Fire Resistance of High Alumina Cement and Slag Based Ultra High Performance Fibre-Reinforced Cementitious Composites
Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) structures are susceptible to intense deterioration when exposed to elevated temperatures, particularly in the incident of fire. FRP has the tendency to lose bond with the substrate due to the low glass transition temperature of epoxy; the key component of FRP matrix. In the past few decades, various types of high performance cementitious composites (HPCC) were explored for the protection of RC structural members against elevated temperature. However, there is an inadequate information on the influence of elevated temperature on the ultra high performance fibre-reinforced cementitious composites (UHPFRCC) containing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as a replacement of high alumina cement (HAC) in conjunction with hybrid fibres (basalt and polypropylene fibres), which could be a prospective fire resisting material for the structural components. The influence of elevated temperatures on the compressive as well as flexural strength of UHPFRCC, made of HAC-GGBS and hybrid fibres, were examined in this study. Besides control sample (without fibres), three other samples, containing 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of basalt fibres by total weight of mix and 1 kg/m3 of polypropylene fibres, were prepared and tested. Another mix was also prepared with only 1 kg/m3 of polypropylene fibres. Each of the samples were retained at ambient temperature as well as exposed to 400, 700 and 1000 °C followed by testing after 28 and 56 days of conventional curing. Investigation of results disclosed that the use of hybrid fibres significantly helped to improve the ambient temperature compressive and flexural strength of UHPFRCC, which was found to be 80 and 14.3 MPa respectively. However, the optimum residual compressive strength was marked by UHPFRCC-CP (with polypropylene fibres only), equally after both curing days (28 and 56 days), i.e. 41%. In addition, the utmost residual flexural strength, after 28 and 56 days of curing, was marked by UHPFRCC– CP and UHPFRCC– CB2 (1 kg/m3 of PP fibres + 1% of basalt fibres) i.e. 39% and 48.5% respectively.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1317072Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 342
 A. Q. Sobia, M. S. Hamidah, I. Azmi, and S. F. A. Rafeeqi, “Elevated Temperature Resistance of Ultra-High-Performance Fibre-Reinforced Cementitious Composites,” Mag. Concr. Res., pp. 1–15, 2015.
 U. Sorathia, T. Dapp, and C. Beck, “Fire performance of composites,” Materials Engineering Sept. 1992: 10+. Business Insights: Essentials., pp. 10–12, 1992.
 T. Khalifa, “The effects of elevated temperatures on fibre reinforced polymers for strengthening concrete,” Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada, 2011.
 Y. Ziqing, “Thermal and mechanical responses of fiber reinforced polymer composites under one-sided fire exposure,” The University of North Carolina, Charlotte, U.S.A., 2012.
 L. Bisby, V. Kodur, and M. Green, “Fire endurance of fiber-reinforced polymer-confined concrete columns,” ACI Struct. J., vol. 102, no. 6, pp. 883–891, 2005.
 D. Cree, E. U. Chowdhury, M. F. Green, L. a. Bisby, and N. Bénichou, “Performance in fire of FRP-strengthened and insulated reinforced concrete columns,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 54, pp. 86–95, Nov. 2012.
 M. M. Shoaib, S. a. Ahmed, and M. M. Balaha, “Effect of fire and cooling mode on the properties of slag mortars,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1533–1538, 2001.
 M. S. Cülfik and T. Özturan, “Effect of elevated temperatures on the residual mechanical properties of high-performance mortar,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 809–816, 2002.
 C. Leiva, L. Vilches, J. Vale, and C. Fernandezpereira, “Influence of the type of ash on the fire resistance characteristics of ash-enriched mortars,” Fuel, vol. 84, no. 11, pp. 1433–1439, 2005.
 S. Aydın and B. Baradan, “Effect of pumice and fly ash incorporation on high temperature resistance of cement-based mortars,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 988–995, 2007.
 S. Aydın, “Development of a high-temperature-resistant mortar by using slag and pumice,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 610–617, 2008.
 L. Sarvaranta and E. Mikkola, “Fibre mortar composites under fire conditions: effects of ageing and moisture content of specimens,” Mater. Struct., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 532–538, 1994.
 H. Wang, “The effects of elevated temperature on cement paste containing GGBFS,” Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 992–999, 2008.
 D. Bentz, M. Peltz, A. Duran-Herrera, P. Valdez, and C. Juarez, “Thermal properties of high-volume fly ash mortars and concretes,” J. Build. Phys., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 263–275, 2010.
 J. Formosa, J. M. Chimenos, A. M. Lacasta, L. Haurie, and J. R. Rosell, “Novel fire-protecting mortars formulated with magnesium by-products,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 191–196, 2011.
