Organizational Strategy for Technology Convergence
The purpose of this article is to identify the practical strategies of R&D (research and development) entities for developing converging technology in organizational context. Based on the multi-assignation technological domains of patents derived from entire government-supported R&D projects for 13 years, we find that technology convergence is likely to occur when a university solely develops technology or when university develops technology as one of the collaborators. These results reflect the important role of universities in developing converging technology
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1059843Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1564
 J. T. Klein, Crossing boundaries. Knowledge, Disciplinarities and Interdisciplinarities. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1996.
 S. M. Reich and J. A. Reich, "Cultural competence in interdisciplinary collaboration: A method for respecting diversity in research partnerships," American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 38, pp. 52-58, 2006
 T. Stone, K., Bollard, and J. M. "Harbor. Launching interdisciplinary programs as college signature areas: an Example," Innovative Higher Education, vol. 34, pp. 321-328, 2009.
 J. Lind, "Convergence: history of term usage and lessons for firm strategists," 15th Biennial ITS Conference, Berlin, Germany, 2004.
 L. Sanz-Menéndez, Bordons, M., and A. M. Zulueta, "Interdisciplinarity as a multidimensional concept: its measure in three different research areas," Research Evaluation, vol. 10, pp. 47-58. 2001.
 F. Morillo, M. Bordons, and I. G├│mez, "Interdisciplinarity in science: A tentative typology of disciplines and research areas," Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol. 54, pp. 1237-1249, 2003.
 W. S. Bainbridge, "Transformative concepts in scientific convergence," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1093, pp. 24-45. 2006
 P. Llerena and F. Meyer-Krahmer, "Interdisciplinary research and the organization of the university: general challenges and a case study," in: A. Geuna, J. A. Salter, and W. Steinmueller, (Eds), Science and Innovation: Rethinking the Rationales for Funding and Governance. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, pp. 69-88, 2003.
 L. Grigg, "Cross-disciplinary research. A discussion paper," Australian Research Council Commissioned Report No. 61, Australian Research Council, Canberra, 1999.
 D. Stokols, S. Misra, R. P. Moser, K. L. Hall, and B. K. Taylor, "The ecology of team science: Understanding contextual influences on transdisciplinary collaboration," American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 35, pp. 96-115, 2008.
 N. Carayol, and T. Thi, "Why do academic scientists engage in interdisciplinary research?" Research Evaluation, vol. 14, pp. 70-79, 2005.
 T. van Leeuwen and R. Tijssen, "Interdisciplinary dynamics of modern science: analysis of cross-disciplinary citation flows," Research Evaluation, vol. 9, pp. 183-187, 2000.
 N. Metzger and R. N. Zare, Science policy - interdisciplinary research: from belief to reality. Science, vol. 283, pp. 642-643, 1999.
 D. Rhoten, "Interdisciplinary research: trend or transition," Items - Social Science Research Council, vol. 5, pp. 6-11, 1999.
 F. Kodama, "Technology fusion and the new R&D," Harvard Business Review, vol. 70, pp. 70-78.
 J. Qin, F. W. Lancaster, and B. Allen, "Types and levels of collaboration in interdisciplinary research in the sciences," Journal of the American Society for Information Science, vol. 48, pp. 893-916, 1997.
 C. S. Curran and J. Leker, "Patent indicators for monitoring convergence - examples from NFF and ICT," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 78, pp. 256-273, 2011.
 A. L. Porter and L. Rafols, "Is science becoming more interdisciplinary? Measuring and mapping six research fields over time," Scientometrics vol. 81, 719-745, 2009.
 H. Ernst, "Patent information for strategic technology management," World Patent Information, vol. 25, pp. 233-242, 2003.
 S. Lee, and M. S. Kim, "Inter-technology networks to support innovation strategy: An analysis of Korea-s new growth engines," Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice, vol. 12, pp. 88-104, 2012.
 A. L. Porter, A. S. Cohen, D. Roessner, and M. Perreault, "Measuring researcher interdisciplinarity," Scientometrics vol. 72, pp. 117-147, 2007.
 M. Gibbons, C. Limoges, H. Nowotny, S. Schwartzman, P. Scott, and M. Trow, The new production of knowledge. London: Sage, 1994.
 B. Wernerfelt, "The resource-based view of the firm: Ten years after," Strategic Management Journal, vol. 16, pp. 171-174, 1995.
 H. Etzkowitz and L. Leydesdorff, "The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and ÔÇÿÔÇÿMode 2-- to a Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations," Research Policy, vol. 29, pp. 109-123, 2000.
 B. Eom and K. Lee, "Determinants of industry-academy linkages and, their impact on firm performance: The case of Korea as a latecomer in knowledge industrialization," Research Policy, vol. 39, pp. 625-639, 2010.
