Transformation of the Business Model in an Occupational Health Care Company Embedded in an Emerging Personal Data Ecosystem: A Case Study in Finland
Information technology has long been used as an enabler of exchange for goods and services. Services are evolving from generic to personalized, and the reverse use of customer data has been discussed in both academia and industry for the past few years. This article presents the results of an empirical case study in the area of preventive health care services. The primary data were gathered in workshops, in which future personal data-based services were conceptualized by analyzing future scenarios from a business perspective. The aim of this study is to understand business model transformation in emerging personal data ecosystems. The work was done as a case study in the context of occupational healthcare. The results have implications to theory and practice, indicating that adopting personal data management principles requires transformation of the business model, which, if successfully managed, may provide access to more resources, potential to offer better value, and additional customer channels. These advantages correlate with the broadening of the business ecosystem. Expanding the scope of this study to include more actors would improve the validity of the research. The results draw from existing literature and are based on findings from a case study and the economic properties of the healthcare industry in Finland.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1340252Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 562
 M. M. Al-Debei and D. Avison, “Developing a unified framework of the business model concept,” European Journal of Information Systems Eur J Inf Syst, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 359–376, Nov. 2010.
 V. Allee, “Value network analysis and value conversion of tangible and intangible assets,” Jnl of Intellectual Capital Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 5–24, 2008.
 I. lil, A, dEY,J. Forlizzi, 2011. Understanding My Data, Myself: Supporting Self-Reflection with Ubicomp Technologies, UbiComp '11 Proceedings of the 13th international conference on Ubiquitous computing, Pages 405-414
 C. Baden-Fuller, M.S. Morgan, Business models as a models. Long Range Planning 43. 156-171
 P. Baxter, S. Jack, “Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers”, The Qualitative Report Volume 13 Number 4, December 2008 544-559. http://www.nova.edu/ ssss/QR/QR13-4/baxter.pdf 493–520, 2001. Accessed on 20/1/2017.
 S. Blomqvist, “The User as a personality: Using Personas as a tool for design”, Position paper for the course workshop “Theoretical perspectives in Human-Computer Interaction” at IPLab, KTH, September 3, 2002, https://it.uu.se/edu/course/homepage/hcidist/vt05/ Persona-overview.pdf. Accessed on 1/3/2016.
 J. Brownlow, M. Zaki, A. Neely, Data and Analytics - Data-Driven Business Models: A Blueprint for Innovation, and Florian Urmetzer, a Working Paper, 2015.
 S. Calde, K. Goodwin, and R. Reimann, “SHS Orcas,” Case studies of the CHI2002|AIGA Experience Design FORUM on - CHI '02, 2002.
 D. Carver, M.F. Scheier. On the self-regulation of behavior. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
 H. Chesbrough, “Business model innovation: it's not just about technology anymore,” Strategy & Leadership, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 12–17, 2007.
 H. Chesbrough, Business Model Innovation: Opportunities and Barriers, Long Range Planning 43 (2010) 354e363, 2010.
 A. Cooper, “The Inmates are Running the Asylum,” Berichte des German Chapter of the ACM Software-Ergonomie ’99, pp. 17–17, 1999.
 C. L. Cordes and T. W. Dougherty, “A Review and an Integration of Research on Job Burnout,” The Academy of Management Review, vol. 18, no. 4, p. 621, 1993.
 A. Dubois and L-E Gadde. “Systematic combining: An abductive approach to case research,” Journal of Business Research, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 553–560, 2002.
 J. Dul and T. Hak, Case study methodology in business research. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier, 2008.
 Facebook Annual Report 2014. URL: https://s21.q4cdn.com/ 399680738/files/doc_financials/annual_reports/FB2014AR.pdf. Accessed on 6/1/2017.
 K. Frankenberger, T. Weiblen, and O. Gassmann, “The antecedents of open business models: an exploratory study of incumbent firms,” R&D Manage R&D Management, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 173–188, 2014.
 J. Gerring, “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?,” Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. American Political Science Review, vol. 98, no. 02, 2004.
 G. Guest, “Applied thematic analysis”. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. p. 11., 2012
 L. Hood and M. Flores, “A personal view on systems medicine and the emergence of proactive P4 medicine: predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory,” New Biotechnology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 613–624, 2012.
 P. Keen and S. Qureshi, “Organizational Transformation through Business Models: A Framework for Business Model Design,” Proceedings of the 39th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS'06), 2006.
