Poultry Manure and Its Derived Biochar as a Soil Amendment for Newly Reclaimed Sandy Soils under Arid and Semi-Arid Conditions
Sandy soils under arid and semi-arid conditions are characterized by poor physical and biochemical properties such as low water retention, rapid organic matter decomposition, low nutrients use efficiency, and limited crop productivity. Addition of organic amendments is crucial to develop soil properties and consequently enhance nutrients use efficiency and lessen organic carbon decomposition. Two years field experiments were developed to investigate the feasibility of using poultry manure and its derived biochar integrated with different levels of N fertilizer as a soil amendment for newly reclaimed sandy soils in Western Desert of El-Minia Governorate, Egypt. Results of this research revealed that poultry manure and its derived biochar addition induced pronounced effects on soil moisture content at saturation point, field capacity (FC) and consequently available water. Data showed that application of poultry manure (PM) or PM-derived biochar (PMB) in combination with inorganic N levels had caused significant changes on a range of the investigated sandy soil biochemical properties including pH, EC, mineral N, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic N (DON) and quotient DOC/DON. Overall, the impact of PMB on soil physical properties was detected to be superior than the impact of PM, regardless the inorganic N levels. In addition, the obtained results showed that PM and PM application had the capacity to stimulate vigorous growth, nutritional status, production levels of wheat and sorghum, and to increase soil organic matter content and N uptake and recovery compared to control. By contrast, comparing between PM and PMB at different levels of inorganic N, the obtained results showed higher relative increases in both grain and straw yields of wheat in plots treated with PM than in those treated with PMB. The interesting feature of this research is that the biochar derived from PM increased treated sandy soil organic carbon (SOC) 1.75 times more than soil treated with PM itself at the end of cropping seasons albeit double-applied amount of PM. This was attributed to the higher carbon stability of biochar treated sandy soils increasing soil persistence for carbon decomposition in comparison with PM labile carbon. It could be concluded that organic manures applied to sandy soils under arid and semi-arid conditions are subjected to high decomposition and mineralization rates through crop seasons. Biochar derived from organic wastes considers as a source of stable carbon and could be very hopeful choice for substituting easily decomposable organic manures under arid conditions. Therefore, sustainable agriculture and productivity in newly reclaimed sandy soils desire one high rate addition of biochar derived from organic manures instead of frequent addition of such organic amendments.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3607852Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 370
 Abdelraouf, R. E., Essay, E. F. and Saleh, M. M. S. (2017). Sustainable management of deficit irrigation in sandy soils by producing biochar and adding it as a soil amendment. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research. 6 (4): 1359-1375.
 Agbede, T. M., Adekiya, A. O. and Eifediyi, E. K. (2017). Impact of Poultry Manure and NPK Fertilizer On Soil Physical Properties and Growth and Yield of Carrot. Journal of Horticultural Research. 25(1): 81-88.
 Agegnehu, G., Nelson, P. N. and Bird, M. I. (2016). The effects of biochar, compost and their mixture and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of barley grown on a Nitisol in the highlands of Ethiopia. Science of The Total Environment. 569-570, 869-879.
 Agyarko-Mintah, E., Cowie, A., Singh, B.P., Joseph, S., Van Zwieten, L., Cowie, A., Harden, S., Smillie, R. (2017). Biochar increases nitrogen retention and lowers greenhouse gas emissions when added to composting poultry litter. Waste Manage. 61, 138–149.
 Ali, M. M. E. (2018). Effect of Plant Residues Derived Biochar on Fertility of a new Reclaimed Sandy Soil and Growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Egypt. J. Soil Sci. Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 93 – 103.
 Al-Wabel, M., Hussain, Q., Usman, A., Ahmad, M., Abduljabbar, A., Sallam, A. S. and Sik Ok, Y. (2017). Impact of biochar characteristics on soil conditions and agricultural sustainability: A review. Land Degradation and Development.
 Arif, M., Ali, K., Jan, M.T., Shah, Z., Jones, D.L., Quilliam, R.S. (2016). Integration of biochar with animal manure and nitrogen for improving maize yields and soil properties in calcareous semi-arid agroecosystems. Field Crops Res. 195, 28–35.
 Aslam, Z., Khalid, M. and Aon, M. (2014). Impact of Biochar on Soil Physical Properties. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science. 4(5), 280-284.
 Avery, B. W., and C. L. Bascombe, (1982). Soil survey laboratory methods. Soil Survey of England and Wales, Harpenden.
 Barrow, C. J. (2012). Biochar: potential for countering land degradation and for improving agriculture. Applied Geography, 34:21–28
 Blake, G. R. and Hartge, K. H. (1986). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. In: Klute, A., Ed., Soil Science Society of America, 2nd Edition, Madison, 363-375.
 Bolan, N. S., Adriano, D. C. and Kunhikrishnan, A., James, T. K., Mcdowell, R. and Senesi, N. (2011). Dissolved Organic Matter: Biogeochemistry, Dynamics, and Environmental Significance in Soils. Advances in Agronomy - ADVAN AGRON. 110: 1-75.
 Elhadi, E. A., Mubarak, A. R. and Rezig, F. A. M. (2015). Effects of organic amendments on sand dune fixation. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture. 5. 10.1007/s40093-015-0111-5.
