Fluorescence Quenching as an Efficient Tool for Sensing Application: Study on the Fluorescence Quenching of Naphthalimide Dye by Graphene Oxide
Recently, graphene has gained much attention because of its unique optical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Graphene has been used as a key material in the technological applications in various areas such as sensors, drug delivery, super capacitors, transparent conductor, and solar cell. It has a superior quenching efficiency for various fluorophores. Based on these unique properties, the optical sensors with graphene materials as the energy acceptors have demonstrated great success in recent years. During quenching, the emission of a fluorophore is perturbed by a quencher which can be a substrate or biomolecule, and due to this phenomenon, fluorophore-quencher has been used for selective detection of target molecules. Among fluorescence dyes, 1,8-naphthalimide is well known for its typical intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-induced charge transfer (PET) fluorophore, strong absorption and emission in the visible region, high photo stability, and large Stokes shift. Derivatives of 1,8-naphthalimides have found applications in some areas, especially fluorescence sensors. Herein, the fluorescence quenching of graphene oxide has been carried out on a naphthalimide dye as a fluorescent probe model. The quenching ability of graphene oxide on naphthalimide dye was studied by UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopy. This study showed that graphene is an efficient quencher for fluorescent dyes. Therefore, it can be used as a suitable candidate sensing platform. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the quenching and absorption of naphthalimide dyes by graphene oxide are rare.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316855Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 290
 C. H. Jianrong, M. Yuqing,” Recent Advances in Nanotechnology Applied to Biosensors “, Nanotechnology and biosensors. Biotech. Adv 22,505-518,2009.
 S. Kumar, A. G. Venkatesh, “Nanotechnology based biosensors and diagnostics: Technology push versus industrial/healthcare requirements”, Bio Nano Sci., 2, 115-126. 2012.
 A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene”, Nat Mater., 6, 183-191, 2004.
 C. H. Lu, H. Yang, “A graphene platform for sensing biomolecules”, Angew. Chem., 48, 4785-97, 2009.
 E. Narvaez, A. Merkoci, “Graphene oxide as an optical biosensing platform”, Adv. Funct. Matter., 24, 3298-3308, 2012.
 H. Chang, L. Tang, “Graphene fluorescent resonance energy transfer aptasensor for thrombin detection”, Anal. Chem., 82, 2341-2346, 2011.
 L. Sheng, J. Ren, “PVP coated graphene oxide for selective determination of ochtoxin A via quenching fluorescence of free aptamer”, Biosens Bioelectron, 26, 3494-3499, 2011.
 Y Hu, F Li, “Biocompatible graphene for bioanalytical application”, Angew. Chem, 50, 6851-6858, 2009.
 X. Wang, K. Qu, “Ultrasensitive and selective detection of a prognostic indicator in early stage cancer using graphene oxide and carbon nanotube”, Adv. Funct. Matter, 20, 3967-3971, 2010.
 S. He, B. Song, “Graphene nanoprobe for rapid, sensitive and multicolor fluorescent DNA analysis”, Adv. Funct. Matter, 20,453-460,2009.
 Y. Zhau, X. Gang, “Review on the graphene based optical fiber chemical and biological sensor”,Sens Actuators B Chem, 231,324-340,2016.
 X. Zhu, Y. Shen, “Detection of microRNA by using reduced graphene oxide”, Chem. Common,51,10002-10005,2014.
 Z. H. Li, M. He, “Graphene materials based energy acceptor systems and sensors”, J Photochem Photobiol B,18,1-17,2014.
 J. Kim, L. J. Cote, “Visualizing graphene based sheets by fluorescence quenching microscopy”, J. Chem. Phys., 132,260-267,2010.
 M. Hurtado, M. Ortiz, “Efficient fluorescence quenching in electrochemically exfoliated graphene decorated with gold nanoparticles”, C. Acuna, Nanotech,27,2010.
 A. Kasry, A. Ardakani, S. Tulevski, M. Copel, ”Highly Efficient Fluorescence Quenching with Graphene”, J. Phys. Chem, 116, 2858−2862, 2012.
 R. S. Swathi, K. L. Sebastian, “Resonance energy transfer from a dye molecule to graphene”, J. Chem. Phys,130, 054703-09,2008.
 R. S. Swathi, K. L. Sebastian, “Long range resonance energy transfer from a dye molecule to graphene has (distance) (-4) dependence. J. Chem”, Phys ,130,0861011−0861013,2009.
 A. Airinet, R. Tigolanu, E. Rusu, D. Dorohoi, “Fluorescence Quenching of Anthracene by Nitroaromatic Compounds”, Dig J Nanomater Bios, 6,1265-1272,2009.
 J. R. Lakowicz, “Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy”, 2nd ed., Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York/London/Moscow/Dordrecht, 2002 (Chapter 2).
 F. Galindo, M. I. Burguete, R. Gavara, S. V. Luis, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 178,57-61,2006.
 X. Qian, Y. Xiao, Chem.Commun.,46,6418-6436,2010.
 J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York,1999.
 A. Lerf, H. Forster, M. Klinowski,”Structure of Graphite Oxide Revisited”. J. Phys. Chem., 102,4477−4482,1998.
 J. Peredes, S. Villar , “Graphene Oxide Dispersions in Organic Solvents” J. Langmuir,24,10560-10564,2008.
 M. Ghazinejad, H. Hosseini, H. Reiber, J. Kyle, “Fluorescence Quenching Metrology of Graphene. Photonic and Phononic Properties of Engineered Nanostructures”, 8994, 277-285, 2015.