E-health in Rural Areas: Case of Developing Countries
The Application of e-health solutions has brought superb advancements in the health care industry. E-health solutions have already been embraced in the industrialized countries. In an effort to catch up with the growth, the developing countries have strived to revolutionize the healthcare industry by use of Information technology in different ways. Based on a technology assessment carried out in Kenya – one of the developing countries – and using multiple case studies in Nyanza Province, this work focuses on an investigation on how five rural hospitals are adapting to the technology shift. The issues examined include the ICT infrastructure and e-health technologies in place, the knowledge of participants in terms of benefits gained through the use of ICT and the challenges posing barriers to the use of ICT technologies in these hospitals. The results reveal that the ICT infrastructure in place is inadequate for e-health implementations as a result to various challenges that exist. Consequently, suggestions on how to tackle the various challenges have been addressed in this paper.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1083781Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3102
 T. Clark, "Adopting health care informatics and technologies", Am J Health-Syst Pharm, vol. 64, Jan. 2007.
 M. L. Bernstein,T. Mccreless, and M. J. C├┤té, "Five Constants of Information Technology Adoption in Healthcare," Winter Journal, vol. 85, no. 1. 2007.
 C. R. Alvarez, "The promise of e-Health- a Canadian perspective". Journal of e-health Int., vol.1, no. 4, 2002.
 S. Denise, "The case for e-health,"2003,
[online] Available at: http://www.eipa.nl/Publications/Summaries/03/2003_E_01.pdf, Accessed on: 23/02/7
 S. Y. Kwankam, "What E- Health can offer," Bulletin of World Health Organ, vol. 82, no.10, Genebra Oct. 2004.
 P. L. Reichertz, "Hospital information systems, Past, Present, Future," International Journal of Informatics, vol.75, pp 282-299, 2006.
 J. K. H. Tan, Health Management information Systems; Methods and practical Applications. 2001.
 N. Mbananga, Introduction to health informatics. Notoro publishers, SA. 2006.
 C. W. Hanson, Healthcare Informatics. Mc Graw Hill. 2006.
 G. Riva," From Tele-health to E-Health: Internet and Distributed Virtual Reality in Health Care", Cyber psychology & Behaviour, vol.3, no.6, 2000. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
 IOM ANNUAL MEETING, "Information Technology: It-s Strategic Role in Biology, Medicine, and Health", 2001.
 S. C. Anthony, M. Bensik, N. Armfield, J. Stillman and L.Caffery, "Telemedicine and rural health care applications," Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 5,no. 4,Oct. - Dec. 2005.
 M. M. Maheu, P. Whitten & A. Allen, E-Health, telehealth and telemedicine: A guide to start up and success, Jossey-Base, 2001.
 K. Novak," Reducing costs through Electronic Health Records and Services ", Benefits and Compensation Digest, 2005,
[online] Available at: www.ifebp.org
 R. Blair "Disaster-Proof Patients", Health Management Technology, vol. 28, no. 2, Feb 2007.
 A. I. Veletsos, "Reliable Mobile Computing," Health Management Technology; vol. 28, no. 2; Feb 2007.
 C. B. Thielst. "The New Frontier of Electronic, Personal, and Virtual Health Records," Journal of Healthcare Management, vol. 52, no. 2, Mar. /Apr. 2007.
 M. Thakkar and D. C. Davis," Risks, Barriers, and Benefits of EHR Systems:A Comparative Study Based on Size of Hospital", Perspectives in Health Information Management 2006,
[online]. Available at: http://library.ahima.org/xpedio/groups/public/documents/ahima/bok1_03 1769.pdf, Accessed on: 20/05/07.
 G. Eysenbach and T. L. Diepgen. "The role of e-health and consumer health informatics for evidence-based patient choice in the 21st century". Clinics in Dermatology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 11-17, 2001.
 M. McMullan." Patients using the Internet to obtain health information: How this affects the patient-health professional relationship". Patient Education and Counselling, vol. 63, no. 1-2, pp. 24-28, Oct. 2006.
 T. R. Welch."Who provides physicians with advice over the internet? A study of a paediatric subspecialty discussion group". Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 151, no.1, pp. 96-97, 2007.
 J. Tan. E-Healthcare information systems; an introduction for students and professionals. Jossey bass. 2005.
 E. Tomasi, L. A. Facchini, and M. de F. S. Maia," Health information technology in primary health care in developing countries," Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 82, no. 11, Nov. 2004.
 World Health Organisation,"Global observatory for e-health,"2006,
[online] Available at: http://www.who.int/GOe., Accessed on: 15/06/07.
 S.O OJO,University of Botsana, "Rural e-Healthcare Services Open source System (ReHSOS):Research Project Overview". Postgraduate seminar, Tshwane University of Technonology. Pretoria. 2007.
 J. B. Coombs,"Quality of care in rural settings: Bringing the New Quality to rural practice," in Text book of rural medicine, Geyman, T. E. Noris, and L. G. Hart Ed., 2001.
 T. C. Rickets, "The rural patient," in Textbook of rural medicine, Geyman, T. E. Noris, and L. G. Hart Ed., 2001.
 D. Rowland and B. Lyons,"Tripple jeopardy; rural, poor and uninsured," Health services Res, vol. 23, no.6, 1989.
 Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2001. Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century.
[Online]. Available at: http://www.iom.edu, Accessed on: 08/07/07.
 ABARD News. "Why E-Health?" e4, Nov, 2005. Available at: http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:6_JXgS2sGMMJ:www.abard. org/Repository/ABARD%2520Newsletter%25204%2520%2520No vember05.pdf+ABARD+News&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3, Accessed on: 17/05/07.
 ASEM, "ICT and Empowerment for Elderly Care," 2006,
[online] Available at: http://www.asemictmin.vnn.vn/UserFiles/ Document/0ASEM%20ICT%20MIN%20project%20proposal%20- %20%20%20Healthcare.pdf