Traffic Congestion Problem and Possible Solution in Kabul City
Traffic congestion is a worldwide issue, especially in developing countries. This is also the case of Afghanistan, especially in Kabul-the capital city, whose rapid population growth makes it the fifth fastest growing city in the world. Traffic congestion affects not only the mobility of people and goods but also the air quality that leads to numerous deaths (3000 people) every year. There are many factors that contribute to traffic congestion. The insufficiency and inefficiency of public transportation system along with the increase of private vehicles can be considered among the most important contributing factors. This paper addresses the traffic congestion and attempts to suggest possible solutions that can help improve the current public transportation system in Kabul. To this end, the methodology used in this paper includes field work conducted in Kabul city and literature review. The outcome suggests that improving the public transportation system is likely to contribute to the reduction of traffic congestion and the improvement of air quality, thereby reducing the number of death related to air quality.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316343Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1511
 Cia.gov. (2017). The World Factbook—Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2028.html#af (Accessed 15 October. 2017).
 Rasmussen, S. (2017). Kabul – the fifth fastest growing city in the world – is bursting at the seams. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/dec/11/kabul-afghanistan-fifth-fastest-growing-city-world-rapid-urbanisation (Accessed 20 October. 2017).
 Akbari, M. (2016). Kabul: Irritating and Dangerous Traffic. (online) Daily Outlook Afghanistan, the Leading Independent Newspaper. Retrieved from: http://outlookafghanistan.net/topics.php?post_id=16503 (Accessed 12 November. 2017).
 Noori, W. (2010). Challenges of Traffic Development in Kabul City. Dipl. Geographer. Geography Institute of Giessen. (Dissertations).
 Zabihullah, Safi. (May 2011) Causes of Vehicles Traffic Problem in Kabul Afghanistan, (Report style).
 Habizai, A. and Habibzai, S. (2017) An Overview of Transportation in Kabul city Afghanistan. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265322344_A_Oveview_of_Transportation_in_Kabul_City_Afganistan_1_2 (Accessed 10 December 2017).
 Kabul City Master Plan, subproject revise the Kabul city master plan, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), June 2011 (Master Plan).
 National Institute of Environmental Health Services. (2017). Air Pollution. (online) Retrieved from https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/air-pollution/ (Accessed 12 December. 2017).
 Atiq, S. (2010) Preliminary Assessment of Air Quality in Kabul, Ph.D. Retrieved from http://www.afghan-web.com/environment/kabul_air_quality.pdf (Accessed 10 December. 2017) (Report Style).
 Abdul Wahab, Azad. NEPA and her achievement related to the environmental issue of Afghanistan, (Report Style).
 Kabul: One of the World’s Worst Polluted Cities, Retrieved from hhtps://www.huffingtonpost.com, Accessed November 2018 (Report Style).
 IRIN. (2017). Kabul air pollution a major health risk. Retrieved from http://www.irinnews.org/report/82639/afghanistan-kabul-air-pollution-major-health-risk (Accessed 14 December. 2017).
 Emro.who.int. (2017). WHO EMRO | Addressing the impact of air pollution on health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region | RC61 | About WHO. Retrieved from http://www.emro.who.int/about-who/rc61/impact-air-pollution.html (Accessed 18 December. 2017).
 Public Transit and The Environment, Retrieved from https://www.gma.gautrain.co.za/gautrain-sed Accessed February 2018 (Study).
 CNN. (2017). Why is this city the worst air polluter? - CNN. (online) Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/04/13/asia/sumnima-udas-new-delhi-air-quality/index.html (Accessed 20 October. 2017).
 Slideplayer.com. (2017). Bus Articulate D BUS CARS Source: ITDP Public Versus Private Transport. - ppt download. (online) Available at: http://slideplayer.com/slide/7714139/ (Accessed 11 December. 2017).
 Vtpi.org. (2017). Online TDM Encyclopedia - Public Transit Improvements. (online) Available at: http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm47.htm (Accessed 11 November. 2017).
 Ramin, Mirzada. Takuya, Maruyama. (2011) Bus Transit Demand Modeling and Fare Structure Analysis of Kabul city, (Research paper).
 Kabul Municipality, Transportation Section, Data Accessed Date: January 2018.
 Takumi, Yamamoto. Intermodal Passenger Transport in Japan, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation and Tourism, (MLIT), Retrieved from: http://www.road.or.jp/english/news/pdf/111027_02.pdf (Accessed 25 Jan. 2018).
 Pinsdaddy.com. (2018). Glass Bus Stop Pictures to Pin on Pinterest - PinsDaddy. (online) Available at: http://www.pinsdaddy.com/glass-bus-stop_8t5RfY60jc56FLr4Iiwp*8ktUlNrJBOzLjMyfgayzG4/(Accessed 5 Jan. 2018).
 Kotsu-city-kagoshima.jp. (2018). How to use the tram and bus | Kagoshima City Transport Bureau. (online) Available at: http://www.kotsu-city-kagoshima.jp/en/e-howto/ (Accessed 10 Jan. 2018).
 Fundamentals of Transportation/Traveler Information for Transit, Retrieved from https://en.wikibooks.org Accessed January 2018.