Development of a Biomaterial from Naturally Occurring Chloroapatite Mineral for Biomedical Applications
Hydroxyapatite is a bioceramic which can be used for applications in orthopedics and dentistry due to its structural similarity with the mineral phase of mammalian bones and teeth. In this study, it was synthesized, chemically changing natural Eppawala chloroapatite mineral as a value-added product. Sol-gel approach and solid state sintering were used to synthesize products using diluted nitric acid, ethanol and calcium hydroxide under different conditions. Synthesized Eppawala hydroxyapatite powder was characterized using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in order to find out its composition, crystallinity, presence of functional groups, bonding type, surface morphology, microstructural features, and thermal dependence and stability, respectively. The XRD results reflected the formation of a hexagonal crystal structure of hydroxyapatite. Elementary composition and microstructural features of products were discussed based on the XRF and SEM results of the synthesized hydroxyapatite powder. TGA and DSC results of synthesized products showed high thermal stability and good material stability in nature. Also, FTIR spectroscopy results confirmed the formation of hydroxyapatite from apatite via the presence of hydroxyl groups. Those results coincided with the FTIR results of mammalian bones including human bones. The study concludes that there is a possibility of producing hydroxyapatite using commercially available Eppawala chloroapatite in Sri Lanka.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1340593Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 362
 Anon, Eppawala Rock Phosphate Deposit and Processing Plant. Wicky's Blog. Available at: http://slminerals.blogspot.com/2015/09/eppawala-rock-phosphate-deposit-and.html (Accessed September 20, 2017).
 Anon, Industries from Eppawala phosphate deposit. Online edition of Daily News - Features. Available at: http://archives.dailynews.lk/2003/03/07/fea13.html (Accessed September 6, 2017).
 Ratnayake, S. P. & Navaratna, A. N., Spectroscopic Determination Of Metal Impurities In Commercial Raw Material Fertiliser Of Sri Lanka. researchgate. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/ (Accessed September 4, 2017).
 Wei G, Ma PX. Structure and properties of nano-hydroxyapatite/polymer composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2004;25(19):4749-57
 Kalita SJ, Bhardwaj A, Bhatt HA. Nanocrystalline calcium phosphate ceramics in biomedical engineering. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2007;27(3):441-9.
 M., E. (2011). Hydroxyapatite-Based Materials: Synthesis and Characterization. Biomedical Engineering - Frontiers and Challenges.
 V. P., Komlev, V. S. & Barinov, S. M., Hydroxyapatite and Hydroxyapatite-Based Ceramics. Available at: http://www2.chemia.uj.edu.pl/~skorska/Biomaterialy/hap/Orlovskii.pdf (Accessed September 4, 2017).
 Mostafa NY, Brown PW. Computer simulation of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite: Structure and substitutions. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids. 2007;68(3):431-7.
 Teixeira S, Rodriguez MA, Pena P, De Aza AH, De Aza S, Ferraz MP, et al. Physical characterization of hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds for tissue engineering. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2009;29(5):1510-4.
 Zobnenovice. review. (2017). Hydroxyapatite: properties, uses and applications | FLUIDINOVA. (online) Available at: http://zobnenovice.review/ (Accessed 25 Sep. 2017).
 Guo L, Huang M, Zhang X. Effects of sintering temperature on structure of hydroxyapatite studied with Rietveld method. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. 2003;14(9):817-22.
 Thamaraiselvi TV, Prabakaran K, Rajeswari S. Synthsis of hydroxyapatite that mimic bone mineralogy. Trends Biomater Artif Org. 2006; 19(2): 81-83.
 Shikhanzadeh M. Direct formation of nanophase hydroxyapatite on cathodically polarized electrodes. J Mater Sci: Mater Med. 1998; 9: 67-72.
 Case Study: Polymer Matrix Composites in Automobiles, [email protected];
 Innovative Materials for Innovative Automobiles, [email protected]; < https://www. ceramtec.com/files /ca_innovative_materials_ for_i nnovative _ auto mobi les.pdf > (Accessed on 20th August 2017).
 Composites in Automotive Applications: Review on brake pads and discs by Chrysoula A. Aza, [email protected];
 14. Ceramic Matrix Composites-Manufacturing and Applications in the Automotive Industry byDiego Bracho García, [email protected]; < http://www.bristol.ac.uk/ engineering/media/accis/cdt/news/ bracho-garcia.pdf > (Accessed on 20th August 2017).
 Composite Manufacturing, [email protected]; < http://www.ae.iitkgp.ernet.in/ebooks/chapter3.html#kproj > (Accessed on 20th August 2017).
 Balamurugan A, Michel J, Faure J, Benhayoune H, Wortham L, Sockalingum G, Banchet V, Bouthors S, Laurent-Maquin D, Balossier G. Synthesis and structural analysis of sol gel derived stoicheometric monophasic hydroxyapatite. Ceramics-Silikaty. 2006; 50(1): 27-31.
 Masuda Y, Matubara K, Sakka S. S ynthesis of hydroxyapatite from metal alkoxides through sol gel technique. J Ceram Soc, Jpn. 1990; 98: 1266- 1277.
 Sphinxsai.com. (2010). Hydroxyapatite Synthesis Methodologies: An Overview. (online) Available at: http://sphinxsai.com/s_v2_n2/CT_V.2No.2/ChemTech_Vol_2No.2_pdf/CT=24%20(903-907).pdf (Accessed 25 Oct. 2010).
 Deptula A, Lada W, Olezak T, Borello A, Avani C, Dibartolomea A. Preparation of spherical powders of hydroxyapatite by sol gel processing. J Non-Cryst Solids. 1992; 147: 537-541.
 Li P, de Groot K. Better bioactive ceramics through sol-gel process. J Sol-gel Sci Technol.1994; 2: 797-801.
 Anon, 2015. Synthesis and modification of apatite nanoparticles for use in dental and medical applications. Japanese Dental Science Review. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1882761615000186 (Accessed September 9, 2017).
 Anon, (2018). Complex Analysis On Heat Treated Human Compact Bones. (online) Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/ 267710992_Complex_analysis_on_heat_treated_human_compact_bones (Accessed 22 Feb.2018).
 Hapuhinna, H., Gunaratne, R., Pitawala, H., Wijesekara, K. and Ekanayake, E. (2017). Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite from Eppawala Rock Phosphate for Biomedical Applications as a value added product.
[online]. Available from: Tradmed International (International Symposium on Traditional and complementary Medicine.