A Risk Assessment for the Small Hive Beetle Based on Meteorological Standard Measurements
The Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) is a parasite for honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, and was recently introduced to the European continent, accidentally. Based on the literature, a model was developed by using regional meteorological variables (daily values of minimum, maximum and mean air temperature as well as mean soil temperature at 50 mm depth) to calculate the time-point of hive invasion by A. tumida in springtime, the development duration of pupae as well as the number of generations of A. tumida per year. Luxembourg was used as a test region for our model for 2005 to 2013. The model output indicates a successful surviving of the Small Hive Beetle in Luxembourg with two up to three generations per year. Additionally, based on our meteorological data sets a first migration of SHB to apiaries can be expected from mid of March up to April. Our approach can be transferred easily to other countries to estimate the risk potential for a successful introduction and spreading of A. tumida in Western Europe.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3607737Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 345
 A. E. Lundie, “The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida,” Science Bulletin, vol. 220, Union of South Africa, Department of Agriculture and Forestry (Entomological Series 3), pp. 30, May 1940.
 J. D. Ellis, and H. R. Hepburn, “An ecological digest of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida), a symbiont in honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera),” Insect. Soc., vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 8-19, Feb. 2006.
 P. Neumann, and P. J. Elzen, “The biology of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida, Coleoptera: Nitidulidae): Gaps in our knowledge of an invasive species,” Apidologie, vol. 35, no 3, pp. 229-247, May 2004.
 P. Neumann, J. S. Pettis, M. O. Schaefer, “Quo vadis Aethina tumida? Biology and control of small hive beetles,” Apidologie, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 427 – 466, May 2016.
 P.J. Elzen, J. R. Baxter, D. Westervelt, C. K. S. Randall, L. Cutts, W. Wilson, F. Eischen, K. Delaplan, D. Hopkins, “Status of the small hive beetle in the US. Bee Culture, vol. 127, pp. 28-29. May 1999.
 S. Spiewok, and P. Neumann, “Infestation of commercial bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) field colonies by small hive beetles (Aethina tumida),” Ecol. Entomol., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 623-628. Dec. 2006.
 M. C. Thomas, “Florida pest alert – the small hive beetle,” Am. Bee. J., vol. 138, no. 8, pp. 565-567. Aug. 1998.
 P. J. Elzen, J. R. Baxter, P. Neumann, A. Solbrig, C. Park, H. R. Hepburn, “Behavior of an African and western honey bee subspecies toward the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida,”Abstracts of the 37th International Apicultural Congress, 28. Oct. -1. Nov., 2001 Durban, South Africa, pp. 40.
 M. Bernier, V. Fournier, and P. Giovenazzo, “Pupal development of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in thermo-hygrometric soil conditions encountered in temperate climates,” J. Econ. Entomol., vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 531-537, Apr. 2014.
 V. Palmeri, G. Scirtò, A. Malacrinò, F. Laudani, and O. Campolo, “A scientific note on a new pest for European honeybees: first report of small hive beetle Aethina tumida, (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in Italy,” Apidologie, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 527-529, Jun 2015.
 D. C. Somerville, “Study of the small hive beetle in the USA,” Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC) Publication No 03/050. ch. 2, pp. 4 – 10, Jun 2003.
 L. I. De Guzman, and A. M. Frake, “Temperature affects Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) development,” J. Apic. Res., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 88-93, Feb. 2007.
 W. G. Meikle, and J. M. Patt, “The effects of temperature, diet, and other factors on development, survivorship, and oviposition of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae),” J. Econ. Entomol., vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 753-763, Jun. 2011.
 M. Bernier, V. Fournier, L. Eccles, and P. Giovenazzo, “Control of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) using in-hive traps,” Can. Entomol., vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 97-108, Feb. 2015.
 T. Mürrle, and P. Neumann, “Mass production of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida, Coleoptera: Nitidulidae),” J. Apicul. Res., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 144 – 145, Jul. 2004.
 W. G. Meikle, and R. Diaz, “Factors affecting pupation success of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida”, J. Insect Sci.,vol. 12, number 18, pp. 1 - 9, Dec. Jan. 2012.
 A. Clermont, M. Eickermann, F. Kraus, C. Georges, L. Hoffmann, and M. Beyer, “A survey on some factors potentially affecting losses of managed honey bee colonies in Luxembourg over the winters 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, ” J. Apicul. Res., vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 43-56, Apr. 2014.
 F. Mutinelli, F. Montarsi, G. Federico, A. Granato, A. M. Ponti, G. Grandinetti, N. Ferrè, S. Franco, V. Duquesne, M.-P. Rivière, R. Thiéry, P. Henrikx, M. Ribière-Chabert, and M.-P. Chauzat “Detection of Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae.) in Italy: outbreaks and early reaction measures,” J. Apicul. Res., vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 569 – 575, Apr. 2014.