-305.
 Amer. Plan. Ass. 2007.. J. Hine and M. Grieco, "Scatters and clusters in time and space: implications for delivering integrated and inclusive transport." Transport Journal, Vol. 10, pp. 299-306, 2003.
 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy, Emissions, and Social Consequences of Telecommuting, Department of Energy, Washington D.C., 1994.
 D. K. Odell, Studies on the Biology of California Sea Lion and the Northern Elephant Seal on San Nicholas Island, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1975.
 E. I. Means, Water and Wastewater Industry Energy Efficiency: A Research Roadmap, Awwa Research Foundation and California Energy Commission, CA, 2004.
 G. Hemmens, "Experiments in urban form and structure," Highway Research Record. Vol. 207, pp. 32-41, 1967.
 S. E. Owens, "Models and urban energy policy: A Review and Critique," in Spatial Energy Analysis, L. Lundqvist, L. G. Mattsson, and E. a. Eriksson, Eds. Avebury: Aldershot, pp. 227-245, 1989.
 OECD, Urban Energy Handbook, Paris: OECD Publ. Service, 1995.
 H. Beck, Folklore and the Sea, New York: Mystic Seaport Museum, 1973.
 J. W. Clark, Defining an urban growth strategy which will achieve maximum travel demand reduction and Access opportunity enhancement, (ed.) Dept. of Civil Engineering, Washington Univ. Seattle, 1974.
 Royal Town Planning Institute, Dealing with Racist Representations, London, The Royal Town Planning Institute, 1996.
 L. Bergman, An Energy Demand Model for the Swedish Residential Sector, Swedish Council for Building Research, Stockholm, 1976.
 CHP Group, Combined Heat and Electrical Power Generation in the UK, Energy Paper 20, District Heating Working Party of the Combined Heat and Power Group (ed.), London: HMSO, 1979.
 B. Jessop, "Capitalism and democracy: the best possible political shell?," in Power and State, G. Littlejohn, Ed., London: Croom Helm, pp. 9-51, 1978.
 D. Turrent, J. Doggart, R. Ferraro, Passive Solar Housing in the UK, Energy Conscious Design, London, 1981.
 D. A. Jebson, "The effect of variations in the distribution of heat demand on the cost of district heating networks," Proc. of the Forth District Heating Association-s National Conference, Torquay, Garstton, June 1981.
 L. Lundqvist, G. Mattsson, A. Eriksson, Spatial Energy Analysis, Vermont: Gower Publ. Co., NY, 1985
 A. Fanchiotti, Day Lighting in Architecture, A European Reference Book, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 1993.
 P. W. G. Newman and J. R. Kenworthy, "Gasoline consumption and cities," J. of APA, Vol. 55, N.1, pp. 24-37, 1989.
 U. McGeough, D. Newman, J. Wrobel, Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy Practices into Metropolitan Planning, Gas Technology Institute, Sustainable Energy PlanningOffice, Des Plaines, IL, 2004.
 A. Lantzberg, Sustainable Urban Energy Planning: A Roadmap for Research and Funding, California Energy Commission, CA, 2005
 M. C. Romanos, "Energy-price effects on metropolitan spatial structure and form," Environment Planning A. Vol.10. pp. 93-104, 1978.
 J. Longmore and J. Musgrove, "City development and planning as aids to transport system design and energy conservation," Habitat International, Vol.7, N.3-4, pp. 89-98, 1983
 W. P. Anderson, "Urban form, energy and the environment: A review of issues, evidence and policy," Urban Studies, Vol.33, N.1, pp. 7-35, 1996.
 R.J. Kenworthy and F. Laube, "A global review of energy use in urban transport systems and its implications for urban transport and land-use policy," Transportation Quarterly, Vol.53, N.4, pp. 23, 1999.
 J. Holtzclaw, "Extensions to the concept of excess commuting," Environment and Planning, Vol. 34, pp. 543-566, 2002.
 J. R. Beaumont and P. Keys, Future Cities: Spatial Analyses of Energy Issues, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1982.
 P. Nijkamp, Sustainable city initiatives in Europe, London: Earthscan Publ., 1983.
 A. M. Jansson and J. Zuchetto. "Man, nature and energy flow on the island of Gotland," Ambio, Vol.7, pp. 140-149, 1979.
 S. Boyden, S. Millar, K. Newcombe, B. O-Neill, The ecology of a city and its people: the case of Hong Kong, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1981
 P. Rickaby and T. de la Barra, "A theoretical comparison of strategic spatial options for city-regional development, using the Tranus model," in Spatial Energy Analysis, L. Lundqvist, L. G. Mattsson, E. A. Erikson (Eds.), Avebury: Aldershot, 1989.
 R. Klosterman, "Planning support systems: a new perspective on computer-aided planning," in Planning Support Systems, Esri Press, CA, 2001
 J. W. Creswell, Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Method Approaches, London: Sage Publ., 2003
 M. Kleinpeter, Energy Planning and Policy, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1995
 The Energy Yardstick Report, Report of the Ontario energy board performance based regulation yardstick task force, Ontario Energy Board, May 1999
 E. G├╝l┼ƒen, "Planning and design of a new geothermal neighborhood heating system of 25000 dwellings in Bal├ºova", M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir, Turkey, 2005
 K. Steemers, "Energy and the city: density, buildings and transport," Energy and Buildings, Vol.35, pp.3-14