Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30517
Curriculum Based Measurement and Precision Teaching in Writing Empowerment Enhancement: Results from an Italian Learning Center

Authors: I. Pelizzoni, C. Cavallini, I. Salvaderi, F. Cavallini


We present the improvement in writing skills obtained by 94 participants (aged between six and 10 years) with special educational needs through a writing enhancement program based on fluency principles. The study was planned and conducted with a single-subject experimental plan for each of the participants, in order to confirm the results in the literature. These results were obtained using precision teaching (PT) methodology to increase the number of written graphemes per minute in the pre- and post-test, by curriculum based measurement (CBM). Results indicated an increase in the number of written graphemes for all participants. The average overall duration of the intervention is 144 minutes in five months of treatment. These considerations have been analyzed taking account of the complexity of the implementation of measurement systems in real operational contexts (an Italian learning center) and important aspects of replicability and cost-effectiveness of such interventions.

Keywords: Precision Teaching, writing skills, Italian learning center, CBM

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 104


[1] Kubina, R.M. Jr, Starlin, C.M. (2003), Reading with precision, European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 4, 13-21.
[2] Binder, C. (1996). Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm. The Behavior Analyst, 19(2), 163.
[3] Cavallini, F., & Trubini, C. (2005). Finalmente fluenza tra i banchi. Journal of Applied Radical Behavior Analysis, 1(1), 49-69.
[4] Johnson, K. J., Street, E. M. (2004). The Morningside Model of Generative Instruction: What it means to leave no child behind. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies.
[5] Berens, K. N., Boyce, T. E., Berens, N. M., Doney, J. K., & Kenzer, A. L. (2003). A technology for evaluating relations between response frequency and academic performance outcomes. The Journal of Precision Teaching, 19(1), 20–34.
[6] Cavallini, F., & Perini, S. (2009). Comparison of teaching syllables or words on reading rate. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 10(2), 255-263.
[7] West, R.P., e Young, K.R. (1992). Precision teaching. In R. P. West e L. A. Hamerlynck (Eds.). Designs for excellence in education: The legacy of B. F. Skinner. Longmont, CO: Sopris W est.
[8] Haughton, E. C. (1980). Practicing practices: Learning by activity. Journal of Precision Teaching, 1(3), 3-20.
[9] Lindsley, O. R. (1990). Precision teaching: By teachers for children. Teaching Exceptional Children, 22(3), 10-15.
[10] Binder, C. (1996). Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm. The Behavior Analyst, 19(2), 163.
[11] Berardo, F., Cavallini, F., & Andolfi, S. (2010). Scrittura Fluente significa Scrittura Accurata. Journal of Applied Radical Behavior Analysis. Numero Unico.
[12] Andolfi, S., Cavallini, F., & Perini, S. (2011). Precision teaching e parole frequenti. Un matrimonio felice per promuovere la velocità di lettura in una bambina con diagnosi di dislessia. Dislessia, 8(1), 67-79.
[13] Andolfi, S. (2017). I Disturbi Specifici dell’Apprendimento. Non è mai troppo tardi per riconoscerli e intervenire.
[14] Hasbrouck, J., Tindal, G.A. (2006). Oral reading fluency norms: A valuable assessment tool for reading teachers. Reading Teacher, 59, 636–644.
[15] Cavallini, F., Berardo, F., & Perini, S. (2010). Mental retardation and reading effects of precision teaching. Life span and disability, 13 (1), 87-101.
[16] Deno, S. L., (2003). Developments in Curriculum Based Measurement. The Journal of Special Education 3 (1).
[17] Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs D. (1999). Monitoring student progress toward the development of reading competence: A review of three forms of classroom-based assessment. School Psychology Review, 28 (4), 659-671.
[18] Hasbrouck, J., Tindal, G.A. (2006). Oral reading fluency norms: A valuable assessment tool for reading teachers. Reading Teacher, 59, 636–644.
[19] Colombo, P. (2012). Monitoraggio e screening delle prime fasi d’apprendimento della lettura: contributo per la validazione italiana del metodo CBM (curriculum based measurement) (Doctoral dissertation, Università degli Studi di Parma. Dipartimento di Psicologia).
[20] American Psychiatric Association (2014). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
[21] Deno, S. L., Fuchs L. D., Marston D., Shin L. (2001). Using curriculum-based measurements to establish growth standards for students with learning disabilities. School Psychology Review, 30 (4), 507-534.
[22] Tressoldi P.E., Vio C., Lorusso M.L., Facoetti A., Iozzino R. (2003), Confronto di efficacia ed efficienza tra trattamenti per il miglioramento della lettura in soggetti dislessici, Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo, 7, 3, 481-493.
[23] Cihon, T., Artoni, V., Cavallini, F., & Corsano, P., (2018). Creating and sustaining an international collaboration in behavior analysis, Behavior and social issues, 27
[24] Cavallini, F., Pelizzoni, I., Andolfi, S. & Diano, A. (2019). Curriculum Based Measurement e metodologie basate sulla fluenza nel potenziamento della lettura Riflessioni su efficacia, efficienza ed economicità degli interventi in bambini con bisogni educativi speciali. Psicologia clinica dello Sviluppo, 2, 293-300