Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30458
A Preliminary X-Ray Study on Human-Hair Microstructures for a Health-State Indicator

Authors: Phannee Saengkaew, Sakuntam Sanorpim, Weerasak Ussawawongaraya, Sasiphan Khaweerat, Supagorn Rugmai, Sirisart Ouajai, Jiraporn Luengviriya, Manop Tirarattanasompot, Somboon Rhianphumikarakit

Abstract:

We present a preliminary x-ray study on human-hair microstructures for a health-state indicator, in particular a cancer case. As an uncomplicated and low-cost method of x-ray technique, the human-hair microstructure was analyzed by wide-angle x-ray diffractions (XRD) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The XRD measurements exhibited the simply reflections at the d-spacing of 28 Å, 9.4 Å and 4.4 Å representing to the periodic distance of the protein matrix of the human-hair macrofibrous and the diameter and the repeated spacing of the polypeptide alpha helixes of the photofibrils of the human-hair microfibrous, respectively. When compared to the normal cases, the unhealthy cases including to the breast- and ovarian-cancer cases obtained higher normalized ratios of the x-ray diffracting peaks of 9.4 Å and 4.4 Å. This likely resulted from the varied distributions of microstructures by a molecular alteration. As an elemental analysis by x-ray fluorescence (XRF), the normalized quantitative ratios of zinc(Zn)/calcium(Ca) and iron(Fe)/calcium(Ca) were determined. Analogously, both Zn/Ca and Fe/Ca ratios of the unhealthy cases were obtained higher than both of the normal cases were. Combining the structural analysis by XRD measurements and the elemental analysis by XRF measurements exhibited that the modified fibrous microstructures of hair samples were in relation to their altered elemental compositions. Therefore, these microstructural and elemental analyses of hair samples will be benefit to associate with a diagnosis of cancer and genetic diseases. This functional method would lower a risk of such diseases by the early diagnosis. However, the high-intensity x-ray source, the highresolution x-ray detector, and more hair samples are necessarily desired to develop this x-ray technique and the efficiency would be enhanced by including the skin and fingernail samples with the human-hair analysis.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, XRD, SAXS, Human-hair analysis, health-state indicator

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1085541

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2142

References:


