Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30455
Augmenting History: Case Study Measuring Motivation of Students Using Augmented Reality Apps in History Classes

Authors: Kevin. S. Badni


Due to the rapid advances in the use of information technology and students’ familiarity with technology, learning styles in higher education are being reshaped. One of the technology developments that has gained considerable attention in recent years is Augmented Reality (AR), where technology is used to combine overlays of digital data on physical real-world settings. While AR is being heavily promoted for entertainment by mobile phone manufacturers, it has had little adoption in higher education due to the required upfront investment that an instructor needs to undertake in creating relevant AR applications. This paper discusses a case study that uses a low upfront development approach and examines the impact on generation-Z students’ motivation whilst studying design history over a four-semester period. Even though the upfront investment in creating the AR support was minimal, the results showed a noticeable increase in student motivation. The approach used in this paper can be easily transferred to other disciplines and other areas of design education.

Keywords: History, Augmented Reality, Technology, Motivation

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 374


[1] S. C. Bronack, “The Role of Immersive Media in Online Education,” J. Contin. High. Educ., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 113–117, May 2011.
[2] E. Klopfer and K. Squire, “Environmental Detectives—the development of an augmented reality platform for environmental simulations,” Educ. Technol. Res. Dev., vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 203–228, Apr. 2008.
[3] K. D. Squire and M. Jan, “Mad City Mystery: Developing Scientific Argumentation Skills with a Place-based Augmented Reality Game on Handheld Computers,” J. Sci. Educ. Technol., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 5–29, Apr. 2007.
[4] K. Squire and E. Klopfer, “Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers,” J. Learn. Sci., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 371–413, Jun. 2007.
[5] L. F. Johnson, A. Levine, R. S. Smith, and K. Haywood, “Key Emerging Technologies for Postsecondary Education,” Tech Dir., 2010.
[6] R. T. A. Azuma, “Survey of Augmented Reality,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments %L Azuma97. 1997.
[7] C. Dede, “Immersive Interfaces for Engagement and Learning,” Science (80-. )., vol. 323, no. 5910, pp. 66–69, Jan. 2009.
[8] N. A. M. El Sayed, H. H. Zayed, and M. I. Sharawy, “ARSC: Augmented reality student card An augmented reality solution for the education field,” Comput. Educ., 2011.
[9] M. G. Moore, “Editorial: Three types of interaction,” Am. J. Distance Educ., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1–7, Jan. 1989.
[10] B. Dalgarno and M. J. W. Lee, “What are the learning affordances of 3-D virtual environments?,” Br. J. Educ. Technol., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 10–32, 2010.
[11] U. Neumann and A. Majoros, “Cognitive, Performance, and Systems Issues for Augmented Reality Applications in Manufacturing and Maintenance,” Proceedings. IEEE Virtual Real. Annu. Int. Symp., pp. 4–11, 1998.
[12] S. Sotiriou and F. X. Bogner, “Visualizing the Invisible: Augmented Reality as an Innovative Science Education Scheme,” Adv. Sci. Lett., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 114–122, Jun. 2008.
[13] Y.-C. Chen, H.-L. Chi, W.-H. Hung, and S.-C. Kang, “Use of Tangible and Augmented Reality Models in Engineering Graphics Courses,” J. Prof. Issues Eng. Educ. Pract., vol. 137, no. August, pp. 267–276, Oct. 2011.
[14] L. Kerawalla, R. Luckin, S. Seljeflot, and A. Woolard, “‘Making it real’: Exploring the potential of augmented reality for teaching primary school science,” Virtual Real., vol. 10, no. 3–4, pp. 163–174, Nov. 2006.
[15] P. Dillenbourg and P. Jermann, “Technology for classroom orchestration,” in New Science of Learning: Cognition, Computers and Collaboration in Education, 2010, pp. 525–552.
[16] N. Moraveji, M. Morris, D. Morris, M. Czerwinski, and N. Henry Riche, “ClassSearch: Facilitating the Development of Web Search Skills Through Social Learning,” in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2011, pp. 1797–1806.
[17] L. P. Prieto, S. Villagrá-Sobrino, I. M. Jorrín-Abellán, A. Martínez-Monés, and Y. Dimitriadis, “Recurrent routines: Analyzing and supporting orchestration in technology-enhanced primary classrooms,” Comput. Educ., vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 1214–1227, 2011.
[18] M. Nussbaum and A. Diaz, “Classroom logistics: Integrating digital and non-digital resources,” Comput. Educ., vol. 69, pp. 493–495, 2013.
[19] O. Bergig, N. Hagbi, J. El-Sana, and M. Billinghurst, “In-place 3D sketching for authoring and augmenting mechanical systems,” in Science and Technology Proceedings - IEEE 2009 International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, ISMAR 2009, 2009, pp. 87–94.
[20] K. D. Squire and M. Jan, “Mad City Mystery: Developing Scientific Argumentation Skills with a Place-based Augmented Reality Game on Handheld Computers,” J. Sci. Educ. Technol., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 5–29, Apr. 2007.
[21] K. Facer, R. Joiner, D. Stanton, J. Reid, R. Hull, and D. Kirk, “Savannah: mobile gaming and learning?,” J. Comput. Assist. Learn., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 399–409, Nov. 2004.
[22] M. Dunleavy, C. Dede, and R. Mitchell, “Affordances and Limitations of Immersive Participatory Augmented Reality Simulations for Teaching and Learning,” J. Sci. Educ. Technol., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 7–22, Feb. 2009.
[23] “,” 2017. (Online). Available: (Accessed: 23-Oct-2017).
[24] J. M. Keller, “Development and use of the ARCS model of instructional design,” J. Instr. Dev., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 2–10, Sep. 1987.
[25] J. T. Schmidt, “Preparing Students for Success in Blended Learning Environments: Future Oriented Motivation and Self-Regulation,” Jan. 2007.
[26] M. Theall, “New Directions for Theory and Research on Teaching: A Review of the Past Twenty Years,” New Dir. Teach. Learn., vol. 1999, no. 80, pp. 29–52, 1999.
[27] M. P. Driscoll, “Psychology of learning for instruction,” Learn. Instr., 2005.
[28] J. M. Keller, “An integrative theory of motivation, volition, and performance,” Technol. Instr. Cogn. Learn., 2008.
[29] D. L. Rodgers and B. J. Withrow-Thorton, “the Effect of Instructional Media on Learner Motivation,” Int. J. Instr. Media, 2005.
[30] J. M. Keller, Motivational Design for Learning and Performance. 2010.
[31] D. U. Bolliger, S. Supanakorn, and C. Boggs, “Impact of podcasting on student motivation in the online learning environment,” Comput. Educ., 2010.
[32] D. Wenhao Huang, H. Diefes-Dux, P. K. Imbrie, B. Daku, and J. G. Kallimani, “Learning motivation evaluation for a computer-based instructional tutorial using ARCS model of motivational design,” in 34th Annual Frontiers in Education, 2004. FIE 2004., pp. 65–71.
[33] M. D. Dickey, “Brave New (Interactive) Worlds: A review of the design affordances and constraints of two 3D virtual worlds as interactive learning environments,” Interactive Learning Environments. 2005.