Tools and Techniques in Risk Assessment in Public Risk Management Organisations
Risk assessment and the knowledge provided through this process is a crucial part of any decision-making process in the management of risks and uncertainties. Failure in assessment of risks can cause inadequacy in the entire process of risk management, which in turn can lead to failure in achieving organisational objectives as well as having significant damaging consequences on populations affected by the potential risks being assessed. The choice of tools and techniques in risk assessment can influence the degree and scope of decision-making and subsequently the risk response strategy. There are various available qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques that are deployed within the broad process of risk assessment. The sheer diversity of tools and techniques available to practitioners makes it difficult for organisations to consistently employ the most appropriate methods. This tools and techniques adaptation is rendered more difficult in public risk regulation organisations due to the sensitive and complex nature of their activities. This is particularly the case in areas relating to the environment, food, and human health and safety, when organisational goals are tied up with societal, political and individuals’ goals at national and international levels. Hence, recognising, analysing and evaluating different decision support tools and techniques employed in assessing risks in public risk management organisations was considered. This research is part of a mixed method study which aimed to examine the perception of risk assessment and the extent to which organisations practise risk assessment’ tools and techniques. The study adopted a semi-structured questionnaire with qualitative and quantitative data analysis to include a range of public risk regulation organisations from the UK, Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands. The results indicated the public risk management organisations mainly use diverse tools and techniques in the risk assessment process. The primary hazard analysis; brainstorming; hazard analysis and critical control points were described as the most practiced risk identification techniques. Within qualitative and quantitative risk analysis, the participants named the expert judgement, risk probability and impact assessment, sensitivity analysis and data gathering and representation as the most practised techniques.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1474787Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 498
 OECD, “Public sector efficiency, in Government at a Glance 2015”, OECD Publishing, Paris, 2015.
 L. T. Drennan, A. McConnell, and A. Stark, “Risk and crisis management in the public sector”. Routledge, 2014
 T. Curristine, Z. Lonti, and I. Joumard, “Improving public sector efficiency: Challenges and opportunities”. OECD Journal on Budgeting, vol. 7, no.1, p.1D, 2007.
 European Academy, “Risk Management in the Public Sector”, 2016 Available at: https://en.euroacad.eu/events/risk-management-in-the-public-sector-s-1315-mc2/.
 W. G. Shenkir, and P. L. Walker, “Enterprise risk management: Tools and techniques for effective implementation”. Institute of Management Accountants, pp.1-31, 2007.
 L. T. Ostrom, and C. A. Wilhelmsen, “Risk assessment: tools, techniques, and their applications”. John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
 R. Molteni, and E. Capri, “Methodologies for risk assessment”, 2008.
 A. Rostami, J. Sommerville, I. L. Wong, and C. Lee, “Tools and Techniques in Risk Analysis in the UK Construction SMES”. COBRA 2015.
 Aven, T. (2009). Perspectives on risk in a decision-making context–Review and discussion. Safety science, vol. 47, no. 6, pp.798-806, 2015.
 R. Mock, “Facing Modern Times: Challenges in Risk Analysis. Integrated Risk and Vulnerability Management Assisted by Decision Support Systems”, pp.441-455, 2005.
 British Standard (BS 31100), BSI British Standard, Risk Management-Code of Practice, 2008.
 CIIA, 2013, Available at: https://www.accountancyage.com/aa/news/2319314/public-sector-lacks-effective-risk-management-mechanisms.
 British Standard-European Standard (BS EN 31010), “Risk management. Risk assessment techniques”, 2010.
 S. C. Ward and C. Chapman, “Transforming project risk management into project uncertainty management”, International Journal of Project Management, vol. 21, pp.97-105, 2003.
 R. J. Chapman, “The Effectiveness of Working Group Risk Identification and Assessment Techniques”, International Journal of Project Management, vol. 16, no. 6, pp.333-343, 1998.
 M. R. Greene and J. S. Trieschmann, “Risk and insurance”, 6th Edition, South-Western Publication, p.626, 2012.
 R. Moura, M. Beer, E. Patelli, and J. Lewis, “Learning from major accidents: graphical representation and analysis of multi-attribute events to enhance risk communication”. Safety Science, 2017.
 G. C. A. Dickson and W. J. Hastings, “Corporate Risk Management”, Witherby and Co., London, 2989.
 HSE, Risk Criteria for Land-use Planning in the Vicinity of Major Industrial Hazards. HSE’s approach to its formulation of advice using quantified risk levels. 1989.
 CAC/GL 30, Principles and guidelines for the conduct of microbiological risk assessment (2012 revised edition). CAC/GL-30 - 1999, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Amendments 2012, 2014, Alinorm, 99, 1999.
