Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30477
The Use of Music Therapy to Improve Non-Verbal Communication Skills for Children with Autism
Authors: Maria Vinca Novenia
Abstract:The number of school-aged children with autism in Indonesia has been increasing each year. Autism is a developmental disorder which can be diagnosed in childhood. One of the symptoms is the lack of communication skills. Music therapy is known as an effective treatment for children with autism. Music elements and structures create a good space for children with autism to express their feelings and communicate their thoughts. School-aged children are expected to be able to communicate non-verbally very well, but children with autism experience the difficulties of communicating non-verbally. The aim of this research is to analyze the significance of music therapy treatment to improve non-verbal communication tools for children with autism. This research informs teachers and parents on how music can be used as a media to communicate with children with autism. The qualitative method is used to analyze this research, while the result is described with the microanalysis technique. The result is measured specifically from the whole experiment, hours of every week, minutes of every session, and second of every moment. The samples taken are four school-aged children with autism in the age range of six to 11 years old. This research is conducted within four months started with observation, interview, literature research, and direct experiment. The result demonstrates that music therapy could be effectively used as a non-verbal communication tool for children with autism, such as changes of body gesture, eye contact, and facial expression.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2643506Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 720
 J. Alvin and A. Warwick, Music Therapy for The Autistic Child. New York: Oxord University Press, 1991.
 D. Berger, Music Therapy, Sensory Integration and The Autistic Child. London: Jessica Kingsley Publisher, 2002.
 B. W. Davis, K. E. Gfeller, and M. H. Thaut, An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice. New York: McGrawHill, 1999.
 R. Diahwati, Hariyono, and F. Hanurawan, “Keterampilan sosial siswa berkebutuhan khusus di sekolah dasar inklusi,” in Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, dan Pengembangan, vol. 1, 2016, pp. 1612-1620.
 S. Dickinson and M. Schaffer, “Art, Imagers, Communications, and Children,” in Connectivity: Art and Interactive, vol. 2, 1991, pp. 189-190.
 S. Hanser, The New Music Therapist’s Handbook. Boston: Berklee Press, 1999.
 B. King, Music Therapy: Another Path to Learning and Communication for Children on The Autism Spectrum. Texas: Future Horizons. 2004.
 M. Pavlicevic, “Improvisation in music therapy: human communication in sound,” in Journal of Music Therapy, vol. 37, 2000, pp. 269-285.
 J. Scholtz, M. Voigt, and T. Wosch, Microanalysis in Music Therapy: Methods, Techniques and Applications for Clinicians, Researchers, Educators, and Students, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2007.
 M. Silverman, “Nonverbal communication, music therapy, and autism: a review of literature and case example,” in Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, vol. 3, 2008, pp. 3-18.
 F. Sussman, More Than Words: Helping Parents Promote Communication and Social Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Ontario: The Hanen Centre, 1999.
 T. Wigram, Improvisation: Methods and Techniques for Music Therapy Clinicians, Educators, and Students. London: Jessica Kingsley Publisher, 2004.
 S, Malloch amd C. Trevarthen, Communicative Musicality. New York: Ocford University Press, 2010.
 E. Kurnia. (2015). Autisme di Indonesia terus meningkat. Oke Lifestyle. (Online). Available: https://lifestyle.okezone.com/read/2015/04/02/481/1128312/autisme-di-indonesia-terus-meningkat.