CFD Analysis of the Blood Flow in Left Coronary Bifurcation with Variable Angulation
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of death globally. Most CVDs can be prevented by avoiding habitual risk factors. Separate from the habitual risk factors, there are some inherent factors in each individual that can increase the risk potential of CVDs. Vessel shapes and geometry are influential factors, having great impact on the blood flow and the hemodynamic behavior of the vessels. In the present study, the influence of bifurcation angle on blood flow characteristics is studied. In order to approach this topic, by simplifying the details of the bifurcation, three models with angles 30°, 45°, and 60° were created, then by using CFD analysis, the response of these models for stable flow and pulsatile flow was studied. In the conducted simulation in order to eliminate the influence of other geometrical factors, only the angle of the bifurcation was changed and other parameters remained constant during the research. Simulations are conducted under dynamic and stable condition. In the stable flow simulation, a steady velocity of 0.17 m/s at the inlet plug was maintained and in dynamic simulations, a typical LAD flow waveform is implemented. The results show that the bifurcation angle has an influence on the maximum speed of the flow. In the stable flow condition, increasing the angle lead to decrease the maximum flow velocity. In the dynamic flow simulations, increasing the bifurcation angle lead to an increase in the maximum velocity. Since blood flow has pulsatile characteristics, using a uniform velocity during the simulations can lead to a discrepancy between the actual results and the calculated results.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2643529Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 334
 G. Lorenzini, and E. J. J. o. B. Casalena, “CFD analysis of pulsatile blood flow in an atherosclerotic human artery with eccentric plaques,” vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 1862-1870, 2008.
 P. Y. M. a. H. M., “Technical Brief: Computational Fluid Dynamic (Cfd) Analysis Of Blood Flow Through Human Arteries,” Journal of Computational Simulation and Modeling, vol. Volume 2, no. Issue 1, pp. 27-29, 2012.
 V. C. Rispoli, J. F. Nielsen, K. S. Nayak et al., “Computational fluid dynamics simulations of blood flow regularized by 3D phase contrast MRI,” vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 110, 2015.
 T. G. Papaioannou, and C. J. H. J. C. Stefanadis, “Vascular wall shear stress: basic principles and methods,” vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 9-15, 2005.
 C. Chiastra, S. Morlacchi, S. Pereira et al., “Computational fluid dynamics of stented coronary bifurcations studied with a hybrid discretization method,” vol. 35, pp. 76-84, 2012.
 A. E. Moran, G. A. Roth, J. Narula et al., “1990-2010 global cardiovascular disease atlas,” vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3-16, 2014.
 W. Quanyu, L. Xiaojie, P. Lingjiao et al., “Simulation Analysis Of Blood Flow In Arteries Of The Human Arm,” vol. 29, no. 04, pp. 1750031, 2017.
 F. M. Box, R. J. van der Geest, M. C. Rutten et al., “The influence of flow, vessel diameter, and non-newtonian blood viscosity on the wall shear stress in a carotid bifurcation model for unsteady flow,” vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 277-294, 2005.
 M. Malvè, A. Garcia, J. Ohayon et al., “Unsteady blood flow and mass transfer of a human left coronary artery bifurcation: FSI vs. CFD,” vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 745-751, 2012.
 J. Ohayon, A. M. Gharib, A. Garcia et al., “Is arterial wall-strain stiffening an additional process responsible for atherosclerosis in coronary bifurcations?: an in vivo study based on dynamic CT and MRI,” vol. 301, no. 3, pp. H1097-H1106, 2011.
 S. N., “CFD analysis of blood flow through stenosed arteries.,” 2015.
 C. M. Scotti, J. Jimenez, S. C. Muluk et al., “Wall stress and flow dynamics in abdominal aortic aneurysms: finite element analysis vs. fluid–structure interaction,” vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 301-322, 2008.
 S. Morlacchi, C. Chiastra, D. Gastaldi et al., “Sequential structural and fluid dynamic numerical simulations of a stented bifurcated coronary artery,” vol. 133, no. 12, pp. 121010, 2011.
 U. Lee, B. Seo, I. J. J. o. m. s. Jang et al., “Spectral element modeling and analysis of the blood flow through a human blood vessel,” vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1612-1619, 2008.
 G. Giannoglou, J. Soulis, T. Farmakis et al., “Haemodynamic factors and the important role of local low static pressure in coronary wall thickening,” vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 27-40, 2002.
