Surface Water Pollution by Open Refuse Dumpsite in North Central of Nigeria
Water is a vital resource that is important in ensuring the growth and development of any country. To sustain the basic human needs and the demands for agriculture, industry, conservational and ecosystem, enough quality and quantity water is needed. Contamination of water resources is now a global and public health concern. Hence, this study assessed the water quality of Ndawuse River by measuring the physicochemical parameters and heavy metals concentrations of the river using standard methods. In total, 16 surface water samples were obtained from five locations along the river, from upstream to downstream as well as samples from the dumpsite. The results obtained were compared with the standard limits set by both the World Health Organization and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency for domestic purposes. The results of the measured parameters indicated that biological oxygen demand (85.88 mg/L), turbidity (44.51 NTU), Iron (0.014 - 3.511 mg /L) and chromium (0.078 - 0.14 mg /L) were all above the standard limits. The results further showed that the quality of surface water is being significantly affected by human activities around the Ndawuse River which could pose an adverse health risk to several communities that rely on this river as their primary source of water. Therefore, there is a need for strict enforcement of environmental laws to protect the aquatic ecosystem and to avoid long term cumulative exposure risk that heavy metals may pose on human health.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3455691Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 135
 Oyediran, A., Waste Generation and Disposal in Nigeria. A keynote Address in “Perspectives in Environmental Management” Proceedings of in NEST Annual Workshops 1991 to 1995 (D. Okali, K.O Ologe and U.M Igbozurike eds.), NESTDesktop Publications, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1997: p. 95-100.
 Sangodoyin, A.Y., Groundwater and Surface Water Pollution by Open Refuse Dump in Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Discovery and Innovations, 1991. 3(1): p. 24-31.
 Maxwell, O., N. Ibrahim, and P.E. Ugwuoke, Gamma Ray Assessment of Subsurface Water-Rock interaction in Abuja from Geologic Background and Its Effect in Groundwater, Nigeria (Review Article). Advances in Life Science and Technology, 2012. 6.
 Organization/UNICEF, W.H., Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. www.wssinfo.org, 2015.
 Onwughara, N.I., et al., Emphasis on Effects of Storm Runoff in Mobilizing the Heavy Metals from Leachate on Waste Deposit to Contaminate Nigerian Waters: Improved Water Quality Standards. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 2011. 2(1): p. 55-63.
 Ahiamadu, N.M., The Challenges of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Nigeria, in 8th International Conference “Waste Management, Environmental Geotechnology and Global Sustainable Development (ICWMEGGSD'07 - GzO'07). 2007: Ljubljana, SLOVENIA, August 28. - 30.
 McMichael, A.J., The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2000. 78: p. 1117-1126.
 Iqbal, J. and M.H. Shah, Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Surface Water from Freshwater Source Lakes, Pakistan. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 2013. 19(6): p. 1530-1543.
 Dervišević, I., et al., The Impact of Leachate on the Quality of Surface and Groundwater and Proposal of Measures for Pollution Remediation. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2016. 7(05): p. 745.
 Kurniawan, T.A., W.-h. Lo, and G.Y.S. Chan, Physico-chemical treatments for removal of recalcitrant contaminants from landfill leachate. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2006. 129(1-3): p. 80-100.
 Sharma, B. and S. Tyagi, Simplification of metal ion analysis in fresh water samples by atomic absorption spectroscopy for laboratory students. Journal of Laboratory Chemical Education, 2013. 1(3): p. 54-58.
 Federal Environmental Protection Agency, F., Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria. 1991.
 WHO, W.H.O., Rolling revision of the WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality, Draft for review and comments. Nitrates and Nitrites in drinking-water. 2004.
 Osibanjo, O. and G. Adie, Impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir on the physicochemical parameters of Oshunkaye stream in Ibadan City, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2007. 6(15): p. 1806-1811.
 Odiyo, J.O., et al., Trophic status of Vondo and Albasini Dams; impacts on aquatic ecosystems and drinking water. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2012. 9(2): p. 203-218.
 Maiti, S., et al., Characterization of Leachate and Its Impact on Surface and Groundwater Quality of a Closed Dumpsite–A Case Study at Dhapa, Kolkata, India. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 2016. 35: p. 391-399.
 Morrison, G., et al., Assessment of the impact of point source pollution from the Keiskammahoek Sewage Treatment Plant on the Keiskamma River–pH, electrical conductivity, oxygen demanding substance (COD) and nutrients. Water SA, 2001. 27(4): p. 475-480.
 Krishnakumar, A., Hydro geochemistry of Vellayani, fresh water lake with special reference to drinking water quality. M.Phil., Thesis, University of Kerala, India. 1998.
 Uyom, U.U., O.K. Ama, and N.I. Ephraim, Some Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Akpa Yafe River, Bakassi, Cross River State, Nigeria. Journal of Academia and Industrial Research (JAIR), 2014. 2(11): p. 631-637.
 Brass, H.J., Status of the Drinking Water Standards Program. In the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Technical Support Center, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45268, USA Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 123: 1–9, 2000. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 2000.
 Li, P. and H. Qian, Human health risk assessment for chemical pollutants in drinking water source in Shizuishan City, Northwest China. Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, 2011. 8(1): p. 41-48.
 Nigam, A., et al., Cytogenomics of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) exposed cells: A comprehensive review. The Indian journal of medical research, 2014. 139(3): p. 349.