 D. C. Hall, “Making risk assessments more comparable and repeatable”. Systems Engineering, vol. 14, no. 2, pp.173-179, 2011.
 D. Baccarini and R. Archer, “The Risk Ranking of Projects: a methodology”, International Journal of Project Management, vol. 19, pp.139-145, 2001.
 A. Tversky, and D. Kahneman, “The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice”, Science New Series 211(4481) (January 30, 1981), pp.453–458, 1981.
 A. Rostami, “Tools and Techniques in Risk Identification: A Research within SMEs in the UK Construction Industry”. Universal Journal of Management, vol. 4, no. 4, pp.203-210, 2016.
 Association for Project Management, “Project Risk Analysis and Management Guide”, 2nd Edition, the APM Group Limited, 2012.
 C. Wang, E. Walker, and J. Redmond, “Explaining the lack of strategic planning in SMEs: The importance of owner motivation”. International Journal of Organisational Behaviour, vol.12, no.1, pp.1-16, 2007.
 K. Simu, “Risk management in small construction projects”, Doctoral dissertation, Lulea University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2006.
 T. Lyons, and M. Skitmore, “Project risk management in the Queensland engineering construction industry: a survey”. International journal of project management, vol. 22, no. 1, pp.51-61, 2004.
 K. Eidesen, S. J. M. Sollid, and T. Aven, “Risk assessment in critical care medicine: a tool to assess patient safety”. Journal of Risk Research, vol. 12, no. 3-4, pp.281-294, 2009.
 T. Rosqvist, “On the validation of risk analysis—A commentary. Reliability Engineering & System Safety”, vol. 95, no. 11, pp.1261-1265, 2010.
 N. Chileshe, and G.J. Kikwasi, “Perception of barriers to implementing risk assessment and management practices by construction professionals in Tanzania”. 29th Annual ARCOM Conference, pp.1137-1146, Reading, UK, 2013.
 Project Management Institute (PMI), PMBOK: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, 4th Edition, 2008.
 R. M. Wideman, “Project and Program Risk Management: A guide to managing project risks and opportunities”, PMI, US, Pennsylvania, 1992.
 V. Carr and J. H. M. Tah, “A fuzzy approach to construction project risk assessment and analysis: construction project risk management system”, Advance in Engineering Software, vol. 32, no. 10-11, pp.847-857, 2001.
 V. N. Leopoulos, K. A. Kirytopoulos, and C. Malandrakis, “Risk Management for SMEs: Tools to use and how, Production Planning & Control”, vol. 17, no. 3, pp.322-332, 2006.
 T. Aven, “Selective critique of risk assessments with recommendations for improving methodology and practise”. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, vol. 96, no. 5, pp.509-514, 2011.
 Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2, Office of Government Commerce (OGC), 2009.
 C. Chapman, and S. Ward, “Project risk management: processes, techniques, and insights”. 2nd ed, John Wiley, p.131, 2008.
 T. Aven, “Foundations of risk analysis – a knowledge and decision-oriented perspective”. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2003.
 E. Thomas, “Programming and scheduling techniques”, UNSW Press, 2003.
 R. Flanagan and G. Norman, “Risk Management and Construction”, Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993.
 H. Kaiser, “The application of electronic computers to factor analysis”, Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 20, pp. 141-51, 1960.
 K. L Hulebak, and W. Schlosser, “Hazard analysis and critical control point history and conceptual overview”, Risk Analysis journal, 22(3), pp.547-552, 2002.
 P. J. Panisello and P. C. Quantick, “Technical barriers to Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)”, Food control, vol. 12, no. 3, pp.165-173, 2001.
 H. Otway, and D. Winterfeldt, “Expert judgment in risk analysis and management: process, context, and pitfalls”. Risk analysis, vol. 12, no. 1, pp.83-93, 1992.
 R. M. Cooke and L. H. J. Goossens, “Expert judgement elicitation for risk assessments of critical infrastructures”, Journal of risk research, vol. 7, no. 6, pp.643-656, 2010.
 S. C. Hora, “Expert Judgement in Risk Analysis”, Non published research report, paper 10, University of Hawaii, 2009.
 F. Sampedro, “Food safety risk analysis”, centre for animal health and food safety, university of Minnesota, PhD thesis, 2015.
 A. Saltelli, “Sensitivity Analysis for Importance Assessment”. Risk Analysis, vol. 22, no. 3, pp.1–12, 2002.
 F. Ferretti, A. Saltelli and S. Tarantola, “Trends in sensitivity analysis practice in the last decade”, Science of the total environment, 568, (15) October 2016, pp.666-670, 2016.