The Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training on Indices of Cardio-Respiratory and Exercise Tolerance in Overweight Women with Chronic Asthma
Asthma, obesity and overweight are the main factors causing change within the heart and respiratory airways. Asthma symptoms are normally observed during exercising. Epidemiological studies have indicated asthma symptoms occurring due to certain lifestyle habits; for example, a sedentary lifestyle. In this study, eight weeks of aerobic exercises resulted in a positive effect overall in overweight women experiencing mild chronic asthma. The quasi-experimental applied research has been done based on experimental and control groups. The experimental group (seven patients) and control group (n = 7) were graded before and after the test. According to the Borg dyspnea and fatigue Perception Index, the training intensity has determined. Participants in the study performed a sub-maximal aerobic activity schedule (45% to 80% of maximum heart rate) for two months, while the control group (n = 7) stayed away from aerobic exercise. Data evaluation and analysis of covariance compared both the pre-test and post-test with paired t-test at significance level of P≤ 0.05. After eight weeks of exercise, the results of the experimental group show a significant decrease in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure, minute ventilation, while a significant increase in maximal oxygen uptake and tolerance activity (P ≤ 0.05). In the control group, there was no significant difference in these parameters ((P ≤ 0.05). The results indicate the aerobic activity can strengthen the respiratory muscles, while other physiological factors could result in breathing and heart recovery. Aerobic activity also resulted in favorable changes in cardiovascular parameters, and exercise tolerance of overweight women with chronic asthma.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3593152Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 145
 Cypcar D, Lemanske Jr RF. Asthma and exercise. Clinics in chest medicine 1994; 15: 351-68.
 De Ste Croix MB, Deighan MA, Ratel S, Armstrong N. Age-and sex-associated differences in isokinetic knee muscle endurance between young children and adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 2009; 34: 725-31.
 Razavi MZ, Nazarali P, Hanachi P, Kordi M. Effect of a Course of Aerobic Exercise and Consumption of Vitamin D Supplementation on Respiratory Indicators in Patients with Asthma.2013.
 Alioglu B, Ertugrul T, Unal M. Cardiopulmonary responses of asthmatic children to exercise: analysis of systolic and diastolic cardiac function. Pediatric pulmonology 2007; 42: 283-9.
 Masoli M, Fabian D, Holt S, Beasley R. The global burden of asthma: executive summary of the GINA Dissemination Committee report. Allergy 2004; 59: 469-78.
 Nystad W, Meyer HE, Nafstad P, Tverdal A, Engeland A. Body mass index in relation to adult asthma among 135,000 Norwegian men and women. American journal of epidemiology 2004; 160: 969-76.
 Gold DR, Damokosh AI, Dockery DW, Berkey CS. Body‐mass index as a predictor of incident asthma in a prospective cohort of children. Pediatric pulmonology 2003; 36: 514-21.
 Camargo CA, Weiss ST, Zhang S, Willett WC, Speizer FE. Prospective study of body mass index, weight change, and risk of adult-onset asthma in women. Archives of Internal Medicine 1999; 159: 2582-8.
 Shedeed SA. Right ventricular function in children with bronchial asthma: a tissue Doppler echocardiographic study. Pediatric cardiology 2010; 31: 1008-15.
 Gabe J, Bury M, Ramsay R. Living with asthma: the experiences of young people at home and at school. Social science & medicine 2002; 55: 1619-33.
 Ram FS, Robinson SM, Black PN. Effects of physical training in asthma: a systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2000; 34: 162-7.
 Nici L, Donner C, Wouters E, Zuwallack R, Ambrosino N, Bourbeau J, Carone M, Celli B, Engelen M, Fahy B. American thoracic society/European respiratory society statement on pulmonary rehabilitation. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 2006; 173: 1390-413.
 Noonan V, Dean E. Submaximal exercise testing: clinical application and interpretation. Physical therapy 2000; 80: 782-807.
 Santuz P, Baraldi E, Filippone M, Zacchello F. Exercise performance in children with asthma: is it different from that of healthy controls? European Respiratory Journal 1997; 10: 1254-60.
 Zhao X, Lin Y. (The practicability of increasing exercise tolerance in mild to moderate asthmatic patients). Zhonghuajie he hehu xi zazhi= Zhonghuajiehe he huxizazhi= Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases 2000; 23: 332-5.
 Enright Pl, the Six-Minute Walk Test. Respiratory Care 2003; 48: 783-785.
 Nazem F, Izadi M, Jaliliu M, Keshvarz B. Impact of aerobic exercise and detraining on pulmonary function indexes in obese middle-aged patients with chronic asthma. Arak Medical University Journal 2013; 15: 85-93.