[1] L. Pauling and R.B. Corey, "Two hydrogen-bonded spiral configurations of the polypeptide chain", J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 72, (1950), 5349.
[2] L. Pauling, R.B. Corey, H.R. Branson, "The structure of proteins: two hydrogen bonded helical configurations of the polypeptide chain", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 37, (1951), 205-211.
[3] L Pauling and R.B. Corey, "Compound Helical Configurations of Polypeptide Chains: Structure of Proteins of the ╬▒-Keratin Type", Nature 171, (1953), 59-61.
[4] C. R. Robbins, "Chemical and Physical Behavior of Human Hair", 4th Ed., 2000
[5] F. Baltenneck, Bernard, J.C. Garson, P. Engström, C. Riekel, F. Leroy, A. Franbourg and J.Doucet, "Study of the keratinization process in human hair follicle by x-ray microdiffraction", Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-legrand): 46(5), (2000), 1017-1024.
[6] V.J. James, "Fiber diffraction of skin and nails provides an accurate diagnosis of malignancies", Int. J. Cancer: 125, (2009) 133-138.
[7] V. James, "Review: A place for fiber diffraction in the detection of breast cancer?", Cancer Detection and Prevention 30 (2006), 233-238.
[8] V. James, G. Corino, T. Robertson, N. Dutton, D. Halas, A. Boyd, J. Bentel and J. Papadimitriou, "Early diagnosis of breast cancer by hair diffraction", Int. J. Cancer: 114, (2005), 969-972.
[9] G. L. Corino, P. W. French, M. Lee, M. M. Ajaj, J. Haklani, D. A.H. Mistry, K. Phan and P. G. Yuile, "Characterization of a Test for Invasive Breast Cancer Using X-ray Diffraction of HairÔÇöResults of a clinical Trial", Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research 3 (2009), 83- 90.
[10] V. James, J. Kearsley, T. Irving, Y. Amemiya, D. Cookson, "Using hair to screen for breast cancer", Nature: 398(6722), (1999), 33-40.
[11] P. Meyer, V. James and J., "Experimental confirmation of a distinctive diffraction pattern in the hair from women with breast cancer", J. Nat. Cancer Inst.: 93(11), (2001), 873-875.
[12] G.L. Corino, P.W. French, "Diagnosis of breast cancer by x-ray diffraction of hair", Int. J. Cancer.;122(4), (2008), 847-856.
[13] G. Dongarrà, M. Lombardo, E. Tamburo, D. Varrica, F. Cibella, G. Cuttitta, "Concentration and reference interval of trace elements in human hair from students living in Palermo, Sicily (Italy)", Environmental toxicology and pharmacology; 32, (2011), 27-34.
[14] S. Polizzi, J. Todhunter, P. Panarisi, G. Caruso, A. Schiavone, "Smoking habits and breast cancer: Substantially reduced risk for smokers observed in screening trials using X ray diffraction of hair by synchrotron", Primary therapy of early breast cancer - 11th International Conference, 20(1), (2011), 333.
[15] M. L. Carvalho, A. F. Marques and J. Brito,"Synchrotron Radiation and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Applications on Elemental Distribution in Human Hair and Bones", AIP Conf. Proc. (x-ray and inner-shell processes); 652, (2003), 522-528.
[16] K. Geraki, M. J. Farquharson and D. A. Bradley, "Concentrations of Fe, Cu and Zn in breast tissue: a synchrotron XRF study", Phys. Med. Biol. 47, (2002), 2327-2339.
[17] P. Li, X. Feng, G. Qiu and Q. Wan, "Hair can be a good biomarker of occupational exposure to mercury vapor: Simulated experiments and field data analysis", Sci. Total Environ. 409(20), (2011), 4484-8.
[18] V.J. James, D.K. Yue and S.V. McLennan, "Changes in the molecular structure of hair in insulin dependent diabetes", Biochim. Biophys. Res. Commun. 233, (1997), 76-80.
[19] www.breastcancer.org
[20] S. Wacholder et al., "Performance of Common Genetic Variants in Breast-Cancer Risk Models", N. Engl. J. Med. 362, (2010), 986-93.
[21] V. James, "Synchrotron fibre diffraction identifies and locates foetal collagenous breast tissue associated with breast carcinoma", J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9, (2002), 71-76.
[22] S. Hayes, C. Boote, Y. Huang, K.M. Meek, "The relationship between surface corneal topography and stromal collagen organisation in normal and keratoconus corneas", Fibre Diffraction Rev. 14 (2006), 15-21.
[23] C.J. Connon, T. Nakamura, A. Hopkinson, A. Quantock, N. Yagi, J. Doutch, K.M. Meek, "The biomechanics of amnion rupture: an x-ray diffraction study", PLoS One 2, (2007), e1147.
[24] V.J. James and B.E. Willis, "Molecular changes in skin predict predisposition to breast cancer", J. Med. Genet. 39, 2002, 1e.
[25] V.J. James, "Fibre diffraction from a single hair can provide an early non-invasive test for colon cancer" Med. Sci. Monitor 9, (2003), MT79-MT84.
[26] V.J. James, J.C. Richardson, T.A. Robertson, J.M. Papadimitriou, N.S. Dutton, M.A.L. Maley, L.M. Berstein, O.E. Lantseva and R.N. Martins, "Fibre diffraction of hair can provide a screening test for Alzheimer-s Disease: a human and animal model study", Med. Sci. Monitor, 11, (2005), CR53-CR57.
[27] Y.S. Ryabukin, "Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants", IAEA Report IAEA/RL/50, Vienna; 1978.
[28] Y.S. Ryabukhin, "Nuclear-based methods for the analysis of trace element pollutants in human hair", J. Radioanal. Chem. 60 , (1980), 7- 30.
[29] D.A. Bass, D. Hickok, D. Quig and K. Urek, "Trace Element Analysis in Hair: Factors Determining Accuracy, Precision, and Reliability", Alternative Medicine Review, 6 (5), (2001), 472-481.