Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30528
The Risk Assessment of Nano-particles and Investigation of Their Environmental Impact
Abstract:Nanotechnology is the science of creating, using and manipulating objects which have at least one dimension in range of 0.1 to 100 nanometers. In other words, nanotechnology is reconstructing a substance using its individual atoms and arranging them in a way that is desirable for our purpose. The main reason that nanotechnology has been attracting attentions is the unique properties that objects show when they are formed at nano-scale. These differing characteristics that nano-scale materials show compared to their nature-existing form is both useful in creating high quality products and dangerous when being in contact with body or spread in environment. In order to control and lower the risk of such nano-scale particles, the main following three topics should be considered: 1) First of all, these materials would cause long term diseases that may show their effects on body years after being penetrated in human organs and since this science has become recently developed in industrial scale not enough information is available about their hazards on body. 2) The second is that these particles can easily spread out in environment and remain in air, soil or water for very long time, besides their high ability to penetrate body skin and causing new kinds of diseases. 3) The third one is that to protect body and environment against the danger of these particles, the protective barriers must be finer than these small objects and such defenses are hard to accomplish. This paper will review, discuss and assess the risks that human and environment face as this new science develops at a high rate.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1331853Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1556
 NIOSH. Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology: An Information Exchange with NIOSH, VERSION 1.1, July 2006 .
 Novel Materials in the Environment: The case of nanotechnology, Twenty-seventh Report, Presented to Parliament by Command of Her Majesty, November 2008.
 Shvedova AA, Kisin ER, Mercer R, Murray AR, Johnson VJ, Potapovich AI, Tyurina YY, Gore┬¼lik O, Arepalli S, Schwegler-Berry D
. Unusual inflammatory and fibrogenic pulmo┬¼nary responses to single walled carbon nano┬¼tubes in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol
 Lam CW, James JT, McCluskey R, Hunter RL
. Pulmonary toxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes in mice 7 and 90 days af-ter intratracheal instillation. Toxicol Sci 77:126-134.
. Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection. Oxford, England: Pergamon, Elsevier Science Ltd., International Commission on Radiological Protection Pub┬¼lication No. 66.
 Daigle CC, Chalupa DC, Gibb FRMorrow PE, Oberdorster G, Utell MJ, Frampton MW
. Ultrafine particle deposition in humans during rest and exercise. Inhalation Toxicol 15(6):539-552.
[1994b]. Method 0600 (Issue 3): particulates not otherwise regulated, respirable: In: NIOSH manual of analytical methods. 4th ed. Schlecht PC, O-Connor PF, eds. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113; 1st Supplement Publication 96-135, 2nd Supplement Publication 98-119; 3rd Supplement 2003-154.
 Keskinen J, Pietarinen K, Lehtimaki M
. Electrical low pressure impactor. J Aerosol Sci 23:353-360.
 Timonen KL, G Hoek, J Heinrich, A Bernard, B Brunekreef, J de Hartog, K Hameri, A Ibald-Mulli, A Mirme, A Peters, P Tiittanen, WB Kreyling, J Pekkanen
. Daily variation in fine and ultrafine particulate air pollution and urinary concentrations of lung Clara cell protein CC16. Occup Environ Med 61(11):908-914.
 Ruckerl R, A Ibald-Mulli, W Koenig, A Schneider, G Woelke, J Cyrys, J Heinrich, V Marder, M Frampton, HE Wichmann, Peters A
. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173(4):432-441.
 Woo K-S, Chen D-R, Pui DYH, Wilson WE
. Use of continuous measurements of integral aerosol parameters to estimate particle surface area. Aerosol Sci. Technol 34:57-65.
 Ratherman S
. Methods of control. In: Plog B, ed. Fundamentals of industrial hygiene. Itasca IL: National Safety Council.
 Burton J
. General methods for the control of airborne hazards. In: DiNardi SR, ed. The occupational environmentÔÇöits evaluation and control. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association.
 ShalevI, Barker RL, McCord MG, Tucker PA, Lisk BR
. Protective textile particulate penetration screening. Performance of protective clothing: 7th Symposium, ASTM STP 1386, West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials.
 Schneider T, Cherrie JW, Vermeulen R, Kromhout H
. Dermal exposure assessment. Ann Occup Hyg 44(7):493-499.
 Hinds WC
. Aerosol technology: properties, behavior, and measurement of airborne particles. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
 Stevens G and Moyer E
. "Worst Case" Aerosol Testing Parameters: I. Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl Phthalate Aerosol Filter Efficiency as a Function of Particle Size and Flow Rate, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 50(5), 257-264.
. Mechanisms of filtration for high efficiency fibrous filters. Application Note ITI-041, TSI Incorporated.
. NIOSH guide to the selection and use of particulate respirators certified under 42 CFR 84. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 96-101.
 Heim, M., Mullins, B, Wild, M, Meyer, J. And Kasper, G
. Filtration Efficiency of Aerosol Particles Below 20 Nanometers, Aerosol Science and Technology, 39:782-789.