 M. Mehrabi, and S. J. M. P. i. E. Setayeshi, “Computational fluid dynamics analysis of pulsatile blood flow behavior in modelled stenosed vessels with different severities,” vol. 2012, 2012.
 S. H. Lee, S. Kang, N. Hur et al., “A fluid-structure interaction analysis on hemodynamics in carotid artery based on patient-specific clinical data,” vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 3821-3831, 2012.
 R. Torii, M. Oshima, T. Kobayashi et al., “Role of 0D peripheral vasculature model in fluid–structure interaction modeling of aneurysms,” vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 43-52, 2010.
 D. Zeng, E. Boutsianis, M. Ammann et al., “A study on the compliance of a right coronary artery and its impact on wall shear stress,” vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 041014, 2008.
 S. Tada, and J. J. A. o. b. e. Tarbell, “A computational study of flow in a compliant carotid bifurcation–stress phase angle correlation with shear stress,” vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1202-1212, 2005.
 S. H. Lee, H. G. Choi, J. Y. J. J. o. M. S. Yool et al., “Finite element simulation of blood flow in a flexible carotid artery bifurcation,” vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1355-1361, 2012.
 X. Han, R. Bibb, R. J. J. o. V. L. Harris et al., “Design of bifurcation junctions in artificial vascular vessels additively manufactured for skin tissue engineering,” vol. 28, pp. 238-249, 2015.
 Z. Sun, and Y. J. E. j. o. r. Cao, “Multislice CT angiography assessment of left coronary artery: correlation between bifurcation angle and dimensions and development of coronary artery disease,” vol. 79, no. 2, pp. e90-e95, 2011.
 S. Beier, J. Ormiston, M. Webster et al., “Impact of bifurcation angle and other anatomical characteristics on blood flow–A computational study of non-stented and stented coronary arteries,” vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 1570-1582, 2016.
 F. Migliavacca, L. Petrini, V. Montanari et al., “A predictive study of the mechanical behaviour of coronary stents by computer modelling,” vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 13-18, 2005.
 S. Smith, S. Austin, G. D. Wesson et al., "Calculation of wall shear stress in left coronary artery bifurcation for pulsatile flow using two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics." pp. 871-874.
 M. Prosi, K. Perktold, Z. Ding et al., “Influence of curvature dynamics on pulsatile coronary artery flow in a realistic bifurcation model,” vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1767-1775, 2004.
 X. Han, R. Bibb, and R. J. P. C. Harris, “Artificial Vascular Bifurcations–Design and Modelling,” vol. 49, pp. 14-18, 2016.
 G. A. Rodriguez-Granillo, M. A. Rosales, E. Degrossi et al., “Multislice CT coronary angiography for the detection of burden, morphology and distribution of atherosclerotic plaques in the left main bifurcation,” vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 389-392, 2007.
 T. Chaichana, Z. Sun, and J. J. J. o. b. Jewkes, “Computation of hemodynamics in the left coronary artery with variable angulations,” vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1869-1878, 2011.
 C. Chiastra, D. Gallo, P. Tasso et al., “Healthy and diseased coronary bifurcation geometries influence near-wall and intravascular flow: A computational exploration of the hemodynamic risk,” vol. 58, pp. 79-88, 2017.
 S. Bahrami, and F. Firouzi, “The effect of wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index on probability of atherosclerosis plaque formation in normal left coronary artery tree,” 2016.
 J. E. Davies, Z. I. Whinnett, D. P. Francis et al., “Evidence of a dominant backward-propagating “suction” wave responsible for diastolic coronary filling in humans, attenuated in left ventricular hypertrophy,” vol. 113, no. 14, pp. 1768-1778, 2006.
 K. K. Wong, P. Thavornpattanapong, S. C. Cheung et al., “Effect of calcification on the mechanical stability of plaque based on a three-dimensional carotid bifurcation model,” vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 7, 2012.
 M. Golozar, M. Sayed Razavi, and E. J. S. I. Shirani, “Theoretical and computational investigation of optimal wall shear stress in bifurcations: a generalization of Murray’s law,” vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 2387-2395, 2017.
 A. Arzani, and S. C. J. J. o. b. e. Shadden, “Characterizations and correlations of wall shear stress in aneurysmal flow,” vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 014503, 2016.
 Y.-c. Fung, Biomechanics: mechanical properties of living tissues: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
 R. Torii, N. B. Wood, N. Hadjiloizou et al., “Fluid–structure interaction analysis of a patient‐specific right coronary artery with physiological velocity and pressure waveforms,” vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 565-580, 2009.