 J.-P. Won, H.-B. Kang, S.-J. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Eco-friendly fireproof high-strength polymer cementitious composites,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 30, no. 2012, pp. 406–412, May 2012.
 S. Djaknoun, E. Ouedraogo, and A. Ahmed Benyahia, “Characterisation of the behaviour of high performance mortar subjected to high temperatures,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 176–186, 2012.
 R. K. Ibrahim, R. Hamid, and M. R. Taha, “Fire resistance of high-volume fly ash mortars with nanosilica addition,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 36, pp. 779–786, Nov. 2012.
 J. Xiao and H. Falkner, “On residual strength of high-performance concrete with and without polypropylene fibres at elevated temperatures,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 115–121, Mar. 2006.
 H. L. Wang, X. L. Yang, Q. C. Ren, and P. Dong, “Research Progress Basalt Fiber in Civil Engineering,” Appl. Mech. Mater., vol. 71–78, pp. 1484–1487, Jul. 2011.
 P. Raivio and L. Sarvaranta, “Microstructure of fibre mortar composites under fire impact-effect of polypropylene and polyacrylonitrile fibres,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 896–906, 1994.
 I. Hager and P. Pimienta, “The impact of the addition of polypropylene fibres on the mechanical properties of high performance concretes exposed to high temperatures,” in 6th RILEM Symposium on Fibre-Reinforced Concretes (FRC), 2004, pp. 575–582.
 J. Komonen and V. Penttala, “Effects of high temperature on the pore structure and strength of plain and polypropylene fiber reinforced cement pastes,” Fire Technol., vol. 39, pp. 23–34, 2003.
 W. Khaliq and V. Kodur, “High Temperature Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Fly Ash Concrete with and without Fibers,” ACI Mater. J., vol. 109, no. 6, pp. 665–674, 2012.
 S. Qazi, M. S. Hamidah, A. Ibrahim, S. F. A. Rafeeqi, and S. Ahmad, “State-of-The-Art Review- Behaviour of Thin High Performance Cementitious Composites (THPCC) at Elevated Temperatures,” in 11th International Conference on Concrete Engineering and Technology 2012 (CONCET2012), 2012, no. June, pp. 83–89.
 A. Q. Sobia, A. Shyzleen, M. S. Hamidah, I. Azmi, S. F. A. Rafeeqi, and S. Ahmad, “Post Elevated Temperature Effect on the Strength and Microstructure of Thin High Performance Cementitious Composites (THPCC),” Int. J. Chem. Nucl. Metall. Mater. Eng., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 103–108, 2013.
 Y. Fu, F. Ding, and J. Beaudoin, “Temperature dependence of compressive strength of conversion-inhibited high alumina cement concrete,” ACI Mater. J., vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 540–544, 1997.
 D. J. D. Naus, “The effect of elevated temperature on concrete materials and structures-a literature review.,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Washington, DC, 2006.
 W. Zheng, H. Li, and Y. Wang, “Compressive behaviour of hybrid fiber-reinforced reactive powder concrete after high temperature,” Mater. Des., vol. 41, pp. 403–409, Oct. 2012.
 R. Parnas, M. Shaw, and Q. Liu, “Basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites,” Connecticut, 2007.
 M. Butler, “Report of material testing on basalt fibres 4 series 1 A: Basic material properties of cement mortar with 3 types of basalt fibres with length of 6 mm,” Moscow, Russia, 2010.
 F. J. Chu, H. W. Liu, Z. Bin Yang, and H. M. Dai, “Bending performance of basalt fiber reinforced cement,” Adv. Mater. Res., vol. 332–334, pp. 2142–2145, Sep. 2011.
 B. Chen and J. Liu, “Residual strength of hybrid-fiber-reinforced high-strength concrete after exposure to high temperatures,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1065–1069, Jun. 2004.
 N. Wang, S. Hou, and H. Y. Jin, “Crystallization behavior of heat-treated basalt fiber,” Adv. Mater. Res., vol. 560–561, pp. 3–7, Aug. 2012.
 Eurocode, “Design of concrete structures, Part 1.2. General rules— Structural fire design (EN1992-1-2).” Commission of European Communities, Brussels, 2004.
 T. T. Lie, “Structural fire protection,” New York, 78, 1992.
 K.-Y. Shin, S.-B. Kim, J.-H. Kim, M. Chung, and P.-S. Jung, “Thermo-physical properties and transient heat transfer of concrete at elevated temperatures,” Nucl. Eng. Des., vol. 212, no. 1–3, pp. 233–241, Mar. 2002.