 Gathorne-hardy, A., Knight, J. and Woods, J. (2009). Biochar as a soil amendment positively interacts with nitrogen fertiliser to improve barley yields in the UK. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 6, 372052.
 Gee, G. W. and J. W. Bauder, (1986). Particle Size Analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part A. Klute (ed.). 2 Ed., Vol. 9 nd . Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI, pp: 383-411.
 Gomez, K. A. and A. A. Gomez, (1984). Statistical procedures for agricultural research (2 ed.). John wiley and sons, NewYork, 680p.
 Gunes, A., Inal, A., Taskin, M. B., Sahin, O., Kaya, E. C. and Atakol, A. (2014). Effect of phosphorus-enriched biochar and poultry manure on growth and mineral composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv.) grown in alkaline soil. Soil Use and Management. 30, 182-188.
 Haile, D., Nigussie, D. and Ayana, A. (2012). Nitrogen use efficiency of bread wheat: Effects of nitrogen rate and time of application. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition. 12. 389-409.
 Hardie, M., Clothier, B., Bound, S., Oliver, G. and Close, D. (2014). Does biochar influence soil physical properties and soil water availability? Plant and Soil. 376, 347-361.
 Inal, A., Gunes, A., Sahin, O., Taskin, M. B., Kaya, E. C. (2015). Impacts of biochar and processed poultry manure, applied to a calcareous soil, on the growth of bean and maize. Soil Use and Management, 31 (1), pp. 106-113.
 Joseph, S. D., Camps-Arbestain, M., Lin, Y., Munroe, P., Chia, C.H., Hook, J., Van Zwieten, L., Kimber, S., Cowie, A., Singh, B. P., Lehmann, J., Foidl, N., Smernik, R.J. and Amonette, J. E. (2010) An investigation into the reactions of biochar in soil. Aust J Soil Res 48:501–515.
 Leghari, S. J., Wahocho, N. A., Laghari, G. M., Laghari, A. H., Bhabhan, G. M., Talpur, K. H., Bhutto, T. A., Wahocho, S. A. and Lashari, A. A. (2016). Role of Nitrogen for Plant Growth and Development: A review. Advances in Environmental Biology. 10 (9), 209-218.
 Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S., (2009). Biochar for environmental management: An introduction. Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. 1-12.
 Lehmann, J., Kern, D. C., Glaser, B. and Woods, W. I. (2003). Amazonian dark earths: origins, properties, management. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. 10.1007/1-4020-2597-1.
 Liu, Z., Dugan, B., Masiello, C. A., Barnes, R. T., Gallagher, M. E. and Gonnermann. H. Impacts of biochar concentration and particle size on hydraulic conductivity and DOC leaching of biochar–sand mixtures. Journal of Hydrology 533 (2016) 461–472.
 Major, J., Steiner, C., Downie, A. and Lehmann, J. (2009). Biochar effects on nutrient leaching. Biochar for environmental management: Science and technology. 227-249.
 Mandal, S., Shurin, J. B., Efroymson, R. A. and Mathews, T. J. (2018). Functional divergence in nitrogen uptake rates explains diversity-productivity relationship in microalgal communities. Ecosphere. 9. e02228.
 Martin-Olmedo, P. and Rees, B. M. (1999). Short-term N availability in response to dissolved-organic-carbon from poultry manure, alone or in combination with cellulose. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 29: 386-393.
 Mulvaney, R. L. (1996). Nitrogen Inorganic forms. In D.L. Sparks (ed.) Methods in soil analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. SSSA Book Series No. 5. SSSA, Madison, WI., 1123 - 1184.
 Ojeniyi, S. O. Amusan, O. A. and Adekiya, A. O. (2013). Effect of Poultry Manure on Soil Physical Properties, Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Cocoyam (Xanthosoma saggitifolium) in Southwest Nigeria. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 13 (1): 121-125.
 Page, A. L., Miller, R. H., Keeney, D. R. (1982). Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Agronomy Series No 9, 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.
 Pituello, C., Francioso, O., Simonetti, G., Pisi, A., Torreggiani, A., Berti, A. and Morari, F. (2014). Characterization of chemical–physical, structural and morphological properties of biochars from biowastes produced at different temperatures. Journal of Soils and Sediments. 15. 10.
 Reynolds, W. D. and Elrick, D. E. (1991). Determination of hydraulic conductivity using a tension infiltrometer. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55: 633-639.
 Schmidt, M. W. I., Torn, M.S., Abiven, S., Dittmar, T., Guggenberger, G., Janssens, I. A., Kleber, M., Kögel- Knabner, I., Lehmann, J., Manning, D. A. C., Nannipieri, P., Rasse, D. P., Weiner, S. and Trumbore, S. E. (2011). Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property. Nature. 478(7367):49-56.
 Smolander, A. and Kitunen, V. (2002). Soil microbial activities and characteristics of dissolved organic C and N in relation to tree species. Soil Biology & Biogeochemistry, v.34, p.651-660.
 van den Berg, L. J. L., Shotbolt, L. and Ashmore MR. (2012). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in UK soils and the influence of soil, vegetation type and seasonality. Sci Total Environ. 427-428:269-276.
 Verheijen, F., Jeffery, S., Bastos, A. C., van der Velde, M. and Diafas, I. (2010). Biochar application to soils: A critical scientific review of effects on soil properties, processes and functions.