 D. H. Lee, Z. Bae, and J. Lee, "Performance and adaptive roles of the government-supported research institute in South Korea," World Development, vol. 19, pp. 1421-1440, 1991.
 G. A. Stevens and J. Burley, "3,000 raw ideas = 1 commercial success!" Research-Technology Management, vol. 40, pp. 16-27, 1997
 L. H├Ñkanson, "Managing cooperative research and development: partner selection and contract design," R&D Management, vol. 23, pp. 273-285, 1993.
 B. S. Tether, "Who co-operates for innovation, and why: An empirical analysis," Research Policy, vol. 31, pp. 947-967, 2002.
 L. Miotti and F. Sachwald, "Co-operative R&D: why and with whom? An integrated framework of analysis," Research Policy, vol. 32, pp. 1481-1499, 2003.
 Y. Seo, and D. Yang, "The empirical study on relationship between CT R&D subsidy program and R&D performance in S. Korea," Journal of Korea Technology Innovation Society, vol. 19, pp. 53-76, 2011.
 A. Nordmann, Converging Technologies-Chaping the Future of European Societies. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (EUR 21357), 2004.
 G. Tegart, "Converging technologies and their implications for technology transfer: The cases of European networks (N EuroNet) and NBIC(nano-bio-info-cogno) technologies as drivers of change," Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice, vol. 7, pp. 468-476, 2005.
 W. Becker and J. Diet, "R&D cooperation and innovation activities of firmsÔÇöevidence for the German manufacturing industry," Research Policy, vol. 33, pp. 209-223, 2004.
 R. Belderbos, M. Carreeb, and B. Lokshin, "Cooperative R&D and firm performance," Research Policy, vol. 33, pp. 1477-1492, 2004
 C. K. Prahalad and G. Hamel, "The core competence of the corporation," Harvard Business Review, 1990.
 D. F. Teece, G. Pisano, and A. Shuen, "Dynamic capabilities and strategic management," Strategic Management Journal, vol. 18, pp. 509-533, 1997
 J. P. Liebeskind, A. L. Oliver, L. Zucker, and M. Brewer, "Social networks, learning, and flexibility: Sourcing scientific knowledge in new biotechnology firms," Organization Science, vol. 7, pp. 428-443, 1996.
 T. K. Das and B. Teng, "A resource-based theory of strategic alliances," Journal of Management, vol. 26, pp. 31-61, 2000.
 J. Hagedoorn, A. Link, and N. Vonortas, "Research Partnerships," Research Policy, vol. 29, pp. 567-586, 2002.
 B. Kogut, "Joint ventures: Theoretical and empirical perspectives," Strategic Management Journal, vol. 9, pp. 319-332, 1988.
 R. Belderbos, M. Carree, B. Diederen, B. Lokshin, and R. Veugelers, "Heterogeneity in R&D cooperation strategies," International Journal of Industrial Organization, vol. 22, pp. 1237-1263.
 M. Sakakibara, "Cooperative research and development: who participates and in which industries do projects take place?" Research Policy, vol. 30, pp. 993-1018, 2001.
 A. M. Sanchez and A. P. Tejedor, "University-industry relationships in peripheral regions: The case of aragon in Spain," Technovation, vol. 15, pp. 613-625, 1995.
 M. L. Katz, "Remarks on the economic implications of convergence," Industrial and Corporate Change, vol. 5, pp. 1079-1095, 1996.
 D. Oh, Y. Kim, and H. Ahn, "An analysis of international cooperation in the public research and development programs of Korea," Asian Journal of Technology Innovation, vol. 18, pp. 43-67, 2010.
 W. Greene, Econometric Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003.
 J. Noh, M. Chung, and J. Rah, "Analysis on the patterns of technological innovation in Korean manufacturing sector in accordance with technology intensity," Journal of Korea Technology Innovation Society vol. 18, pp. 33-58, 2010.
 C. Min, "Analysis of the compensation level and portfolio for advanced S&T manpower," Journal of Korea Technology Innovation Society, vol. 18, pp. 219-245, 2010.
 J. B. Burnham, "Evaluating industry/university research linkages. Research-Technology Management," vol. 40, pp. 52-55, 1997.
 K. Brockhoff, and A. K. Chakrabarti, "R&D Marketing linkage and innovation strategy: Some West German experience," IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. 35, pp. 167-174. 1988.
 T. W. Steele and J. C. Stier, "The impact of interdisciplinary research in the environmental sciences: A forestry case study," Journal of the American Society for Information Science, vol. 51, pp. 476-484, 2000.
 M. C. Roco and W. S. Bainbridge, Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance. Arlington, Virginia: National Science Foundation, 2002.