 L.J. Kish, R.J. Topol (2015). Unpatients –why patients should own their medical data. Commentary. DOI: Nature Biotechnology, 33(9), 921-924. doi:10.1038/nbt.3340. http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v33/n9/full/nbt.3340.html. Accessed on 20/1/2017.
 K. Koskela-Huotari, B. Edvardsson, J M. Jonas, D. Sörhammar, L. Witell, “Innovation in service ecosystems—Breaking, making, and maintaining institutionalized rules of resource integration”. Journal of Business Research 69 (2016) 2964–2971, 2016
 S. Muegge. Business ecosystems as institutions of participation: A systems perspective on community-developed platforms, Technology Innovation Management Review 1(2), 2011.
 S. Nenonen, H. Rasila, J.M. Junnonen, S. Kärnä, “Customer Journey–a method to investigate user experience”, Proceedings of the Euro FM Conference Manchester (pp. 54-63), 2008
 A. Onetti, A. Zucchella, M. V. Jones, and P. P. Mcdougall-Covin, “Internationalization, innovation and entrepreneurship: business models for new technology-based firms,” Journal of Management & Governance J Manag Gov, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 337–368, Oct. 2010.
 A. Osterwalder and Y. Pigneur. “Business Model Generation”. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010.
 B. Otjacques, P. Hitzelberger & F. Feltz Interoperability of E-Government Information Systems: Issues of Identification and Data Sharing, Journal of Management Information Systems ISSN: 0742-1222 (Print) 1557-928X. Http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/ 10.2753/MIS0742-1222230403. Accessed 20/1/2017.
 T. Palo and J. Tähtinen, “A network perspective on business models for emerging technology‐based services,” Journal of Bus & Indus Marketing Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 377–388, 2011.
 R. Parmar, I. MacKenzie, D. Cohn and D. Gann, “The New Patterns of Innovation: How to Use Data to Drive Growth”. Harvard Business Review, January-February 2014.
 Personal Information Economy: Consumers and the Evolution of Commercial Relationships. An Ericsson Consumer Insight Summary Report, February 2013. https://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2013 /consumerlab/personal-information-economy.pdf. Accessed on 15/12/2016.
 Personal Information Management Services: An Analysis of an Emerging Market. Ctrl-Shift, June 2014. https://www.nesta.org.uk/ sites/default/files/personal_information_management_services.pdf. Accessed on 15/12/2016.
 A. Poikola, K. Kuikkaniemi and H. Honko, “MyData - A Nordic Model for human-centered personal data management and processing”. Ministry of Transport and Communication, Open Knowledge Finland, https://www.lvm.fi/documents/20181/859937/MyData-nordic-model/2e9b4eb0-68d7-463b-9460-821493449a63?version=1.0. Accessed on 20/1/2017.
 M. C. W. Peeters, A. J. Montgomery, A. B. Bakker, and W. B. Schaufeli, “Balancing Work and Home: How Job and Home Demands Are Related to Burnout.,” International Journal of Stress Management, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 43–61, 2005.
 T. Redman, Business models for the data age, Information & Technology, 2015.
 M. Ryall, “The new dynamics of the competition”, Harvard Business Review. June 2013 issue. https://hbr.org/2013/06/the-new-dynamics-of-competition. Accessed on 20/1/2017.
 C. Robson, Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 2002.
 S. M. Shafer, H. J. Smith, and J. C. Linder, “The power of business models,” Business Horizons, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 199–207, 2005.
 R. Stake, “Data Gathering”, The Art of Case Study Research (pp.49-68). http://legacy.oise.utoronto.ca/research/field-centres/ross/ctl1014/Stake1995.pdf. Accessed on 20/1/2017.
 D. Stanimirovic and M. Vintar, “The Role of Information and Communication Technology in the Transformation of the Healthcare Business Model: A Case Study of Slovenia,” Health Information Management Journal, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 20–32, Jan. 2015.
 The EU Data Protection Reform and Big Data Factsheet. 2016. http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/files/data-protection-big-data_factsheet_web_en.pdf. Accessed on 18/1/2017.
 World Health Report. The World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/whr/2008/overview/en/index2.html. Accessed on 20/1/2017.
 C.H. Tian, B.K. Ray, J. Lee, R. Cao, W. Ding, “BEAM, A Framework for Business System Analysis and Modeling”, IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 47, No 1, 2008.
 R. K. Yin, Case study research: design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2003.
 R. Wang, What a big-data business model looks like, 2012.