Toward Sustainable Building Design in Hot and Arid Climate with Reference to Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia
Authors: M. Alwetaishi
One of the most common and traditional strategies in architecture is to design buildings passively. This is a way to ensure low building energy reliance with respect to specific micro-building locations. There are so many ways where buildings can be designed passively, some of which are applying thermal insulation, thermal mass, courtyard and glazing to wall ratio. This research investigates the impact of each of these aspects with respect to the hot and dry climate of the capital of Riyadh. Thermal Analysis Simulation (TAS) will be utilized which is powered by Environmental Design Simulation Limited company (EDSL). It is considered as one of the most powerful tools to predict energy performance in buildings. There are three primary building designs and methods which are using courtyard, thermal mass and thermal insulation. The same building size and fabrication properties have been applied to all designs. Riyadh city which is the capital of the country was taken as a case study of the research. The research has taken into account various zone directions within the building as it has a large contribution to indoor energy and thermal performance. It is revealed that it is possible to achieve nearly zero carbon building in the hot and dry region in winter with minimum reliance on energy loads for building zones facing south, west and east. Moreover, using courtyard is more beneficial than applying construction materials into building envelope. Glazing to wall ratio is recommended to be 10% and not exceeding 30% in all directions in hot and arid regions.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1317358Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 489
 Edwards, B., Sibley, M., Hakmi, M., & Land, p. (2006). Courtyard housing: past, present and future: Spon Press. Groat, L., & Wang, D. (2002). Architectural research methods: Wiley.
 Mohsen MA. Solar radiation and courtyard house forms II: application of the model. Building and Environmental (1979): 14: 185-201 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0360-1323(79)90037-4.
 Meir IA, et al. On microclimate behaviour of two semi-enclosed attached courtyards in hot and dry regions. Building and Environment. 1995: 30 (4) 563-572 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0360-1323(95)00018-2
 Cadima PSP. Transitional spaces: the potential outdoor of semioutdoor spaces a means of environmental control with special reference to Portugal. PhD thesis. The Open University, 2000.
 Muhaisen, S., Gadi, M. Shading performance of polygonal courtyard forms. Building and environment. 41 (2006): 1050-1059 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.04.027.
 Manioglu (2015) Oral, K. Effect of courtyard shape factor on heating and cooling energy loads in hot and dry climate zone 78 (2015): 2100-2105.
 Abdulbasit, A., Ibrahim, N., Ahmed, S., Yahya, J. Courtyard design variants and microclimate performance. 101 (2013): 170-180.
 Baboli, F., Ibrahim, N., Sharif, D. Design characteristics and adaptive role of the traditional courtyard houses in the moderate climate of Iran. 201 (2015): 213-223.
 Muhaisen, A. Shading performance of polygonal courtyard form. 41 (2006): 1731-1741.
 Al-Hafith, O., Satish, B., Bradbury, S., Wide, P. The impact of courtyard parameters on its shading level: An experimental study in Badhdad, Iraq. 9th International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings, SEB-17, 5-7 July 2017, Chania, Crete, Greece, 134 (2017) 99-109.
 Nasrollahi, Z., Hatami, M., Khastar, S., Taleghani, M. Numerical evaluation of thermal comfort in traditional courtyards to develop new microclimate design in a hot and dry climate. Journal of Sustainable Cities and Society, 35 (2017) 449-467.
 Roberto, F., Walter, M., Marc, A., Nathan, M. (2011) ‘Capacitive effect on the heat transfer through building glazing systems’ Journal of Applied Energy 88 4310–431.
 Lollinia, B., Fasanob, M. (2006) ‘Optimisation of opaque components of the building envelope. Energy, economic and environmental issues’ Journal of Building and Environment 41, 1001–1013.
 Kolaitis, D., Malliotakis,, E., Kontogeorgos,, D. (2013) ‘Comparative assessment of internal and external thermal insulation systems for energy efficient retrofitting of residential buildings’ Journal of Energy and Buildings 64, 123–131.
 Hanifi, B., Mustafa, E., Mustafa, D., Orhan, A., Mehmet, K. (2014) ‘An environmentally friendly thermal insulation material from sunflower stalk, textile waste and stubble fibres’ Journal of Construction and Building Materials 51, 24–33.
 Jinghua, Y., Changzhi, Y., Liwei, T., Dan, L. (2009) ‘A study on optimum insulation thicknesses of external walls in hot summer and cold winter zone of China’ Journal of Applied Energy 86, 2520–2529.
 Ji, R., Zhang, Z., Liu, J., Qu, S. simulating the effects of anchors on the thermal performance of building insulation systems. Journal of Energy and Buildings 140 (2017) 501-507.
 Ashok, K., Suman, B. (2013) ‘Experimental evaluation of insulation materials for walls and roofs and their impact on indoor thermal comfort under composite climate’ Journal of Building and Environment 59, 635-643.
 Asan, H., (1998) ‘Effects of Wall' s insulation thickness and position on time lag and decrement factor’ Journal of Energy and Buildings 28, 299-305.
 Meral, O. (2013) ‘Determination of optimum insulation thickness based on cooling transmission load for building walls in a hot climate’ Journal of Energy Conversion and Management 66, 106–114.
 Alwetaishi, M. Impact of glazing to wall ratio in various climatic regions: A case study. Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksues.2017.03.001.