 Forno E, Acosta-Pérez E, Brehm JM, Han Y-Y, Alvarez M, Colón-Semidey A, Canino G, Celedón JC. Obesity and adiposity indicators, asthma, and atopy in Puerto Rican children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2014; 133: 1308-14. e5.
 Pouyan Majd S DRV, and Fathi R. Effect of Exercise on Cardiorespiratory function in obese Children with Astma in Different Moisture Leveles. Medical Sciences Journal (YUMSJ) 2014: 529-41.
 Mohammad I, Valiollah S, Vahid I, editors. Maximal oxygen consumption in asthma patients before and after aerobic training program. Biological Forum; 2014: Research Trend.
 vanVeldhoven NH, Vermeer A, Bogaard J, Hessels MG, Wijnroks L, Colland V, van Essen-Zandvliet EE. Children with asthma and physical exercise: effects of an exercise programme. Clinical rehabilitation 2001; 15: 360-70.
 Freeman W, Nute M, Williams C. The effect of endurance running training on asthmatic adults. British journal of sports medicine 1989; 23: 115-22.
 Cooper CB. Exercise in chronic pulmonary disease: aerobic exercise prescription. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 2001; 33: S671-9.
 Roelofs R, Gurgel RQ, Wendte J, Polderman J, Barreto-Filho JAS, Solé D, Motta-Franco J, Munter JD, Agyemang C. Relationship between asthma and high blood pressure among adolescents in Aracaju, Brazil. Journal of Asthma 2010; 47: 639-43.
 Dogra S, Ardern CI, Baker J. The relationship between age of asthma onset and cardiovascular disease in Canadians. Journal of Asthma 2007; 44: 849-54.
 Fesharaki M, SMJ OP, Kordi R. The effects of aerobic and strength exercises on pulmonary function tests and quality of life in asthmatic patients. Tehran University of Medical Sciences 2010; 68.
 Casaburi R, Porszasz J, Burns MR, Carithers ER, Chang R, Cooper CB. Physiologic benefits of exercise training in rehabilitation of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 1997; 155: 1541-51.
 Cornelissen VA, Fagard RH. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure–regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension 2005; 46: 667-75.
 Clark C. The role of physical training in asthma. CHEST Journal 1992; 101: 293S-8S.
 Azab NY, El Mahalawy II, El Aal GAA, Taha MH. Breathing pattern in asthmatic patients during exercise. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis 2015; 64: 521-7.
 STDRMS W. Can a regular exercise program improve your patient's asthma? Journal of Respiratory Diseases 2001; 22: 340.
 Moser KM, Bokinsky GE, Savage RT, Archibald CJ, Hansen PR. Results of a comprehensive rehabilitation program physiologic and functional effects on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Archives of internal medicine 1980; 140: 1596-601.
 Hallstrand TS, Bates PW, Schoene RB. Aerobic conditioning in mild asthma decreases the hyperpnea of exercise and improves exercise and ventilatory capacity. CHEST Journal 2000; 118: 1460-9.
 Clark CJ, Cochrane LM. Assessment of work performance in asthma for determination of cardiorespiratory fitness and training capacity. Thorax 1988; 43: 745-9.
 Turner LA, Mickleborough TD, McConnell AK, Stager JM, Tecklenburg-Lund S, Lindley MR. Effect of inspiratory muscle training on exercise tolerance in asthmatic individuals.2011.
 Farid R, Azad FJ, Atri AE, Rahimi MB, Khaledan A, Talaei-Khoei M, Ghafari J, Ghasemi R. Effect of aerobic exercise training on pulmonary function and tolerance of activity in asthmatic patients. Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 2005; 4: 133-8.
 Eakin EG, Resnikoff PM, Prewitt LM, Ries AL, Kaplan RM. Validation of a new dyspnea measure: the UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire. Chest Journal 1998; 113: 619-24.
 Cambach W, Chadwick-Straver R, Wagenaar R, Van Keimpema A, Kemper H. The effects of a community-based pulmonary rehabilitation programme on exercise tolerance and quality of life: a randomized controlled trial. European Respiratory Journal 1997; 10: 104-13.
 Casaburi R. Physiologic responses to training. Clinics in chest medicine 1994; 15: 215-27.
 Mirdar S, Arabzadeh E, Hamidian G,Effects of two and three weeks of tapering on lower respiratory tract in the maturing rat. koomesh 2015; 16: 366 – 375.
 M, Ghanbarzadeh M, Habibi Ah, Nikbakht M, Shakeriyan S, Baghernia R, AhadiF, Effects of exercise with lower and upper extremities on respiratory and exercise capacities of asthmatic patients. koomesh 2013; 15:89-101.